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Chapter 28A.175 RCW

DROPOUT PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

RCW Sections

28A.175.010Educational progress information -- Reporting requirements -- Rules -- Reports to legislature -- Annual estimate of savings.
28A.175.025Building bridges program -- Grants.
28A.175.035Grants -- Criteria and requirements -- Data collection -- Third-party evaluator -- Report.
28A.175.045Grant awards -- Recipients.
28A.175.055Grant awards -- Eligibility.
28A.175.065Duties of educational service districts -- Collaboration with workforce development councils.
28A.175.074Definitions.
28A.175.075Building bridges work group -- Composition -- Duties -- Reports.
28A.175.100Statewide dropout reengagement program.
28A.175.105Statewide dropout reengagement program -- Definitions.
28A.175.110Statewide dropout reengagement program -- Model interlocal agreement and model contract -- Students considered regularly enrolled in district.
28A.175.115Statewide dropout reengagement program -- Rules.
28A.175.120Condensed compliance reports -- Second-class districts.
28A.175.130Pay for actual student success (PASS) program -- Created -- Finding -- Collaboration.
28A.175.135PASS program -- Allocation of funds.
28A.175.140PASS program -- Duties of superintendent of public instruction.
28A.175.145PASS program -- Awards.
28A.175.150PASS program -- Graduation coach.
28A.175.155PASS program -- High school completion account.
28A.175.160PASS program -- Information regarding funds and awards -- Development of strategies for dropout prevention and reengagement programs, planning, and improvement.


28A.175.010
Educational progress information — Reporting requirements — Rules — Reports to legislature — Annual estimate of savings.

Each school district shall account for the educational progress of each of its students. To achieve this, school districts shall be required to report annually to the superintendent of public instruction:

     (1) For students enrolled in each of a school district's high school programs:

     (a) The number of students who graduate in fewer than four years;

     (b) The number of students who graduate in four years;

     (c) The number of students who remain in school for more than four years but who eventually graduate and the number of students who remain in school for more than four years but do not graduate;

     (d) The number of students who transfer to other schools;

     (e) The number of students in the ninth through twelfth grade who drop out of school over a four-year period; and

     (f) The number of students whose status is unknown.

     (2) Dropout rates of students in each of the grades seven through twelve.

     (3) Dropout rates for student populations in each of the grades seven through twelve by:

     (a) Ethnicity;

     (b) Gender;

     (c) Socioeconomic status;

     (d) Disability status; and

     (e) Identified homeless status.

     (4) The causes or reasons, or both, attributed to students for having dropped out of school in grades seven through twelve.

     (5) The superintendent of public instruction shall adopt rules under chapter
34.05 RCW to assure uniformity in the information districts are required to report under subsections (1) through (4) of this section. In developing rules, the superintendent of public instruction shall consult with school districts, including administrative and counseling personnel, with regard to the methods through which information is to be collected and reported.

     (6) In reporting on the causes or reasons, or both, attributed to students for having dropped out of school, school building officials shall, to the extent reasonably practical, obtain such information directly from students. In lieu of obtaining such information directly from students, building principals and counselors shall identify the causes or reasons, or both, based on their professional judgment.

     (7) The superintendent of public instruction shall report annually to the legislature the information collected under subsections (1) through (4) of this section.

     (8) The Washington state institute for public policy shall calculate an annual estimate of the savings resulting from any change compared to the prior school year in the extended graduation rate. The superintendent shall include the estimate from the institute in an appendix of the report required under subsection (7) of this section, beginning with the 2010 report.

[2014 c 212 § 4; 2010 c 243 § 5; 2005 c 207 § 3; 1991 c 235 § 4; 1986 c 151 § 1. Formerly RCW 28A.58.087.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2014 c 212: See note following RCW 28A.300.540.

     Findings -- Intent--2005 c 207: See note following RCW 28A.600.300.




28A.175.025
Building bridges program — Grants.

Subject to the availability of funds appropriated for this purpose, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall create a grant program and award grants to local partnerships of schools, families, and communities to begin the phase in of a statewide comprehensive dropout prevention, intervention, and retrieval system. This program shall be known as the building bridges program.

     (1) For purposes of RCW
28A.175.025 through 28A.175.075, a "building bridges program" means a local partnership of schools, families, and communities that provides all of the following programs or activities:

     (a) A system that identifies individual students at risk of dropping out from middle through high school based on local predictive data, including state assessment data starting in the fourth grade, and provides timely interventions for such students and for dropouts, including a plan for educational success as already required by the student learning plan as defined under RCW 28A.655.061. Students identified shall include foster care youth, youth involved in the juvenile justice system, and students receiving special education services under chapter 28A.155 RCW;

     (b) Coaches or mentors for students as necessary;

     (c) Staff responsible for coordination of community partners that provide a seamless continuum of academic and nonacademic support in schools and communities;

     (d) Retrieval or reentry activities; and

     (e) Alternative educational programming, including, but not limited to, career and technical education exploratory and preparatory programs and online learning opportunities.

