71.05.585  <<  71.05.590 >>   71.05.595

Enforcement, modification, or revocation of less restrictive alternative or conditional release ordersInitiation of inpatient detention procedures. (Effective until July 1, 2026.)

(1) Either an agency or facility designated to monitor or provide services under a less restrictive alternative order or conditional release order, or a designated crisis responder, may take action to enforce, modify, or revoke a less restrictive alternative or conditional release order. The agency, facility, or designated crisis responder must determine that:
(a) The person is failing to adhere to the terms and conditions of the court order;
(b) Substantial deterioration in the person's functioning has occurred;
(c) There is evidence of substantial decompensation with a reasonable probability that the decompensation can be reversed by further evaluation, intervention, or treatment; or
(d) The person poses a likelihood of serious harm.
(2) Actions taken under this section must include a flexible range of responses of varying levels of intensity appropriate to the circumstances and consistent with the interests of the individual and the public in personal autonomy, safety, recovery, and compliance. Available actions may include, but are not limited to, any of the following:
(a) To counsel or advise the person as to their rights and responsibilities under the court order, and to offer appropriate incentives to motivate compliance;
(b) To increase the intensity of outpatient services provided to the person by increasing the frequency of contacts with the provider, referring the person for an assessment for assertive community services, or by other means;
(c) To request a court hearing for review and modification of the court order. The request must be made to the court with jurisdiction over the order and specify the circumstances that give rise to the request and what modification is being sought. The county prosecutor shall assist the agency or facility in requesting this hearing and issuing an appropriate summons to the person. This subsection does not limit the inherent authority of a treatment provider to alter conditions of treatment for clinical reasons, and is intended to be used only when court intervention is necessary or advisable to secure the person's compliance and prevent decompensation or deterioration;
(d) To cause the person to be transported by a peace officer, designated crisis responder, or other means to the agency or facility monitoring or providing services under the court order, or to a triage facility, crisis stabilization unit, emergency department, or to an evaluation and treatment facility if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or to a secure detoxification facility with available space or an approved substance use disorder treatment program with available space if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment. The person may be detained at the facility for up to twelve hours for the purpose of an evaluation to determine whether modification, revocation, or commitment proceedings are necessary and appropriate to stabilize the person and prevent decompensation, deterioration, or physical harm. Temporary detention for evaluation under this subsection is intended to occur only following a pattern of noncompliance or the failure of reasonable attempts at outreach and engagement, and may occur only when in the clinical judgment of a designated crisis responder or the professional person in charge of an agency or facility designated to monitor less restrictive alternative services temporary detention is appropriate. This subsection does not limit the ability or obligation to pursue revocation procedures under subsection (4) of this section in appropriate circumstances; and
(e) To initiate revocation procedures under subsection (4) of this section or, if the current commitment is solely based on the person being in need of assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment as defined in RCW 71.05.020, initiate initial inpatient detention procedures under subsection (6) of this section.
(3) The facility or agency designated to provide outpatient treatment shall notify the secretary of the department of social and health services or designated crisis responder when a person fails to adhere to terms and conditions of court ordered treatment or experiences substantial deterioration in his or her condition and, as a result, presents an increased likelihood of serious harm.
(4)(a) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a designated crisis responder or the secretary of the department of social and health services may upon their own motion or notification by the facility or agency designated to provide outpatient care order a person subject to a court order under this chapter to be apprehended and taken into custody and temporary detention in an evaluation and treatment facility in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or, if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment, in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program if either is available in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment and has adequate space. Proceedings under this subsection (4) may be initiated without ordering the apprehension and detention of the person.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a person detained under this subsection (4) must be held until such time, not exceeding five days, as a hearing can be scheduled to determine whether or not the person should be returned to the hospital or facility from which he or she had been released. If the person is not detained, the hearing must be scheduled within five days of service on the person. The designated crisis responder or the secretary of the department of social and health services may modify or rescind the order at any time prior to commencement of the court hearing.
(c) The designated crisis responder or secretary of the department of social and health services shall file a revocation petition and order of apprehension and detention with the court of the county where the person is currently located or being detained. The designated crisis responder shall serve the person and their attorney, guardian, and conservator, if any. The person has the same rights with respect to notice, hearing, and counsel as in any involuntary treatment proceeding, except as specifically set forth in this section. There is no right to jury trial. The venue for proceedings is the county where the petition is filed. Notice of the filing must be provided to the court that originally ordered commitment, if different from the court where the petition for revocation is filed, within two judicial days of the person's detention.
(d) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, the issues for the court to determine are whether: (i) The person adhered to the terms and conditions of the court order; (ii) substantial deterioration in the person's functioning has occurred; (iii) there is evidence of substantial decompensation with a reasonable probability that the decompensation can be reversed by further inpatient treatment; or (iv) there is a likelihood of serious harm; and, if any of the above conditions apply, whether the court should reinstate or modify the person's less restrictive alternative or conditional release order or order the person's detention for inpatient treatment. The person may waive the court hearing and allow the court to enter a stipulated order upon the agreement of all parties. If the court orders detention for inpatient treatment, the treatment period may be for no longer than the period authorized in the original court order. A court may not issue an order to detain a person for inpatient treatment in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program under this subsection unless there is a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program available and with adequate space for the person.
(5) In determining whether or not to take action under this section the designated crisis responder, agency, or facility must consider the factors specified under RCW 71.05.212 and the court must consider the factors specified under RCW 71.05.245 as they apply to the question of whether to enforce, modify, or revoke a court order for involuntary treatment.
(6)(a) If the current commitment is solely based on the person being in need of assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment as defined in RCW 71.05.020, a designated crisis responder may initiate inpatient detention procedures under RCW 71.05.150 or 71.05.153 when appropriate. A designated crisis responder or the secretary may, upon their own motion or notification by the facility or agency designated to provide outpatient care to a person subject to a less restrictive alternative treatment order under RCW 71.05.320 subsequent to an order for assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment entered under RCW 71.05.148, order the person to be apprehended and taken into custody and temporary detention for inpatient evaluation in an evaluation and treatment facility in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or, if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment, in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program if either is available in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment. Proceedings under this subsection may be initiated without ordering the apprehension and detention of the person.
(b) A person detained under this subsection may be held for evaluation for up to seventy-two hours, excluding weekends and holidays, pending a court hearing. If the person is not detained, the hearing must be scheduled within seventy-two hours of service on the person. The designated crisis responder or the secretary may modify or rescind the order at any time prior to commencement of the court hearing.
(c) The issues for the court to determine are whether to continue the detention of the person for inpatient treatment or whether the court should reinstate or modify the person's less restrictive alternative order or order the person's detention for inpatient treatment. To continue detention after the seventy-two hour period, the court must find that the person, as a result of a mental disorder or substance use disorder, presents a likelihood of serious harm or is gravely disabled and, after considering less restrictive alternatives to involuntary detention and treatment, that no such alternatives are in the best interest of the person or others.
(d) A court may not issue an order to detain a person for inpatient treatment in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder program under this subsection unless there is a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program available and with adequate space for the person.

