As used in these rules unless otherwise required by context:
(1) "Abatement" means any measure or set of measures designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards including, but not limited to:
(a) The removal of paint and dust, the permanent enclosure or the encapsulation of lead-based paint with an EPA-approved encapsulant, the replacement of painted surfaces or fixtures, or the removal or covering of soil, when lead-based paint hazards are present in such paint, dust or soil; and
(b) All preparation, cleanup, disposal, and postabatement clearance testing activities associated with such measures.
Specifically, abatement includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Projects for which there is a written contract or other documentation, which provides that an individual or firm will be conducting activities in or to a residential dwelling or child-occupied facility that results in permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards or designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards and described in (a) and (b) of this subsection.
(ii) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, conducted by certified and licensed firms or individuals, unless such projects are covered under (c) of this subsection.
(iii) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, conducted by firms or individuals who, through their company name or promotional literature, represent, advertise, or hold themselves out to be in the business of performing lead-based paint activities, unless such projects are covered under (c) of this subsection.
(iv) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, that are conducted in response to state or local abatement orders.
(c) Abatement does not include renovation, remodeling, landscaping or other activities, when such activities are not designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards, but, instead, are designed to repair, restore, or remodel a given structure or dwelling, even though these activities may incidentally result in a reduction or elimination of lead-based paint hazards. Furthermore, abatement does not include interim controls, operations and maintenance activities, or other measures and activities designed to temporarily, but not permanently, reduce lead-based paint hazards.
(2) "Accreditation" means the process whereby the department has reviewed and approved a training provider's written application with associated materials for accreditation, and has conducted an on-site audit finding the training program is in compliance as specified in these rules.
(3) "Accredited training program" means a training program accredited by the department, either directly or through a reciprocity agreement with other jurisdictions, to provide training for individuals engaged in lead-based paint activities, renovation, or dust sampling.
(4) "Accredited training course" means either an initial or a refresher training course accredited by the department, either directly or through a reciprocity agreement with other jurisdictions, that provides training for individuals engaged in lead-based paint activities and renovation.
(5) "Accredited training provider" means an individual, corporation, partnership or other unincorporated association or public entity to which the department has approved accreditation to offer one or more lead-based paint courses.
(6) "Approved" means approved in writing by the department.
(7) "Arithmetic mean" means the algebraic sum of data values divided by the number of data values (e.g., the sum of the concentration of lead in several soil samples divided by the number of samples).
(8) "Business day" means Monday through Friday with the exception of legal Washington state holidays.
(9) "Certified" means issued a certificate by the department based on meeting requirements for the appropriate discipline. Those requirements include, but are not limited to, the following:
(a) Successful completion of a training program accredited by the department; and
(b) Receiving a passing score on a certification examination administered by the department, or by the training firm in the certification of lead-based paint workers, renovators, and dust sampling technicians; and
(c) Satisfaction of any other requirements for the appropriate discipline; and
(d) Submittal and approval of the appropriate application by the department for inspection, risk assessment or abatement activities in target housing and child-occupied facilities; and
(e) Submittal and approval of the appropriate renovator or dust sampling technician application by the department.
Guidance policy is written to grandfather in all Washington state residents previously certified by EPA as renovators, dust sampling technicians, or Washington renovation firms into the department. Out-of-state residents are required to submit appropriate renovator, dust sampling technician, or renovation firm application and fee to the department.
(10) "Certified firm" means a company, partnership, corporation, sole proprietorship, association, or other business entity that performs lead-based paint activities to which the department has issued a certificate under these rules.