     (2) One of the grants awarded under this section shall be for a two-year demonstration project focusing on providing fifth through twelfth grade students with a program that utilizes technology and is integrated with state standards, basic academics, cross-cultural exposures, and age-appropriate preemployment training. The project shall:

     (a) Establish programs in two western Washington and one eastern Washington urban areas;

     (b) Identify at-risk students in each of the distinct communities and populations and implement strategies to close the achievement gap;

     (c) Collect and report data on participant characteristics and outcomes of the project, including the characteristics and outcomes specified under RCW 28A.175.035(1)(e); and

     (d) Submit a report to the legislature by December 1, 2009.

[2007 c 408 § 2.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: "It is the intent of the legislature that increasing academic success and increasing graduation rates be dual goals for the K-12 system. The legislature finds that only seventy-four percent of the class of 2005 graduated on time. Students of color, students living in poverty, students in foster care, students in the juvenile justice system, students who are homeless, students for whom English is not their primary language, and students with disabilities have lower graduation rates than the average. The legislature further finds that students who drop out experience more frequent occurrences of early pregnancy, delinquency, substance abuse, and mental health issues, and have greater need of publicly funded health and social services. The legislature further finds that helping all students be successful in school requires active participation in coordinating services from schools, parents, and other stakeholders and agencies in the local community. The legislature finds that existing resources to vulnerable youth are used more efficiently and effectively when there is significant coordination across local and state entities. The legislature further finds that efficiency and accountability of the K-12 system would be improved by creating a dropout prevention and intervention grant program that implements research-based and emerging best practices and evaluates results." [2007 c 408 § 1.]




28A.175.035
Grants — Criteria and requirements — Data collection — Third-party evaluator — Report.

(1) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall:

     (a) Identify criteria for grants and evaluate proposals for funding in consultation with the workforce training and education coordinating board;

     (b) Develop and monitor requirements for grant recipients to:

     (i) Identify students who both fail the Washington assessment of student learning and drop out of school;

     (ii) Identify their own strengths and gaps in services provided to youth;

     (iii) Set their own local goals for program outcomes;

     (iv) Use research-based and emerging best practices that lead to positive outcomes in implementing the building bridges program; and

     (v) Coordinate an outreach campaign to bring public and private organizations together and to provide information about the building bridges program to the local community;

     (c) In setting the requirements under (b) of this subsection, encourage creativity and provide for flexibility in implementing the local building bridges program;

     (d) Identify and disseminate successful practices;

     (e) Develop requirements for grant recipients to collect and report data, including, but not limited to:

     (i) The number of and demographics of students served including, but not limited to, information regarding a student's race and ethnicity, a student's household income, a student's housing status, whether a student is a foster youth or youth involved in the juvenile justice system, whether a student is disabled, and the primary language spoken at a student's home;

     (ii) Washington assessment of student learning scores;

     (iii) Dropout rates;

     (iv) On-time graduation rates;

     (v) Extended graduation rates;

     (vi) Credentials obtained;

     (vii) Absenteeism rates;

     (viii) Truancy rates; and

     (ix) Credit retrieval;

     (f) Contract with a third party to evaluate the infrastructure and implementation of the partnership including the leveraging of outside resources that relate to the goal of the partnership. The third-party contractor shall also evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the partnerships relative to the type of entity, as identified in RCW
28A.175.045, serving as the lead agency for the partnership; and

     (g) Report to the legislature by December 1, 2008.

     (2) In performing its duties under this section, the office of the superintendent of public instruction is encouraged to consult with the work group identified in RCW 28A.175.075.

     (3) In selecting recipients for grant funds appropriated under RCW 28A.175.135, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall use a streamlined and expedited application and review process for those programs that have already proven to be successful in dropout prevention.

[2011 c 288 § 9; 2007 c 408 § 3.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: See note following RCW 28A.175.025.




28A.175.045
Grant awards — Recipients.

In awarding the grants under RCW 28A.175.025, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall prioritize schools or districts with dropout rates above the statewide average and shall attempt to award building bridges program grants to different geographic regions of the state. Eligible recipients shall be one of the following entities acting as a lead agency for the local partnership: A school district, a tribal school, an area workforce development council, an educational service district, an accredited institution of higher education, a vocational skills [skill] center, a federally recognized tribe, a community organization, or a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation. If the recipient is not a school district, at least one school district must be identified within the partnership. The superintendent of public instruction shall ensure that grants are distributed proportionately between school districts and other recipients. This requirement may be waived if the superintendent of public instruction finds that the quality of the programs or applications from these entities does not warrant the awarding of the grants proportionately.

