Chapter 284-60 WAC

Last Update: 11/4/16

DISABILITY INSURANCE LOSS RATIOS

WAC Sections

284-60-010Scope.
284-60-020Purpose.
284-60-030Definitions.
284-60-040Grouping of policy forms for purposes of rate making and requests for rate increase.
284-60-050Loss ratio requirements for individual disability insurance forms.
284-60-060Loss ratio requirement for group and blanket disability insurance policy forms and manual rates.
284-60-070Experience records.
284-60-080Evaluating experience data.
284-60-090Special circumstances.
284-60-100Effective date.


284-60-010
Scope.

(1) This regulation, WAC 284-60-010 through 284-60-100, applies to all insurers and to every disability insurance policy form filed for approval in this state after August 31, 1983, except:
(a) Additional indemnity and premium waiver forms for use only in conjunction with life insurance policies;
(b) Medicare supplement policy forms which are regulated by chapter 284-55 WAC;
(c) Credit insurance policy forms issued pursuant to chapter 48.34 RCW;
(d) Group policy forms other than:
(i) Specified disease policy forms;
(ii) Policy forms, other than loss of income forms, as to which all or substantially all, of the premium is paid by the individuals insured thereunder;
(iii) Policy forms, other than loss of income forms, for issue to single employers insuring less than one hundred employees.
(e) Policy forms filed by health care service contractors or health maintenance organizations;
(f) Policy forms initially approved before September 1, 1983, including subsequent requests for rate increases and modifications of rate manuals;
(g) Health plans other than:
(i) Grandfathered individual health plans;
(ii) Grandfathered small group health plans.
(h) Stand-alone dental only plans; and
(i) Stand-alone vision only plans.
(2) Approvals of policy forms of the types subject to this regulation approved before September 1, 1983, and which are not in compliance with the provisions of this regulation on January 1, 1985, are hereby withdrawn as of January 1, 1985, and such forms shall not thereafter be used for new issues.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060, 48.44.050, 48.46.200, and 2016 c 156. WSR 16-23-019 (Matter No. R 2016-06), § 284-60-010, filed 11/4/16, effective 12/5/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-010, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-020
Purpose.

The purpose of this regulation is to:
(1) Establish loss ratio standards for the purpose of implementing the authority of the commissioner to disapprove and to withdraw approval of disability policy forms which are not returning or are not expected to return a reasonable proportion of the premiums in the form of benefits, pursuant to RCW 48.18.110(2), 48.19.010(2), 48.70.030 and 48.70.040.
(2) Define certain practices in the use of policy forms and in the making of disability insurance rates to be unfair, deceptive and discriminatory practices, pursuant to RCW 48.01.030, 48.18.480 and 48.30.010.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-020, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-030
Definitions.

(1) The "expected loss ratio" is a prospective calculation and shall be calculated as the projected "benefits incurred" divided by the projected "premiums earned" and shall be based on the actuary's best projections of the future experience within the "calculating period."
(2) The "actual loss ratio" is a retrospective calculation and shall be calculated as the "benefits incurred" divided by the "premiums earned," both measured from the beginning of the "calculating period" to the date of the loss ratio calculations.
(3) The "overall loss ratio" shall be calculated as the "benefits incurred" divided by the "premiums earned" over the entire "calculating period" and may involve both retrospective and prospective data.
(4) The "calculating period" shall be the time span over which the actuary expects the premium rates, whether level or increasing, to remain adequate in accordance with his best estimate of future experience and during which the actuary does not expect to request a rate increase.
(5) The "benefits incurred" shall be the "claims incurred" plus any increase (or less any decrease) in the "reserves."
(6) The "claims incurred" shall mean:
(a) Claims paid during the accounting period; plus
(b) The change in the liability for claims which have been reported but not paid; plus
(c) The change in the liability for claims which have not been reported but which may reasonably be expected.
The "claims incurred" shall not include expenses incurred in processing the claims, home office or field overhead, acquisition and selling costs, taxes or other expenses, contributions to surplus, or profit.
(7) The "reserves," as referred to in this regulation, shall include:
(a) Active life disability reserves;
(b) Additional reserves whether for a specific liability purpose or not;
(c) Contingency reserves;
(d) Reserves for select morbidity experience; and
(e) Increased reserves which may be required by the commissioner.
(8) The "premiums earned" shall mean the premiums, less experience credits, refunds or dividends, applicable to an accounting period whether received before, during or after such period.
(9) Renewal provisions are defined as follows:
(a) "Guaranteed renewable"—Renewal cannot be declined by the insurance company for any reason, but the insurance company can revise rates on a class basis.
(b) "Noncancellable"—Renewal cannot be declined nor can rates be revised by the insurance company.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-030, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-040
Grouping of policy forms for purposes of rate making and requests for rate increase.