NOTES:

Reviser's note: This section was amended by 2018 c 201 § 3026 and by 2018 c 291 § 9, each without reference to the other. Both amendments are incorporated in the publication of this section under RCW 1.12.025(2). For rule of construction, see RCW 1.12.025(1).
Effective date2018 c 291 §§ 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, and 15: See note following RCW 71.05.020.
Expiration date2018 c 291 §§ 4, 7, and 9: See note following RCW 71.05.150.
Expiration date2018 c 201 §§ 3009, 3012, 3026, 5017, and 5020: See note following RCW 71.05.240.
FindingsIntentEffective date2018 c 201: See notes following RCW 41.05.018.
Effective date2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 §§ 9, 12, 14, 15, and 17-21: "Sections 9, 12, 14, 15, and 17 through 21 of this act take effect April 1, 2018." [ 2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 § 24.]
Expiration date2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 §§ 9 and 15: "Sections 9 and 15 of this act expire July 1, 2026." [ 2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 § 25.]
Expiration date2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 §§ 8, 11, and 13: "Sections 8, 11, and 13 of this act expire April 1, 2018." [ 2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 § 23.]
Effective dates2016 sp.s. c 29: See note following RCW 71.05.760.
Short titleRight of action2016 sp.s. c 29: See notes following RCW 71.05.010.