[2007 c 408 § 4.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: See note following RCW 28A.175.025.




28A.175.055
Grant awards — Eligibility.

To be eligible for a grant under RCW 28A.175.025, grant applicants shall:

     (1) Build or demonstrate a commitment to building a broad-based partnership of schools, families, and community members to provide an effective and efficient building bridges program. The partnership shall consider an effective model for school-community partnerships and include local membership from, but not limited to, school districts, tribal schools, secondary career and technical education programs, skill centers that serve the local community, an educational service district, the area workforce development council, accredited institutions of higher education, tribes or other cultural organizations, the parent teacher association, the juvenile court, prosecutors and defenders, the local health department, health care agencies, public transportation agencies, local division representatives of the department of social and health services, businesses, city or county government agencies, civic organizations, and appropriate youth-serving community-based organizations. Interested parents and students shall be actively included whenever possible;

     (2) Demonstrate how the grant will enhance any dropout prevention and intervention programs and services already in place in the district;

     (3) Provide a twenty-five percent match that may include in-kind resources from within the partnership;

     (4) Track and report data required by the grant; and

     (5) Describe how the dropout prevention, intervention, and retrieval system will be sustained after initial funding, including roles of each of the partners.

[2007 c 408 § 5.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: See note following RCW 28A.175.025.




28A.175.065
Duties of educational service districts — Collaboration with workforce development councils.

(1) Educational service districts, in collaboration with area workforce development councils, shall:

     (a) Provide technical assistance to local partnerships established under a grant awarded under RCW
28A.175.025 in collecting and using performance data; and

     (b) At the request of a local partnership established under a grant awarded under RCW 28A.175.025, provide assistance in the development of a functional sustainability plan, including the identification of potential funding sources for future operation.

     (2) Local partnerships established under a grant awarded under RCW 28A.175.025 may contract with an educational service district, workforce development council, or a private agency for specialized training in such areas as cultural competency, identifying diverse learning styles, and intervention strategies for students at risk of dropping out of school.

[2007 c 408 § 6.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: See note following RCW 28A.175.025.




28A.175.074
Definitions.

The definitions in this section apply throughout section 3, chapter 243, Laws of 2010 and RCW 28A.175.075 unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

     (1) "Critical community members" means representatives in the local community from among the following agencies and organizations: Student/parent organizations, parents and families, local government, law enforcement, juvenile corrections, any tribal organization in the local school district, the local health district, nonprofit and social service organizations serving youth, and faith organizations.

     (2) "Dropout early warning and intervention data system" means a student information system that provides the data needed to conduct a universal screening to identify students at risk of dropping out, catalog student interventions, and monitor student progress towards graduation.

     (3) "K-12 dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement system" means a system that provides all of the following functions:

     (a) Engaging in school improvement planning specifically focused on improving high school graduation rates, including goal-setting and action planning, based on a comprehensive assessment of strengths and challenges;

     (b) Providing prevention activities including, but not limited to, emotionally and physically safe school environments, implementation of a comprehensive guidance and counseling model facilitated by certified school counselors, core academic instruction, and career and technical education exploratory and preparatory programs;

     (c) Identifying vulnerable students based on a dropout early warning and intervention data system;

     (d) Timely academic and nonacademic group and individual interventions for vulnerable students based on a response to intervention model, including planning and sharing of information at critical academic transitions;

     (e) Providing graduation coaches, mentors, certified school counselors, and/or case managers for vulnerable students identified as needing a more intensive one-on-one adult relationship;

     (f) Establishing and providing staff to coordinate a school/family/community partnership that assists in building a K-12 dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement system;

     (g) Providing retrieval or reentry activities; and

     (h) Providing alternative educational programming including, but not limited to, credit retrieval and online learning opportunities.

     (4) "School/family/community partnership" means a partnership between a school or schools, families, and the community, that engages critical community members in a formal, structured partnership with local school districts in a coordinated effort to provide comprehensive support services and improve outcomes for vulnerable youth.

     (5) "Vulnerable students" means students who are in foster care, involved in the juvenile justice system, receiving special education services under chapter 28A.155 RCW, recent immigrants, homeless, emotionally traumatized, or are facing behavioral health issues, and students deemed at-risk of school failure as identified by a dropout early warning data system or other assessment.

