Power line safety.

(1) Assembly and disassembly of crane/derrick.
(a) Before assembling or disassembling crane/derrick, you must determine if any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) could get, in the direction or area of assembly, closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV during the assembly/disassembly process. If so, you must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3), as follows:
(i) Option (1) - Deenergize and ground. Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
(ii) Option (2) - Clearance. Ensure that no part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV by implementing the measures specified in (b) of this subsection.
(iii) Option (3) - Table 4 clearance.
(A) Determine the line's voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table 4 of this section.
(B) Determine if any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table 4 of this section. If so, then you must follow the requirements in (b) of this subsection to ensure that no part of the crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance.
(b) Preventing encroachment/electrocution. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2), or Option (3), all of the following requirements must be met:
(i) Conduct a planning meeting with the assembly/disassembly director, operator, assembly/disassembly crew and the other workers who will be in the assembly/disassembly area to review the location of the power line(s) and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.
(ii) If tag lines are used, they must be nonconductive.
(iii) At least one of the following additional measures must be in place. The measure selected from this list must be effective in preventing encroachment. The additional measures are:
(A) Use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the crane/derrick operator, plus an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the spotter, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings. The dedicated spotter must:
(I) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line on stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
(II) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
(III) Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator, in accordance with WAC 296-155-53406(13) (radio, telephone, or other electronic transmission of signals).
(IV) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
Note:
To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of WAC 296-155-53302 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, the load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
(B) A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
(C) A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
(D) A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.
(c) Assembly/disassembly below power lines is prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed below a power line unless you have confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.
(d) Assembly/disassembly inside Table 4 clearance is prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed closer than the minimum approach distance under Table 4 of a power line unless you have confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.
(e) Voltage information. Where Option (3) is used, the utility owner/operator of power lines must provide the requested voltage information prior to commencement of work or within two working days of your request.
(f) Power lines presumed energized. You must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
(g) Posting of electrocution warnings. There must be at least one electrocution hazard warning conspicuously posted in the cab so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two on the outside of the crane/derrick.
(2) Operation of crane/derrick.
(a) Hazard assessments and precautions inside the work zone. Before beginning crane/derrick operations, you must:
(i) Identify the work zone.
(A) Define a work zone by demarcating boundaries (such as with flags, or a device such as a range limit device or range control warning device) and prohibiting the operator from operating the crane/derrick past those boundaries; or
(B) Define the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the crane/derrick, up to its maximum working radius.
(ii) Determine if any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to its maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV or closer than 50 feet of a power line that exceeds 350 kV. If so, you must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) as follows:
(A) Option (1) - Deenergize and ground. Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
(B) Option (2) - 20-foot clearance. Ensure that no part of the crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet to the power line by implementing the measures specified in (b) of this subsection.
(C) Option (3) - Table 4 clearance.
(I) Determine the line's voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table 4 of this section.
(II) Determine if any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), while operating up to its maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table 4 of this section. If so, then you must follow the requirements in (b) of this subsection to ensure that no part of the crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance.
(b) Preventing encroachment/electrocution. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2) or Option (3), all of the following requirements must be met:
(i) Conduct a planning meeting with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the crane/derrick or load to review the location of the power line(s), and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.
(ii) If tag lines are used, they must be nonconductive.
(iii) Erect and maintain an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, at 20 feet from a power line that is up to 350 kV or 50 feet from a power line that exceeds 350 kV (if using Option (2)) or at the minimum approach distance under Table 4 of this section (if using Option (3)). If the operator is unable to see the elevated warning line, a dedicated spotter must be used as described in (iv)(B) of this subsection in addition to implementing one of the measures described in (b)(i), (iii) through (v) of this subsection.
(iv) Implement at least one of the following measures:
(A) A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
(B) Use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the crane/derrick operator, plus an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the spotter, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings. The dedicated spotter must:
(I) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line on stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
(II) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
(III) Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
(IV) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
Note:
To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of WAC 296-155-53302 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, the load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
(C) A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
(D) A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.
(E) An insulating link/device, as defined in WAC 296-155-52902, installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.
(v) The requirements of (b)(iv) of this subsection do not apply to work covered by chapter 296-45 WAC.
(c) Voltage information. Where Option (3) is used, the utility owner/operator of power lines must provide the requested voltage information prior to commencement of work or within two working days of your request.
(d) Operations below power lines.
(i) No part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is allowed below a power line unless you have confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line, except where one of the exceptions in (d)(ii) of this subsection apply.
(ii) Exceptions. (d)(i) of this subsection is inapplicable where you demonstrate that one of the following applies:
(A) The work is covered by chapter 296-45 WAC.
(B) For cranes/derricks with nonextensible booms: The uppermost part of the crane/derrick, with the boom at true vertical, would be more than 20 feet below the plane of a power line that is up to 350 kV, 50 feet below the plane of a power line that exceeds 350 kV or more than the Table 4 minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.
(C) For cranes with articulating or extensible booms: The uppermost part of the crane, with the boom in the fully extended position, at true vertical, would be more than twenty feet below the plane of a power line that is up to 350 kV, fifty feet below the plane of a power line that exceeds 350 kV or more than the Table 4 minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.