(11) "Child-occupied facility" means a building, or a portion of a building, constructed prior to 1978, visited regularly by the same child, under the age of six, on at least two different days within any week (Sunday through Saturday period), provided that each day's visit lasts at least three hours and the combined weekly visit lasts at least six hours, and the combined annual visits last at least sixty hours. Child-occupied facilities may include, but are not limited to, day care centers, preschools and kindergarten classrooms. Child-occupied facilities may be located in target housing or in public or commercial buildings. With respect to common areas in public or commercial buildings that contain child-occupied facilities, the child-occupied facility encompasses only those common areas that are routinely used by children under age six, such as restrooms and cafeterias. Common areas that children under age six only pass through, such as hallways, stairways, and garages are not included. In addition, with respect to exteriors of public or commercial buildings that contain child-occupied facilities, the child-occupied facility encompasses only the exterior sides of the building that are immediately adjacent to the child-occupied facility or the common areas routinely used by children under age six.
(12) "Clearance levels" are values that indicate the maximum amount of lead permitted in dust on a surface following completion of an abatement activity.
(13) "Clearance examination standards" means a maximum of 40 micrograms of lead in dust per square foot on floors, 250 micrograms of lead in dust per square foot on interior window sills, and 400 micrograms of lead in dust on window troughs.
(14) "Common area" means a portion of a building that is generally accessible to all occupants that may include, but that is not limited to, hallways, stairways, laundry and recreational rooms, playgrounds, community centers, garages, and boundary fences.
(15) "Common area group" means a group of common areas that are similar in design, construction, and function. Common area groups include, but are not limited to, hallways, stairwells, and laundry rooms.
(16) "Component or building component" means specific design or structural elements or fixtures of a building, residential dwelling, or child-occupied facility that are distinguished from each other by form, function, and location. These include, but are not limited to, interior components such as: Ceilings, crown molding, walls, chair rails, doors, door trim, floors, fireplaces, radiators and other heating units, shelves, shelf supports, stair treads, stair risers, stair stringers, newel posts, railing caps, balustrades, windows and trim (including sashes, window heads, jambs, sills or stools and troughs), built in cabinets, columns, beams, bathroom vanities, counter tops, and air conditioners; and exterior components such as: Painted roofing, chimneys, flashing, gutters and downspouts, ceilings, soffits, fascias, rake boards, cornerboards, bulkheads, doors and door trim, fences, floors, joists, lattice work, railings and railing caps, siding, handrails, stair risers and treads, stair stringers, columns, balustrades, window sills or stools and troughs, casings, sashes and wells, and air conditioners.
(17) "Concentration" means the relative content of a specific substance contained within a larger mass, such as the amount of lead (in micrograms per gram or parts per million by weight) in a sample of dust or soil.
(18) "Containment" means a process to protect workers and the environment by controlling exposures to the lead-contaminated dust and debris created during an abatement or renovation.
(19) "Course agenda" means an outline of the key topics to be covered during a training course, including the time allotted to teach each topic.
(20) "Course test" means an evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the training which shall test the trainees' knowledge and retention of the topics covered during the course.
(21) "Course completion date" means the final date of classroom instruction and/or student examination of an accredited lead-based paint training course.
(22) "Course completion certificate" means documentation issued by an accredited training provider to an individual as proof of successful completion of a department-approved lead-based paint course or initial training course. All course completion certificates are valid for six months from the course completion date.
(23) "Course test blueprint" means written documentation identifying the proportion of course test questions devoted to each major topic in the course curriculum.
(24) "Demonstration testing" means the observation and scoring of a student's job task and equipment use skills taught during an initial or refresher training course.
(25) "Department" means the department of commerce.
(26) "Deteriorated paint" means any interior or exterior paint or other coating that is peeling, chipping, chalking or cracking, or any paint or coating located on an interior or exterior surface or fixture that is otherwise damaged or separated from the substrate.
(27) "Director" means the director of the department of commerce.
(28) "Discipline" means one of the specific types or categories of lead-based paint activities or renovation identified in these rules for which individuals may receive training from accredited programs and become certified by the department. For example, "abatement worker" is a discipline.
(29) "Distinct painting history" means the application history, as indicated by the visual appearance or a record of application, over time, of paint or other surface coatings to a component or room.
(30) "Documented methodologies" are the methods or protocols used to sample for the presence of lead in paint, dust, and soil.