[2010 c 243 § 2.]




28A.175.075
Building bridges work group — Composition — Duties — Reports.

(1) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall establish a state-level building bridges work group that includes K-12 and state agencies that work with youth who have dropped out or are at risk of dropping out of school. The following agencies shall appoint representatives to the work group: The office of the superintendent of public instruction, the workforce training and education coordinating board, the department of early learning, the employment security department, the state board for community and technical colleges, the department of health, the community mobilization office, and the children's services and behavioral health and recovery divisions of the department of social and health services. The work group should also consist of one representative from each of the following agencies and organizations: A statewide organization representing career and technical education programs including skill centers; the juvenile courts or the office of juvenile justice, or both; the Washington association of prosecuting attorneys; the Washington state office of public defense; accredited institutions of higher education; the educational service districts; the area workforce development councils; parent and educator associations; educational opportunity gap oversight and accountability committee; office of the education ombuds; local school districts; agencies or organizations that provide services to special education students; community organizations serving youth; federally recognized tribes and urban tribal centers; each of the major political caucuses of the senate and house of representatives; and the minority commissions.

     (2) To assist and enhance the work of the building bridges programs established in RCW
28A.175.025, the state-level work group shall:

     (a) Identify and make recommendations to the legislature for the reduction of fiscal, legal, and regulatory barriers that prevent coordination of program resources across agencies at the state and local level;

     (b) Develop and track performance measures and benchmarks for each partner agency or organization across the state including performance measures and benchmarks based on student characteristics and outcomes specified in RCW 28A.175.035(1)(e); and

     (c) Identify research-based and emerging best practices regarding prevention, intervention, and retrieval programs.

     (3)(a) The work group shall report to the quality education council, appropriate committees of the legislature, and the governor on an annual basis beginning December 1, 2007, with proposed strategies for building K-12 dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement systems in local communities throughout the state including, but not limited to, recommendations for implementing emerging best practices, needed additional resources, and eliminating barriers.

     (b) By September 15, 2010, the work group shall report on:

     (i) A recommended state goal and annual state targets for the percentage of students graduating from high school;

     (ii) A recommended state goal and annual state targets for the percentage of youth who have dropped out of school who should be reengaged in education and be college and work ready;

     (iii) Recommended funding for supporting career guidance and the planning and implementation of K-12 dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement systems in school districts and a plan for phasing the funding into the program of basic education, beginning in the 2011-2013 biennium; and

     (iv) A plan for phasing in the expansion of the current school improvement planning program to include state-funded, dropout-focused school improvement technical assistance for school districts in significant need of improvement regarding high school graduation rates.

     (4) State agencies in the building bridges work group shall work together, wherever feasible, on the following activities to support school/family/community partnerships engaged in building K-12 dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement systems:

     (a) Providing opportunities for coordination and flexibility of program eligibility and funding criteria;

     (b) Providing joint funding;

     (c) Developing protocols and templates for model agreements on sharing records and data;

     (d) Providing joint professional development opportunities that provide knowledge and training on:

     (i) Research-based and promising practices;

     (ii) The availability of programs and services for vulnerable youth; and

     (iii) Cultural competence.

     (5) The building bridges work group shall make recommendations to the governor and the legislature by December 1, 2010, on a state-level and regional infrastructure for coordinating services for vulnerable youth. Recommendations must address the following issues:

     (a) Whether to adopt an official conceptual approach or framework for all entities working with vulnerable youth that can support coordinated planning and evaluation;

     (b) The creation of a performance-based management system, including outcomes, indicators, and performance measures relating to vulnerable youth and programs serving them, including accountability for the dropout issue;

     (c) The development of regional and/or county-level multipartner youth consortia with a specific charge to assist school districts and local communities in building K-12 comprehensive dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement systems;

     (d) The development of integrated or school-based one-stop shopping for services that would:

     (i) Provide individualized attention to the neediest youth and prioritized access to services for students identified by a dropout early warning and intervention data system;

     (ii) Establish protocols for coordinating data and services, including getting data release at time of intake and common assessment and referral processes; and

     (iii) Build a system of single case managers across agencies;

     (e) Launching a statewide media campaign on increasing the high school graduation rate; and

     (f) Developing a statewide database of available services for vulnerable youth.

[2013 c 23 § 46; 2010 c 243 § 4; 2007 c 408 § 7.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Findings -- 2007 c 408: See note following RCW 28A.175.025.




28A.175.100
Statewide dropout reengagement program.

(1) This section and RCW 28A.175.105 through 28A.175.115 provide a statutory framework for a statewide dropout reengagement system to provide appropriate educational opportunities and access to services for students age sixteen to twenty-one who have dropped out of high school or are not accumulating sufficient credits to reasonably complete a high school diploma in a public school before the age of twenty-one.