(D) Compliance with (d)(i) of this subsection is infeasible and meets the requirements of subsection (4) of this section.
(e) Power lines presumed energized. You must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
(f) Training.
(i) You must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the crane/derrick on all the following:
(A) The procedures to be followed in the event of electrical contact with a power line. Such training must include:
(I) Information regarding the danger of electrocution from the operator simultaneously touching the crane/derrick and the ground.
(II) The importance to the operator's safety of remaining inside the cab except where there is an imminent danger of fire, explosion, or other emergency that necessitates leaving the cab.
(III) The safest means of evacuating from the crane/derrick that may be energized.
(IV) The danger of the potentially energized zone around the crane/derrick (step potential).
(V) The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching or touching the crane/derrick and the load.
(VI) Safe clearance distance from power lines.
(B) Power lines are presumed to be energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized, and visibly grounded at the worksite.
(C) Power lines are presumed to be uninsulated unless the utility owner/operator or a registered engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a power line is insulated.
(D) The limitations of an insulating link/device, proximity alarm, and range control (and similar) device, if used.
(E) The procedures to be followed to properly ground equipment and the limitations of grounding.
(ii) Employees working as dedicated spotters must be trained to enable them to effectively perform their task, including training on the applicable requirements of this section.
(iii) Training under this section must be administered in accordance with WAC 296-155-53409(2).
(g) Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as: A safety device (see WAC 296-155-53410), operational aid (see WAC 296-155-53412), or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution, when used to comply with this section, must meet the manufacturer's procedures for use and conditions of use.
(3) Prior to working near a transmitter/communication tower where an electrical charge can be induced in the crane/derrick or materials being handled, the transmitter must be deenergized or the following precautions must be taken:
(a) The crane/derrick must be provided with an electrical ground directly to the crane/derrick frame;
(b) Ground jumper cables must be attached to materials being handled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters. Crews must be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load;
(c) Combustible and flammable materials must be removed from the immediate area prior to operations; and
(d) If tag lines are used, they must be nonconductive.
(4) Operation of the crane/derrick inside the Table 4 zone. Operations in which any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is either closer than the minimum approach distance under Table 4 of an energized power line or the power line voltage is undetermined and the crane/derrick load line or load is within 20 feet from the power line is prohibited, except where you demonstrate that all of the following requirements are met:
(a) Notify the crane safety program within the department of labor and industries.
(b) You determine that it is infeasible to do the work without breaching the minimum approach distance under Table 4 of this section.
(c) You determine that, after consultation with the utility owner/operator, it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the power line or relocate the power line.
(d) Minimum clearance distance.
(i) The power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution determines the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained to prevent electrical contact in light of the on-site conditions. The factors that must be considered in making this determination include, but are not limited to: Conditions affecting atmospheric conductivity; time necessary to bring the crane/derrick, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and other conditions affecting the ability to prevent electrical contact.
(ii) Subsection (4)(d)(i) of this section does not apply to work covered by chapter 296-45 WAC; instead, for such work, the minimum clearance distances specified in chapter 296-45 WAC, Table 1 apply. Employers covered by chapter 296-45 WAC are permitted to work closer than the distances in chapter 296-45 WAC, Table 1, where both the requirements of this rule and WAC 296-45-375(10) are met.
(e) A planning meeting with the employer and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) is held to determine the procedures that will be followed to prevent electrical contact and electrocution. At a minimum these procedures must include:
(i) If the power line is equipped with a device that automatically reenergizes the circuit in the event of a power line contact, before the work begins, the automatic reclosing feature of the circuit interrupting device must be made inoperative if the design of the device permits.
(ii) A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. The dedicated spotter must:
(A) Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line on stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
(B) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
(C) Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
(D) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
Note:
To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of WAC 296-155-53302 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, the load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
(iii) An elevated warning line, or barricade (not attached to the crane), in view of the operator (either directly or through video equipment), equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, to prevent electrical contact. However, this provision does not apply to work covered by chapter 296-45 WAC.
(iv) Insulating link/device.
(A) An insulating link/device installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.
(B) For work covered by chapter 296-45 WAC, the requirement in (e)(iv)(A) of this subsection applies only when working inside the clearance distances of Table 1 in chapter 296-45 WAC.
(C) For work covered by chapter 296-45 WAC, electrical workers, involving operations where use of an insulating link/device is infeasible, the requirements of WAC 296-45-375 (10)(c)(ii) or (iii) may be substituted for the requirement in (e)(iv)(A) of this subsection.
(v) Until one year after the effective date of this part, the following procedure may be substituted for the requirement in (e)(iv)(A) of this subsection: All employees, excluding equipment operators located on the equipment, who may come in contact with the equipment, the load line, or the load must be insulated or guarded from the equipment, the load line, and the load. Insulating gloves rated for the voltage involved are adequate insulation for the purposes of this section.