(31) "Dripline" means the area within three feet surrounding the perimeter of a building.
(32) "Dust-lead hazard" means surface dust in a residential dwelling or child-occupied facility that contains a mass-per-area concentration of lead equal to or exceeding 40 µg/ft2 on floors or 250 µg/ft2 on interior window sills based on wipe samples.
(33) "Elevated blood lead level (EBL)" means an excessive absorption of lead that is a confirmed concentration of lead in whole blood of 20 µg/dl (micrograms of lead per deciliter of whole blood) for a single venous test or of 15-19 µg/dl in two consecutive tests taken three to four months apart.
(34) "Encapsulant" means an EPA-approved substance that forms a barrier between lead-based paint and the environment using a liquid applied coating (with or without reinforcement materials) or an adhesively bonded covering material.
(35) "Encapsulation" means the application of an encapsulant.
(36) "Enclosure" means the use of rigid, durable construction materials that are mechanically fastened to the substrate in order to act as a barrier between lead-based paint and the environment.
(37) "EPA" means the Environmental Protection Agency.
(38) "Firm" means a sole proprietorship, corporation, association, firm, partnership, or joint stock company legally registered with the Washington department of licensing to conduct business in the state of Washington.
(39) "Friction surface" means an interior or exterior surface that is subject to abrasion or friction, including, but not limited to, certain window, floor, and stair surfaces.
(40) "Guest instructor" means an individual designated by the training program manager or principal instructor to provide instruction specific to the lecture, hands-on activities, or work practice components of a course.
(41) "Hands-on training" means training during which students practice skills that they will be expected to perform at the worksite.
(42) "Hands-on skills assessment" means an evaluation which tests the trainees' ability to satisfactorily perform the work practices and procedures identified in WAC 365-230-200
as well as any other skill taught in a training course.
(43) "Impact surface" means an interior or exterior surface that is subject to damage by repeated sudden force such as certain parts of door frames.
(44) "Initial training course" means a full, accredited lead-based paint training course required for certification. It is different than a refresher course.
(45) "Inspection" means a surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint and the provision of a report, in writing, explaining the results of the investigation.
(46) "Inspector" means an individual who is certified by the department to conduct in target housing and child-occupied facilities a surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint and the provision of a report, in writing; and conduct clearance procedures in accordance with WAC 365-230-200
. An inspector may also collect dust and soil samples to perform clearance testing. An inspector may cite the applicable standard for the medium being sampled, but may not evaluate the results or assess risk.
(47) "Interim controls" mean a set of measures designed to temporarily reduce human exposure or likely exposure to lead-based paint hazards, including specialized cleaning, repairs, maintenance, painting, temporary containment, ongoing monitoring of lead-based paint hazards or potential hazards, and the establishment and operation of management and resident education programs.
(48) "Interior window sill" means the portion of the horizontal window ledge that protrudes into the interior of the room.
(49) "Lead-based paint" means paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligram per square centimeter, 5000 parts per million, or 0.5 percent by weight.
(50) "Lead-based paint activities" mean, in the case of target housing and child-occupied facilities, inspection, risk assessment, and abatement, as defined in these rules.
(51) "Lead-based paint activities courses" mean training courses (worker, supervisor, inspector, risk assessor, project designer) provided by accredited training providers.
(52) "Lead-based paint hazard" means hazardous lead-based paint, dust-lead hazard or soil-lead hazard as identified in these rules.
(53) "Lead-hazard screen" is a limited risk assessment activity that involves limited paint and dust sampling as described in WAC 365-230-200
(54) "Licensed" means a person who has been certified by the department in one or more disciplines.
(55) "Living area" means any area of a residential dwelling used by one or more children under the age of six, including, but not limited to, living rooms, kitchen areas, dens, play rooms, and children's bedrooms.
(56) "Loading" means the quantity of specific substance present per unit of surface area, such as the amount of lead in micrograms contained in the dust collected from a certain surface area divided by the surface area in square feet or square meters.