     (2) Under the system, school districts may:

     (a) Enter into the model interlocal agreement developed under RCW 28A.175.110 with an educational service district, community or technical college, or other public entity to provide a dropout reengagement program for eligible students of the district; or

     (b) Enter into the model contract developed under RCW 28A.175.110 with a community-based organization to provide a dropout reengagement program for eligible students of the district.

     (3) If a school district does not enter an interlocal agreement or contract with an educational service district, community or technical college, other public entity, or community-based organization to provide a dropout reengagement program for eligible students residing in the district, the educational service district, community or technical college, other public entity, or community-based organization may petition a school district other than the resident school district to enroll the eligible students under RCW 28A.225.220 through 28A.225.230 and enter the interlocal agreement or contract with the petitioning entity to provide a dropout reengagement program for the eligible students.

     (4) This section does not affect the authority of school districts to contract for educational services under RCW 28A.150.305 and 28A.320.035. This section also does not affect the authority of school districts to offer dropout reengagement programs or other educational services for eligible students directly.

[2010 c 20 § 2.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2013 c 39; 2010 c 20: "(1) In every school district there are older youth who have become disengaged with the traditional education program of public high schools. They may have failed multiple classes and are far behind in accumulating credits to graduate. They do not see a high school diploma as an achievable goal. They may have dropped out of school entirely. They are not likely to become reengaged in their education by the prospect of reenrollment in a traditional or even an alternative high school.

     (2) For many years, school districts, community and technical colleges, and community-based organizations have created partnerships to provide appropriate educational programs for these students. Programs such as career education options and career link have successfully offered individualized academic instruction, case management support, and career-oriented skills in an age-appropriate learning environment to hundreds of disengaged older youth. Preparation for a test to earn a high school equivalency certificate as provided in RCW 28B.50.536 in accordance with rules adopted under RCW 28A.305.190 is provided but is not the end goal for students.

     (3) However, in recent years, many of these partnerships have ceased to operate. The laws and rules authorizing school districts to contract using basic education allocations do not provide sufficient guidance and instead present barriers. Program providers are forced to adapt to rules that were not written to address the needs of the students being served. Questions and concerns about liability, responsibility, and administrative burden have caused districts reluctantly to abandon their partnerships, and consequently leave hundreds of students without a viable alternative for continuing their public education.

     (4) Therefore the legislature intends to provide a statutory framework to support a statewide dropout reengagement system for older youth. The framework clarifies and standardizes funding, programs, and administration by directing the office of the superintendent of public instruction to develop model contracts and interlocal agreements. It is the legislature's intent to encourage school districts, community and technical colleges, and community-based organizations to participate in this system and provide appropriate instruction and services to reengage older students and help them make progress toward a meaningful credential and career skills." [2013 c 39 § 4; 2010 c 20 § 1.]




28A.175.105
Statewide dropout reengagement program — Definitions.

The definitions in this section apply throughout RCW 28A.175.100 through 28A.175.110 unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

     (1) "Dropout reengagement program" means an educational program that offers at least the following instruction and services:

     (a) Academic instruction, including but not limited to preparation to earn a high school equivalency certificate as provided in RCW 28B.50.536 in accordance with rules adopted under RCW 28A.305.190, academic skills instruction, and college and work readiness preparation, that generates credits that can be applied to a high school diploma from the student's school district or from a community or technical college under RCW 28B.50.535 and has the goal of enabling the student to obtain the academic and work readiness skills necessary for employment or postsecondary study. A dropout reengagement program is not required to offer instruction in only those subject areas where a student is deficient in accumulated credits. Academic instruction must be provided by teachers certified by the Washington professional educator standards board or by instructors employed by a community or technical college whose required credentials are established by the college;

     (b) Case management, academic and career counseling, and assistance with accessing services and resources that support at-risk youth and reduce barriers to educational success; and

     (c) If the program provider is a community or technical college, the opportunity for qualified students to enroll in college courses that lead to a postsecondary degree or certificate. The college may not charge an eligible student tuition for such enrollment.

     (2) "Eligible student" means a student who:

     (a) Is at least sixteen but less than twenty-one years of age at the beginning of the school year;

     (b) Is not accumulating sufficient credits toward a high school diploma to reasonably complete a high school diploma from a public school before the age of twenty-one or is recommended for the program by case managers from the department of social and health services or the juvenile justice system; and

     (c) Is enrolled or enrolls in the school district in which the student resides, or is enrolled or enrolls in a nonresident school district under RCW 28A.225.220 through 28A.225.230.