Enforcement, modification, or revocation of less restrictive alternative or conditional release ordersInitiation of inpatient detention procedures. (Effective July 1, 2026.)

(1) Either an agency or facility designated to monitor or provide services under a less restrictive alternative order or conditional release order, or a designated crisis responder, may take action to enforce, modify, or revoke a less restrictive alternative or conditional release order. The agency, facility, or designated crisis responder must determine that:
(a) The person is failing to adhere to the terms and conditions of the court order;
(b) Substantial deterioration in the person's functioning has occurred;
(c) There is evidence of substantial decompensation with a reasonable probability that the decompensation can be reversed by further evaluation, intervention, or treatment; or
(d) The person poses a likelihood of serious harm.
(2) Actions taken under this section must include a flexible range of responses of varying levels of intensity appropriate to the circumstances and consistent with the interests of the individual and the public in personal autonomy, safety, recovery, and compliance. Available actions may include, but are not limited to, any of the following:
(a) To counsel or advise the person as to their rights and responsibilities under the court order, and to offer appropriate incentives to motivate compliance;
(b) To increase the intensity of outpatient services provided to the person by increasing the frequency of contacts with the provider, referring the person for an assessment for assertive community services, or by other means;
(c) To request a court hearing for review and modification of the court order. The request must be made to the court with jurisdiction over the order and specify the circumstances that give rise to the request and what modification is being sought. The county prosecutor shall assist the agency or facility in requesting this hearing and issuing an appropriate summons to the person. This subsection does not limit the inherent authority of a treatment provider to alter conditions of treatment for clinical reasons, and is intended to be used only when court intervention is necessary or advisable to secure the person's compliance and prevent decompensation or deterioration;
(d) To cause the person to be transported by a peace officer, designated crisis responder, or other means to the agency or facility monitoring or providing services under the court order, or to a triage facility, crisis stabilization unit, emergency department, or to an evaluation and treatment facility if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or to a secure detoxification facility or an approved substance use disorder treatment program if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment. The person may be detained at the facility for up to twelve hours for the purpose of an evaluation to determine whether modification, revocation, or commitment proceedings are necessary and appropriate to stabilize the person and prevent decompensation, deterioration, or physical harm. Temporary detention for evaluation under this subsection is intended to occur only following a pattern of noncompliance or the failure of reasonable attempts at outreach and engagement, and may occur only when in the clinical judgment of a designated crisis responder or the professional person in charge of an agency or facility designated to monitor less restrictive alternative services temporary detention is appropriate. This subsection does not limit the ability or obligation to pursue revocation procedures under subsection (4) of this section in appropriate circumstances; and
(e) To initiate revocation procedures under subsection (4) of this section or, if the current commitment is solely based on the person being in need of assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment as defined in RCW 71.05.020, initial inpatient detention procedures under subsection (6) of this section.
(3) The facility or agency designated to provide outpatient treatment shall notify the secretary of the department of social and health services or designated crisis responder when a person fails to adhere to terms and conditions of court ordered treatment or experiences substantial deterioration in his or her condition and, as a result, presents an increased likelihood of serious harm.
(4)(a) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a designated crisis responder or the secretary of the department of social and health services may upon their own motion or notification by the facility or agency designated to provide outpatient care order a person subject to a court order under this chapter to be apprehended and taken into custody and temporary detention in an evaluation and treatment facility in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or, if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment, in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program if either is available in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment. Proceedings under this subsection (4) may be initiated without ordering the apprehension and detention of the person.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a person detained under this subsection (4) must be held until such time, not exceeding five days, as a hearing can be scheduled to determine whether or not the person should be returned to the hospital or facility from which he or she had been released. If the person is not detained, the hearing must be scheduled within five days of service on the person. The designated crisis responder or the secretary of the department of social and health services may modify or rescind the order at any time prior to commencement of the court hearing.