(1) The actuary responsible for setting premium rates shall group similar policy forms, including forms no longer being marketed, in the pricing calculations. Such grouping shall rely on the judgment of the pricing actuary and be satisfactory to the commissioner. Among the factors which shall be considered are similar claims experience, types of benefits, reserves, margins for contingencies, expenses and profit, and equity between policyholders. Such grouping shall enhance statistical reliability and improve the likelihood of premium adequacy without introducing elements of discrimination in violation of RCW 48.18.480.
(2) The insureds under similar policy forms are grouped at the time of rate making in accord with RCW 48.18.480 because they are expected to have substantially like insuring, risk and exposure factors and expense elements. The morbidity and mortality experience of these insureds will, as a group, deteriorate over time. It is hereby defined to be an unfair and discriminatory practice, pursuant to RCW 48.01.030, 48.18.480 and 48.30.010, to withdraw a form from its assigned grouping by reason only of the deteriorating health of the people insured thereunder.
(3) One or more of the policy forms grouped for rate making purposes may, by random chance, experience significantly higher or more frequent claims than the other forms. It is hereby defined to be an unfair and discriminatory practice, pursuant to RCW 48.01.030, 48.18.480 and 48.30.010, to deviate from the assigned grouping of policy forms for pricing purposes at the time of requesting a rate increase unless the actuary can justify to the satisfaction of the commissioner that a different grouping is more equitable because of some previously unrecognized and nonrandom distinction between forms or between groups of insureds.
(4) Successive policy forms of similar benefits are sometimes introduced by the insurers for the purpose of keeping up with trends in hospital costs, new developments in medical practice, additional supplemental benefits offered by competitors, and other reasons. While this is commendable, policyholders who can not qualify for the new improved policies, or to whom the new benefits are not offered, are left insured and isolated as a high risk group under the prior form and soon become subject to massive rate increases. It is hereby defined to be an unfair and discriminatory practice, pursuant to RCW 48.01.030, 48.18.480 and 48.30.010, to fail to combine successive generic policy forms and to fail to combine policy forms of similar benefits covering generations of policyholders in the calculation of premium rates and loss ratios.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-040, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-050
Loss ratio requirements for individual disability insurance forms.

The following standards and requirements apply to individual disability insurance forms:
(1) Benefits shall be deemed reasonable in relation to the premiums if the overall loss ratio is at least sixty percent over a calculating period chosen by the insurer and satisfactory to the commissioner.
(2) The calculating period may vary with the benefit and renewal provisions. The company may be required to demonstrate the reasonableness of the calculating period chosen by the actuary responsible for the premium calculations. A brief explanation of the selected calculating period shall accompany the filing.
(3) Policy forms, the benefits of which are particularly exposed to the effects of inflation and whose premium income may be particularly vulnerable to an eroding persistency and other similar forces, shall use a relatively short calculating period reflecting the uncertainties of estimating the risks involved. Policy forms based on more dependable statistics may employ a longer calculating period. The calculating period may be the lifetime of the contract for guaranteed renewable and noncancellable policy forms if such forms provide benefits which are supported by reliable statistics and which are protected from inflationary or eroding forces by such factors as fixed dollar coverages, inside benefit limits, or the inherent nature of the benefits. The calculating period may be as short as one year for coverages which are based on statistics of minimal reliability or which are highly exposed to inflation.
(4) A request for a rate increase to be effective at the end of the calculating period shall include a comparison of the actual to the expected loss ratios, shall employ any accumulation of reserves in the determination of rates for the new calculating period, and shall account for the maintenance of such reserves for future needs. The request for the rate increase shall be further documented by the expected loss ratio for the new calculating period.
(5) A request for a rate increase submitted during the calculating period shall include a comparison of the actual to the expected loss ratios, a demonstration of any contributions to and support from the reserves, and shall account for the maintenance of such reserves for future needs. If the experience justifies a premium increase it shall be deemed that the calculating period has prematurely been brought to an end. The rate increase shall further be documented by the expected loss ratio for the next calculating period.
(6) The commissioner may approve a series of two or three smaller rate increases in lieu of one large increase. These should be calculated to reduce lapses and anti-selection that often result from large rate increases. A demonstration of such calculations, whether for a single rate increase or for a series of smaller rate increases, satisfactory to the commissioner, shall be attached to the filing.
(7) Companies shall review their experience periodically and file appropriate rate revisions in a timely manner to reduce the necessity of later filing of exceptionally large rate increases.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-050, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-060
Loss ratio requirement for group and blanket disability insurance policy forms and manual rates.