     (3) "Full-time equivalent eligible student" means an eligible student whose enrollment and attendance meet criteria adopted by the office of the superintendent of public instruction specifically for dropout reengagement programs. The criteria shall be:

     (a) Based on the community or technical college credits generated by the student if the program provider is a community or technical college; and

     (b) Based on a minimum amount of planned programming or instruction and minimum attendance by the student rather than hours of seat time if the program provider is a community-based organization.

[2013 c 39 § 5; 2010 c 20 § 3.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2010 c 20: See note following RCW 28A.175.100.




28A.175.110
Statewide dropout reengagement program — Model interlocal agreement and model contract — Students considered regularly enrolled in district.

(1) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall develop a model interlocal agreement and a model contract for the dropout reengagement system.

     (2) The model interlocal agreement and contract shall, at a minimum, address the following:

     (a) Responsibilities for identification, referral, and enrollment of eligible students;

     (b) Instruction and services to be provided by a dropout reengagement program, as specified under RCW
28A.175.105;

     (c) Responsibilities for data collection and reporting, including student transcripts and data required for the statewide student information system;

     (d) Administration of the high school statewide student assessments;

     (e) Uniform financial reimbursement rates per full-time equivalent eligible student enrolled in a dropout reengagement program, calculated and allocated as a statewide annual average of the basic education allocations generated under RCW 28A.150.260 for nonvocational students and including enhancements for vocational students where eligible students are enrolled in vocational courses in a program, and allowing for a uniform administrative fee to be retained by the district;

     (f) Responsibilities for provision of special education or related services for eligible students with disabilities who have an individualized education program;

     (g) Responsibilities for necessary accommodations and plans for students qualifying under section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973;

     (h) Minimum instructional staffing ratios for dropout reengagement programs offered by community-based organizations, which are not required to be the same as for other basic education programs in school districts; and

     (i) Performance measures that must be reported to the office of the superintendent of public instruction in a common format for purposes of accountability, including longitudinal monitoring of student progress and postsecondary education and employment.

     (3) Eligible students enrolled in a dropout reengagement program under RCW 28A.175.100, 28A.175.105, and this section are considered regularly enrolled students of the school district in which they are enrolled, except that the students shall not be included in the school district's enrollment for purposes of calculating compliance with RCW 28A.150.100.

[2010 c 20 § 4.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2010 c 20: See note following RCW 28A.175.100.




28A.175.115
Statewide dropout reengagement program — Rules.

(1) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall adopt rules to implement RCW 28A.175.100 through 28A.175.110.

     (2) When adopting rules under this section and developing model interlocal agreements and contracts under RCW 28A.175.110, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall consult with the state board for community and technical colleges, the workforce training and education coordinating board, colleges and community-based organizations that have previously offered dropout reengagement programs, providers of online courses and programs approved under RCW 28A.250.020, school districts, and educational service districts.

[2010 c 20 § 5.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2010 c 20: See note following RCW 28A.175.100.




28A.175.120
Condensed compliance reports — Second-class districts.

Any compliance reporting requirements as a result of laws in this chapter that apply to second-class districts may be submitted in accordance with RCW 28A.330.250.

[2011 c 45 § 8.]

Notes:

     Conflict with federal requirements -- 2011 c 45: See note following RCW 28A.330.250.




28A.175.130
Pay for actual student success (PASS) program — Created — Finding — Collaboration.

(1) The pay for actual student success (PASS) program is created under this section and RCW 28A.175.135 through 28A.175.160 to invest in proven dropout prevention and intervention programs as provided in RCW 28A.175.135 and provide a financial award for high schools that demonstrate improvement in the dropout prevention indicators established under RCW 28A.175.140. The legislature finds that increased accumulation of credits and reductions in incidents of student discipline lead to improved graduation rates.

     (2) The office of the superintendent of public instruction, the workforce training and education coordinating board, the building bridges working group, the student achievement council, and the college scholarship organization under RCW 28A.175.135(4) shall collaborate to assure that the programs under RCW 28A.175.135 operate systematically and are expanded to include as many additional students and schools as possible.

[2012 c 229 § 503; 2011 c 288 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2012 c 229 §§ 101, 117, 401, 402, 501 through 594, 601 through 609, 701 through 708, 801 through 821, 902, and 904: See note following RCW 28B.77.005.




28A.175.135
PASS program — Allocation of funds.