(vi) Until 3 years after the effective date of this part the following procedure may be substituted for the requirement in (e)(iv)(A) of this subsection:
(A) You must use a link/device manufactured on or before one year after the effective date of this part that meets the definition of an insulating link/device, except that it has not been approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and that is maintained and used in accordance with manufacturer requirements and recommendations, and is installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load; and
(B) All employees, excluding equipment operators located on the equipment, who may come in contact with the equipment, the load line, or the load must be insulated or guarded from the equipment, the load line, and the load through an additional means other than the device described in (e)(vi)(A) of this subsection. Insulating gloves rated for the voltage involved are adequate additional means of protection for the purposes of this section.
(vii) Use nonconductive rigging if the rigging may be within the Table 4 distance during the operation.
(viii) If the crane/derrick is equipped with a device that automatically limits range of movement, it must be used and set to prevent any part of the crane/derrick, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) from breaching the minimum approach distance established under (d) of this subsection.
(ix) If a tag line is used, it must be of the nonconductive type.
(x) Barricades forming a perimeter at least 10 feet away from the crane/derrick to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the work area. In areas where obstacles prevent the barricade from being at least 10 feet away, the barricade must be as far from the crane/derrick as feasible.
(xi) Workers other than the operator must be prohibited from touching the load line above the insulating link/device and crane. Operators remotely operating the equipment from the ground must use either wireless controls that isolate the operator from the equipment or insulating mats that insulate the operator from the ground.
(xii) Only personnel essential to the operation are permitted to be in the area of the crane and load.
(xiii) The crane/derrick must be properly grounded.
(xiv) Insulating line hose or cover-up must be installed by the utility owner/operator except where such devices are unavailable for the line voltages involved.
(f) The procedures developed to comply with (e) of this subsection are documented and immediately available on-site.
(g) The crane/derrick user and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) meet with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the crane/derrick or load to review the procedures that will be implemented to prevent breaching the minimum approach distance established in (d) of this subsection and prevent electrocution.
(h) The procedures developed to comply with (e) of this subsection are implemented.
(i) The utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) and all employers of employees involved in the work must identify one person who will direct the implementation of the procedures. The person identified in accordance with this section must direct the implementation of the procedures and must have the authority to stop work at any time to ensure safety.
(j) If a problem occurs implementing the procedures being used to comply with (e) of this subsection, or indicating that those procedures are inadequate to prevent electrocution, you must safely stop operations and either develop new procedures to comply with (e) of this subsection or have the utility owner/operator deenergize and visibly ground or relocate the power line before resuming work.
(k) Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as: Safety devices (see WAC 296-155-53410), operational aids (see WAC 296-155-53412), or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution, when used to comply with this section, must meet the manufacturer's procedures for use and conditions of use.
(l) You must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment in accordance with subsection (2)(f) of this section.
(5) Cranes while traveling.
(a) This section establishes procedures and criteria that must be met for cranes traveling under a power line on the construction site with no load. Equipment traveling on a construction site with a load is governed by subsections (2), (4), (6), and (7) of this section, whichever is appropriate, and WAC 296-155-53400(35).
(b) You must ensure that:
(i) The boom/mast and boom/mast support system are lowered sufficiently to meet the requirements of this section.
(ii) The clearances specified in Table 5 of this section are maintained.
(iii) The effects of speed and terrain on crane movement (including movement of the boom/mast) are considered so that those effects do not cause the minimum clearance distances specified in Table 5 of this section to be breached.
(iv) Dedicated spotter. If any part of the crane while traveling will get closer than 20 feet of the power line, you must ensure that a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the driver/operator is used. The dedicated spotter must:
(A) Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
(B) Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
(C) Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
Note:
To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of WAC 296-155-53302 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, the load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
(v) Additional precautions for traveling in poor visibility. When traveling at night, or in conditions of poor visibility, in addition to the measures specified in (b)(i) through (iv) of this subsection, you must ensure that:
(A) The power lines are illuminated or another means of identifying the location of the lines must be used.
(B) A safe path of travel is identified and used.
(6) The requirements of subsections (1) and (2) of this section apply to power lines over 350 kV, and below 1000 kV except that wherever the distance "20 feet" is specified, the distance "50 feet" must be substituted.
(7) For power lines over 1000 kV, the minimum clearance distance must be established by the utility owner/operator or a registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to power transmission and distribution.
Table 4—Minimum Clearance Distances
Voltage (nominal, kV)
 
Minimum clearance
distance (feet)
up to 50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
over 50 to 200
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
over 200 to 345
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
over 345 to 500
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
over 500 to 750
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
over 750 to 1,000
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
over 1,000
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(as established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution).
Note:
The value that follows "to" is up to and includes that value.
Table 5—Minimum Clearance Distances While Traveling With No Load and Boom/Mast Lowered
Voltage (nominal, kV)
 
While traveling—
Minimum clearance
distance (feet)
up to 0.75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
(while traveling/boom lowered)
over 0.75 to 50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
(while traveling/boom lowered)
over 50 to 345
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
(while traveling/boom lowered)
over 345 to 750
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
(while traveling/boom lowered)
over 750 to 1,000
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
(while traveling/boom lowered)
over 1,000
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(as established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-53408, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. WSR 13-02-068, § 296-155-53408, filed 12/31/12, effective 2/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. WSR 12-01-086, § 296-155-53408, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12.]
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