(c) The designated crisis responder or secretary of the department of social and health services shall file a revocation petition and order of apprehension and detention with the court of the county where the person is currently located or being detained. The designated crisis responder shall serve the person and their attorney, guardian, and conservator, if any. The person has the same rights with respect to notice, hearing, and counsel as in any involuntary treatment proceeding, except as specifically set forth in this section. There is no right to jury trial. The venue for proceedings is the county where the petition is filed. Notice of the filing must be provided to the court that originally ordered commitment, if different from the court where the petition for revocation is filed, within two judicial days of the person's detention.
(d) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, the issues for the court to determine are whether: (i) The person adhered to the terms and conditions of the court order; (ii) substantial deterioration in the person's functioning has occurred; (iii) there is evidence of substantial decompensation with a reasonable probability that the decompensation can be reversed by further inpatient treatment; or (iv) there is a likelihood of serious harm; and, if any of the above conditions apply, whether the court should reinstate or modify the person's less restrictive alternative or conditional release order or order the person's detention for inpatient treatment. The person may waive the court hearing and allow the court to enter a stipulated order upon the agreement of all parties. If the court orders detention for inpatient treatment, the treatment period may be for no longer than the period authorized in the original court order.
(5) In determining whether or not to take action under this section the designated crisis responder, agency, or facility must consider the factors specified under RCW 71.05.212 and the court must consider the factors specified under RCW 71.05.245 as they apply to the question of whether to enforce, modify, or revoke a court order for involuntary treatment.
(6)(a) If the current commitment is solely based on the person being in need of assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment as defined in RCW 71.05.020, a designated crisis responder may initiate inpatient detention procedures under RCW 71.05.150 or 71.05.153 when appropriate. A designated crisis responder or the secretary may, upon their own motion or notification by the facility or agency designated to provide outpatient care to a person subject to a less restrictive alternative treatment order under RCW 71.05.320 subsequent to an order for assisted outpatient behavioral health treatment entered under RCW 71.05.148, order the person to be apprehended and taken into custody and temporary detention for inpatient evaluation in an evaluation and treatment facility in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment if the person is committed for mental health treatment, or, if the person is committed for substance use disorder treatment, in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program if either is available in or near the county in which he or she is receiving outpatient treatment. Proceedings under this subsection may be initiated without ordering the apprehension and detention of the person.
(b) A person detained under this subsection may be held for evaluation for up to seventy-two hours, excluding weekends and holidays, pending a court hearing. The designated crisis responder or the secretary may modify or rescind the order at any time prior to commencement of the court hearing.
(c) The issues for the court to determine are whether to continue the detention of the person for inpatient treatment or whether the court should reinstate or modify the person's less restrictive alternative order or order the person's detention for inpatient treatment. To continue detention after the seventy-two hour period, the court must find that the person, as a result of a mental disorder or substance use disorder, presents a likelihood of serious harm or is gravely disabled and, after considering less restrictive alternatives to involuntary detention and treatment, that no such alternatives are in the best interest of the person or others.
(d) A court may not issue an order to detain a person for inpatient treatment in a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder program under this subsection unless there is a secure detoxification facility or approved substance use disorder treatment program available and with adequate space for the person.

NOTES:

Reviser's note: This section was amended by 2018 c 201 § 3027 and by 2018 c 291 § 10, each without reference to the other. Both amendments are incorporated in the publication of this section under RCW 1.12.025(2). For rule of construction, see RCW 1.12.025(1).
Effective date2018 c 291 §§ 5, 8, and 10: See note following RCW 71.05.150.
Effective date2018 c 201 §§ 3010, 3013, 3027, 5018, and 5021: See note following RCW 71.05.240.
FindingsIntent2018 c 201: See note following RCW 41.05.018.
Effective date2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 §§ 10 and 16: "Sections 10 and 16 of this act take effect July 1, 2026." [ 2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 § 26.]
Expiration date2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 §§ 8, 11, and 13: "Sections 8, 11, and 13 of this act expire April 1, 2018." [ 2017 3rd sp.s. c 14 § 23.]
Effective dates2016 sp.s. c 29: See note following RCW 71.05.760.
Short titleRight of action2016 sp.s. c 29: See notes following RCW 71.05.010.
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