Subject to funds appropriated for this purpose, funds shall be allocated as specified in the omnibus appropriations act to support the PASS program through the following programs:

     (1) The opportunity internship program under RCW
28C.18.160 through 28C.18.168;

     (2) The jobs for America's graduates program administered through the office of the superintendent of public instruction;

     (3) The building bridges program under RCW 28A.175.025, to be used to expand programs that have been implemented by building bridges partnerships and determined by the building bridges work group to be successful in reducing dropout rates, or to replicate such programs in new partnerships; and

     (4) Individualized student support services provided by a college scholarship organization with expertise in managing scholarships for low-income, high potential students and foster care youth under contract with the office of student financial assistance, including but not limited to college and career advising, counseling, tutoring, community mentor programs, and leadership development.

[2012 c 229 § 601; 2011 c 288 § 3.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2012 c 229 §§ 101, 117, 401, 402, 501 through 594, 601 through 609, 701 through 708, 801 through 821, 902, and 904: See note following RCW 28B.77.005.




28A.175.140
PASS program — Duties of superintendent of public instruction.

(1) The office of the superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the state board of education, must:

     (a) Calculate the annual extended graduation rate for each high school, which is the rate at which a class of students enters high school as first-year students and graduates with a high school diploma, including students who receive a high school diploma after the year they were expected to graduate. The office may statistically adjust the rate for student demographics in the high school, including the number of students eligible for free and reduced-price meals, special education and English language learner students, students of various racial and ethnic backgrounds, and student mobility;

     (b) Annually calculate the proportion of students at grade level for each high school, which shall be measured by the number of credits a student has accumulated at the end of each school year compared to the total number required for graduation. For the purposes of this subsection (1)(b), the office shall adopt a standard definition of "at grade level" for each high school grade;

     (c) Annually calculate the proportion of students in each high school who are suspended or expelled from school, as reported by the high school. In-school suspensions shall not be included in the calculation. Improvement on the indicator under this subsection (1)(c) shall be measured by a reduction in the number of students suspended or expelled from school; and

     (d) Beginning with the 2012-13 school year, annually measure student attendance in each high school as provided under RCW
28A.300.046.

     (2) The office of the superintendent of public instruction may add dropout prevention indicators to the list of indicators under subsection (1) of this section, such as student grades, state assessment mastery, or student retention.

     (3) To the maximum extent possible, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall rely on data collected through the comprehensive education data and research system to calculate the dropout prevention indicators under this section and shall minimize additional data collection from schools and school districts unless necessary to meet the requirements of this section.

     (4) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall develop a metric for measuring the performance of each high school on the indicators under subsection (1) of this section that assigns points for each indicator and results in a single numeric dropout prevention score for each high school. The office shall weight the extended graduation rate indicator within the metric so that a high school does not qualify for an award under RCW 28A.175.145 without an increase in its extended graduation rate. The metric used through the 2012-13 school year shall include the indicators in subsection (1)(a) through (c) of this section and shall measure improvement against the 2010-11 school year as the baseline year. Beginning in the 2013-14 school year, the metric shall also include the indicator in subsection (1)(d) of this section, with improvement in this indicator measured against the 2012-13 school year as the baseline year. The office may establish a minimum level of improvement in a high school's dropout prevention score for the high school to qualify for a PASS program award under RCW 28A.175.145.

[2013 c 23 § 47; 2011 c 288 § 4.]




28A.175.145
PASS program — Awards.

(1)(a) Subject to funds appropriated for this purpose or otherwise available in the account established in RCW 28A.175.155, beginning in the 2011-12 school year and each year thereafter, a high school that demonstrates improvement in its dropout prevention score compared to the baseline school year as calculated under RCW 28A.175.140 may receive a PASS program award as provided under this section. The legislature intends to recognize and reward continuous improvement by using a baseline year for calculating eligibility for PASS program awards so that a high school retains previously earned award funds from one year to the next unless its performance declines.

     (b) The office of the superintendent of public instruction must determine the amount of PASS program awards based on appropriated funds and eligible high schools. The intent of the legislature is to provide an award to each eligible high school commensurate with the degree of improvement in the high school's dropout prevention score and the size of the high school. The office must establish a minimum award amount. If funds available for PASS program awards are not sufficient to provide an award to each eligible high school, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall establish objective criteria to prioritize awards based on eligible high schools with the greatest need for additional dropout prevention and intervention services. The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall encourage and may require a high school receiving a PASS program award to demonstrate an amount of community matching funds or an amount of in-kind community services to support dropout prevention and intervention.

     (c) Ninety percent of an award under this section must be allocated to the eligible high school to be used for dropout prevention activities in the school as specified in subsection (2) of this section. The principal of the high school shall determine the use of funds after consultation with parents and certificated and classified staff of the school.

