34.05.582  <<  34.05.586 >>   34.05.588

Defenses, limitations on.

(1) Except as expressly provided in this section, a respondent may not assert as a defense in a proceeding for civil enforcement any fact or issue that the respondent had an opportunity to assert before the agency or a reviewing court and did not, or upon which the final determination of the agency or a reviewing court was adverse to the respondent. A respondent may assert as a defense only the following:
(a) That the rule or order is invalid under RCW 34.05.570(3) (a), (b), (c), (d), (g), or (h), but only when the respondent did not know and was under no duty to discover, or could not reasonably have discovered, facts giving rise to this issue;
(b) That the interest of justice would be served by resolution of an issue arising from:
(i) A change in controlling law occurring after the agency action; or
(ii) Agency action after the respondent has exhausted the last foreseeable opportunity for seeking relief from the agency or from a reviewing court;
(c) That the order does not apply to the respondent or that the respondent has not violated the order; or
(d) A defense specifically authorized by statute to be raised in a civil enforcement proceeding.
(2) The limitations of subsection (1) of this section do not apply to the extent that:
(a) The agency action sought to be enforced is a rule and the respondent has not been a party in an adjudicative proceeding that provided an adequate opportunity to raise the issue; or
(b) The agency action sought to be enforced is an order and the respondent was not notified actually or constructively of the related adjudicative proceeding in substantial compliance with this chapter.
(3) The court, to the extent necessary for the determination of the matter, may take new evidence.


Effective date1989 c 175: See note following RCW 34.05.010.
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