(57) "Multifamily dwelling" means a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, which is used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.
(58) "Multifamily housing" means a housing property consisting of more than four dwelling units.
(59) "Paint-lead hazard" means any of the following:
(a) Any lead-based paint on a friction surface that is subject to abrasion and where the lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface (e.g., the window sill, or floor) are equal to or greater than the dust-lead hazard levels identified in these rules.
(b) Any damaged or otherwise deteriorated lead-based paint on an impact surface that is caused by impact from a related building component (such as a door knob that knocks into a wall or a door that knocks against its door frame).
(c) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is evidence of teeth marks.
(d) Any other deteriorated lead-based paint in any residential building or child-occupied facility or on the exterior of any residential building or child-occupied facility.
(60) "Permanent" means having an expected design life of twenty years.
(61) "Person" means any natural or judicial person including any individual, corporation, partnership, or association; any Indian tribe, state, or political subdepartment thereof; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the federal government.
(62) "Play area" means an area of frequent soil contact by children of less than six years of age as indicated by, but not limited to, such factors including the following: The presence of play equipment (e.g., sandboxes, swing sets, and sliding boards), toys, or other children's possessions, observations of play patterns, or information provided by parents, residents, care givers, or property owners.
(63) "Preliminary clearance" means clearance of interior living areas according to which an inspector or risk assessor determines that residual lead levels (as determined by laboratory analysis) do not exceed clearance levels.
(64) "Principal instructor" means the individual who has the primary responsibility for organizing and teaching a particular course.
(65) "Proficiency test" means any alternative to a conventional written examination that is used to measure a trainee's mastery of course content. An oral examination offered to a trainee with a manual disability is an example of a proficiency test.
(66) "Project designer" means an individual who is certified by the department to interpret lead inspection or risk assessment reports and to develop plans, specifications, and project procedures for large lead abatement projects in target housing and child-occupied facilities, including occupant notification and protection, cleanup and clearance, and abatement reports.
(67) "Refresher training course" means a minimum of eight training hours, or four training hours for project designer, renovator, or dust sampling technician accredited by the department to update an individual's knowledge and skills in the discipline in which training is offered.
(68) "Renovator courses" means certified renovator or certified dust sampling technician courses accredited by the department.
(69) "Residential dwelling" means:
(a) A detached single-family dwelling unit, including attached structures such as porches and stoops; or
(b) A single-family dwelling unit in a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, which is used or occupied, or intended to be occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.
(70) "Risk assessment" means an on-site investigation to determine the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards, and the provision of a report by the individual or the firm conducting the risk assessment, explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards.
(71) "Risk assessor" means an individual who is certified by the department to conduct in target housing and child-occupied facilities on-site investigation to determine the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards, and to provide a report explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards; and who may conduct a lead-hazard screen, in accordance with WAC 365-230-200
(72) "Room" means a separate part of the inside of a building, such as a bedroom, living room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom, laundry room, or utility room. To be considered a separate room, the room must be separated from adjoining rooms by built-in walls or archways that extend at least six inches from an intersecting wall. Half walls or bookcases count as room separators if built-in. Movable or collapsible partitions or partitions consisting solely of shelves or cabinets are not considered built-in walls. A screened-in porch that is used as a living area is a room.
(73) "Sample quality control" means a plan or design which ensures the authenticity, integrity, and accuracy of samples, including dust, soil, and paint chip or film samples. Sample quality control also includes provisions for representative sampling and control samples.
(74) "Scope of work" means a written description of all of the abatement activities to be conducted at a specific abatement project site.
(75) "Soil-lead hazard" means bare soil on residential real property or on the property of a child-occupied facility that contains total lead equal to or exceeding 250 parts per million or, (mg/kg) based on soil samples.