     (d) Ten percent of an award under this section must be allocated to the school district in which the eligible high school is located to be used for dropout prevention activities as specified in subsection (2) of this section in the high school or in other schools in the district.

     (e) The office of the superintendent of public instruction may withhold distribution of award funds under this section to an otherwise eligible high school or school district if the superintendent of public instruction issues a finding that the school or school district has willfully manipulated the dropout prevention indicators under RCW 28A.175.140, for example by expelling, suspending, transferring, or refusing to enroll students at risk of dropping out of school or at risk of low achievement.

     (2) High schools and school districts may use PASS program award funds for any programs or activities that support the development of a dropout prevention, intervention, and reengagement system as described in RCW 28A.175.074, offered directly by the school or school district or under contract with education agencies or community-based organizations, including but not limited to educational service districts, workforce development councils, and boys and girls clubs. Such programs or activities may include but are not limited to the following:

     (a) Strategies to close the achievement gap for disadvantaged students and minority students;

     (b) Use of graduation coaches as defined in RCW 28A.175.150;

     (c) Opportunity internship activities under RCW 28C.18.164;

     (d) Dropout reengagement programs provided by community-based organizations or community and technical colleges;

     (e) Comprehensive guidance and planning programs as defined under RCW 28A.600.045, including but not limited to the navigation 101 program;

     (f) Reduced class sizes, extended school day, extended school year, and tutoring programs for students identified as at risk of dropping out of school, including instruction to assist these students in meeting graduation requirements in mathematics and science;

     (g) Outreach and counseling targeted to students identified as at risk of dropping out of school, or who have dropped out of school, to encourage them to consider learning alternatives such as preapprenticeship programs, skill centers, running start, technical high schools, and other options for completing a high school diploma;

     (h) Preapprenticeship programs or running start for the trades initiatives under RCW 49.04.190;

     (i) Mentoring programs for students;

     (j) Development and use of dropout early warning data systems;

     (k) Counseling, resource and referral services, and intervention programs to address social, behavioral, and health factors associated with dropping out of school;

     (l) Implementing programs for in-school suspension or other strategies to avoid excluding middle and high school students from the school whenever possible;

     (m) Parent engagement activities such as home visits and off-campus parent support group meetings related to dropout prevention and reengagement; and

     (n) Early learning programs for prekindergarten students.

     (3) High schools and school districts are encouraged to implement dropout prevention and reengagement strategies in a comprehensive and systematic manner, using strategic planning, school improvement plans, evaluation and feedback, and response to intervention tools.

[2011 c 288 § 5.]




28A.175.150
PASS program — Graduation coach.

For the purposes of RCW 28A.175.145, a "graduation coach" means a staff person, working in consultation with counselors, who is assigned to identify and provide intervention services to students who have dropped out or are at risk of dropping out of school or of not graduating on time through the following activities:

     (1) Monitoring and advising on individual student progress toward graduation;

     (2) Providing student support services and case management;

     (3) Motivating students to focus on a graduation plan;

     (4) Encouraging parent and community involvement;

     (5) Connecting parents and students with appropriate school and community resources;

     (6) Securing supplemental academic services for students;

     (7) Implementing school-wide dropout prevention programs and interventions; and

     (8) Analyzing data to identify at-risk students.

[2011 c 288 § 6.]




28A.175.155
PASS program — High school completion account.

The high school completion account is created in the custody of the state treasurer. Revenues to the account shall consist of appropriations made by the legislature, federal funds, gifts or grants from the private sector or foundations, and other sources deposited in the account. Expenditures from the account may be used only for proven dropout prevention and intervention programs identified under RCW 28A.175.135 and to make PASS program awards under RCW 28A.175.145. Only the superintendent of public instruction or the superintendent's designee may authorize expenditures from the account. The account is subject to allotment procedures under chapter 43.88 RCW, but an appropriation is not required for expenditures.

[2011 c 288 § 7.]




28A.175.160
PASS program — Information regarding funds and awards — Development of strategies for dropout prevention and reengagement programs, planning, and improvement.

The office of the superintendent of public instruction must regularly inform high schools and school districts about the opportunities under RCW 28A.175.135 to receive funding to implement programs that have been proven to reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates, as well as the opportunities under RCW 28A.175.145 for high schools to receive a financial incentive for success. Within available funds, the office shall develop systemic, ongoing strategies for identifying and disseminating successful dropout prevention and reengagement programs and strategies and for incorporating dropout prevention and reengagement into high school and school district strategic planning and improvement. The office may offer support and assistance to schools and districts through regional networks. The office shall make every effort to keep dropout prevention and reduction of the dropout rate a top priority for school directors, administrators, and teachers.

[2011 c 288 § 8.]