The following standards and requirements apply to group and blanket disability insurance policy forms and manual rates:
(1) Specified disease group insurance shall generate at least a seventy-five percent loss ratio regardless of the size of the group.
(2) Group disability insurance, other than specified disease insurance, as to which the insureds pay all or substantially all of the premium shall generate loss ratios no lower than those set forth in the following table.
Number of Certificate Holders at Issue, Renewal or Rerating
Minimum Overall Loss Ratio
9 or less
60%
10 to 24
65%
25 to 49
70%
50 to 99
75%
 
100 or more
80%
(3) Group disability policy forms, other than for specified disease insurance, for issue to single employers insuring less than one hundred lives shall generate loss ratios no lower than those set forth in subsection (2) of this section for groups of the same size.
(4) The calculating period may vary with the benefit and premium provisions. The company may be required to demonstrate the reasonableness of the calculating period chosen by the actuary responsible for the premium calculations.
(5) A request for a rate increase submitted at the end of the calculating period shall include a comparison of the actual to the expected loss ratios and shall employ any accumulation of reserves in the determination of rates for the selected calculating period and account for the maintenance of such reserves for future needs. The request for the rate increase shall be further documented by the expected loss ratio for the new calculating period.
(6) A request for a rate increase submitted during the calculating period shall include a comparison of the actual to the expected loss ratios, a demonstration of any contributions to or support from the reserves, and shall account for the maintenance of such reserves for future needs. If the experience justifies a premium increase it shall be deemed that the calculating period has prematurely been brought to an end. The rate increase shall further be documented by the expected loss ratio for the next calculating period.
(7) The commissioner may approve a series of two or three smaller rate increases in lieu of one larger increase. These should be calculated to reduce the lapses and antiselection that often result from large rate increases. A demonstration of such calculations, whether for a single rate increase or a series of smaller rate increases, satisfactory to the commissioner, shall be attached to the filing.
(8) Companies shall review their experience periodically and file appropriate rate revisions in a timely manner to reduce the necessity of later filing of exceptionally large rate increases.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-060, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-070
Experience records.

Insurers shall maintain records of earned premiums and incurred benefits for each policy year for each policy, rider, endorsement and similar form which were combined for purposes of premium calculations, including the reserves. Records shall also be maintained of the experience expected in the premium calculations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with proper justification, the commissioner may accept approximation of policy year experience based on calendar year data.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-070, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-080
Evaluating experience data.

In determining the credibility and appropriateness of experience data, due consideration shall be given to all relevant factors including:
(1) Statistical credibility of premiums and benefits such as low exposure or low loss frequency;
(2) Past and projected trends relative to the kind of coverage, such as inflation in medical expenses, economic cycles affecting disability income experience, inflation in expense charges and others;
(3) The concentration of experience at early policy durations where select morbidity and preliminary term reserves are applicable and where loss ratios are expected to be substantially higher or lower than in later policy durations;
(4) The mix of business by risk classification;
(5) The expected lapses and antiselection at the time of rate increases.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-080, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-090
Special circumstances.

Loss ratios other than those indicated in WAC 284-60-050 and 284-60-060 may be approved with satisfactory actuarial demonstrations. Examples of coverages where the commissioner may grant special considerations are:
(1) Short term nonrenewable policy forms such as airline trip or student accident.
(2) Policy forms exposed to high risk of claim fluctuation because of the low loss frequency, or the catastrophic or experimental nature of the coverage.
(3) Individual guaranteed renewable and noncancellable policy forms, but the loss ratio shall not be less than those set forth in the following table in lieu of those specified in WAC 284-60-050. In the calculation of loss ratios for such policies the reserves, except those required by RCW 48.12.030 (3)(a), shall be excluded from consideration as benefits incurred.
 
Guaranteed Renewable
Noncancellable
Medical Expense
55%
50%
Loss of Income and Other
50%
45%
(4) Cases where higher than usual expenses are expected because of peculiar administrative or geographic circumstances.
(5) Freestanding group or blanket contracts for benefits which are normally written in conjunction with other benefits.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-090, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]



284-60-100
Effective date.

This regulation shall become effective on September 1, 1983, and shall apply to all policy, rider, endorsement, and similar forms and rate schedule filings subject to this regulation submitted on or after said date.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 48.02.060. WSR 83-14-002 (Order R 83-1), § 284-60-100, filed 6/23/83, effective 9/1/83.]