(76) "Soil sample" means a sample collected in a representative location using ASTM E1727, "Standard Practice for Field Collection of Soil Samples for Lead Determination by Atomic Spectrometry Techniques," or equivalent method. ASTM standards can be obtained from ASTM International, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2929, via phone at 610-832-9525, or electronically at www.astm.org
(77) "Supervisor" means an individual who is certified by the department to either conduct or oversee and direct the work-site conduct of lead-based paint abatement and clearance activities in target housing and child-occupied facilities, and to prepare occupant protection plans and abatement reports in accordance with WAC 365-230-200
(78) "Target housing" means any housing constructed prior to 1978, except housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities (unless any one or more children under the age of six resides or is expected to reside in such housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities) or any 0-bedroom dwelling.
(80) "Train-the-trainer course" means a course that includes, but is not limited to, instruction in the planning and teaching of adult education, adult learning principles, designing training objectives, selecting and designing training activities, creating an effective learning environment, facilitating group involvement and discussions, and strategies for dealing with difficult training situations and difficult learners.
(81) "Training curriculum" means an established set of course topics for instruction in an accredited training program for a particular discipline designed to provide specialized knowledge and skills.
(82) "Training hour" means at least fifty minutes of actual learning, including, but not limited to, time devoted to lecture, learning activities, small group activities, demonstrations, evaluations, and/or hands-on experience.
(83) "Training manager" means the individual responsible for administering a training program and monitoring the performance of principal instructors and guest instructors.
(84) "Training provider" means any business entity accredited under WAC 365-230-035
that offers lead-based paint activities and renovation courses.
(85) "Weighted arithmetic mean" means the arithmetic mean of sample results weighted by the number of subsamples in each sample. Its purpose is to give influence to a sample relative to the surface area it represents. A single surface sample is comprised of a single subsample. A composite sample may contain from two to four subsamples of the same area as each other and of each single surface sample in the composite. The weighted arithmetic mean is obtained by summing, for all samples, the product of the sample's result multiplied by the number of subsamples in the sample, and dividing the sum by the total number of subsamples contained in all samples. For example the weighted arithmetic mean of a single surface sample containing 60 µg/ft2, a composite sample (three subsamples) containing 100 µg/ft2, and a composite sample (four subsamples) containing 110 mg/ft2 is 100 µg/ft2. This result is based on the equation [60+(3*100)+(4*110)]/(1+3+4).
(86) "Window trough" means for a typical double-hung window, the portion of the exterior window sill between the interior window sill (or stool), and the frame of the storm window. If there is no storm window, the window trough is the area that receives both the upper and lower window sashes when they are both lowered. The window trough is sometimes referred to as the window "well."
(87) "Wipe sample" means a sample collected by wiping a representative surface of known area, as determined by ASTM E1728, "Standard Practice for Field Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Wipe Sampling Methods for Lead Determination by Atomic Spectrometry Techniques," or equivalent method, with an acceptable wipe material as defined in ASTM E 1792, "Standard Specification for Wipe Sampling Materials for Lead in Surface Dust." ASTM standards can be obtained from ASTM International, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2929, via phone at 610-832-9525, or electronically at www.astm.org
(88) "Worker" means an individual who is certified by the department and licensed by the construction contractors' board to conduct lead-based paint abatement activities in target housing and child-occupied facilities in accordance with WAC 365-230-200
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.103.10 [70.103.010], 70.103.20 [70.103.020], 70.103.30 [70.103.030], 70.103.40 [70.103.040], 70.103.50 [70.103.050], 70.10.80 [70.103.080], and 70.103.90 [70.103.090]. WSR 11-07-067, § 365-230-020, filed 3/21/11, effective 4/21/11. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.103
RCW. WSR 07-07-044, § 365-230-020, filed 3/13/07, effective 4/13/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.103.0030
(2) [70.103.030(2)], 70.103.020, 70.103.030, 70.103.040, 70.103.050, 70.103.060, 70.103.070, 70.103.080, 70.103.090. WSR 04-10-037, § 365-230-020, filed 4/29/04, effective 5/30/04.]
Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency.