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PDFWAC 296-17A-0202

Classification 0202.

0202-02 Pileconstruction: Driven method
Applies to:
Businesses engaged in pile construction utilizing a driven or pounding method. Pile driving involves long sturdy posts or columns of timber, steel, or concrete being driven into the earth as a foundation or support for a structure such as a building, pier or wharf. This type of activity usually occurs when a portion of the structure is going to be under water, in mud, at a site where the ground is soft or unstable, or when the structure is expected to be of extraordinary weight.
Work activities include, but are not limited to:
• Driving wood or steel beams;
• Driving concrete columns;
• All cross beaming, decking, and similar carpentry incidental to, and connected with, pile driving operations as part of the foundation construction project.
Exclusions:
• Diving operations or activities which are to be reported separately in classification 0202-04;
• Pile construction work utilizing a drilling method, which is reported in 0202-06;
• Other types of pile construction work that do not involve a drilled or driven method, but is a form of ground stabilization/improvement, which is reported in 0202-06.
Note: Contractors engaged in both pile construction using the driven method and drilled method will have both subclassifications 0202-02 and 0202-06 assigned, and must report in each subclassification as it applies to the work performed.
Special note: Pile driving projects could occur on or adjacent to navigable waters (harbors, rivers, canals) which are defined as those which form a continuous highway for interstate or international commerce. Workers who perform the work activities from on board a vessel could be subject to the Admiralty Law which recognizes such work crews and workers as a master or member of a vessel, and subject to federal law known as the Jones Act. Every person on board a vessel is deemed a seaman if connected with the operation while on navigable waters. The term vessel has been interpreted by the courts to include any type of man-made floating object such as a floating derrick, pile driver or dredge, a barge, or a pontoon (which is a flat bottom boat) or portable float. Workers who perform the work activities from the shoreline or from adjacent areas such as an existing dock, pier, or bridge may or may not be subject to federal law covered under the U.S. Longshore and Harbor Workers Act. Usually, pile driving projects involve a variety of types of work crews such as those working from a floating derrick or pile driver, a barge, a pontoon, a shoreline pile crew, workers inside the cofferdam, as well as the maintenance and repair of the construction material or equipment. Care should be exercised prior to assignment of this classification as the workers could be subject to either or both of these acts. The criteria used in determining federal law and coverage is based on the most current federal court decisions and case law.
0202-03 Wharf, pier, dock and marine railway: Construction, maintenance and repair
Applies to contractors engaged in the construction, maintenance or repair of piers, wharves, docks and marine railways. A pier or wharf is a platform extending from a shore over water and supported by piles or pillars. A dock is the area between two piers or alongside a pier or wharf. These types of platforms are for vessels to tie up and provide an area for loading, unloading, or repairing vessels. Most often, the construction of such platforms will include the foundation or substructure being under water or mud, and the remainder of the platform being exposed above the water or mud. Work contemplated by this classification includes, but is not limited to, construction of the foundation or substructure which consists of shaft sinking, pile driving, stacking of piles and/or erection of a cofferdam, and includes all concrete, steel or carpentry work after the foundation or substructure is built to completion of the project. Shaft sinking involves the removal of earth from a hole with a relatively small diameter and usually at a considerable depth. Pile driving involves long sturdy posts or columns of timber, steel, or concrete being driven into the earth as a foundation or support for the structure. The cofferdam is a temporary structure from which water can be pumped or sucked to provide a dry work area during construction of the foundation or substructure. Once the foundation support is complete, the cofferdam is taken apart and removed. This classification also includes caisson work as part of the construction for the foundation or substructure support.
This classification excludes diving operations or activities which are to be reported separately in classification 0202-04.
Special note: The construction of piers, wharves, docks and marine railways could occur on or adjacent to navigable waters (harbors, rivers, canals) which is defined as those which form a continuous highway for interstate or international commerce. Workers who perform the work activities from on board a vessel could be subject to the Admiralty Law which recognizes such work crews and workers as a master or member of a vessel, and subject to federal law known as the Jones Act. Every person on board a vessel is deemed a seaman if connected with the operation while on navigable water. The term vessel has been interpreted by the courts to include any type of man-made floating object such as a floating derrick, floating barge, a pontoon (which is a flat bottom boat) or portable float. Workers who perform the work activities from the shoreline or from adjacent areas such as an existing dock, pier, or bridge may or may not be subject to federal law covered under the U.S. Longshore and Harbor Workers Act. Usually, these types of projects involve a variety of work crews such as those working from a floating derrick or barge, a pontoon, a shoreline pile crew, workers inside the cofferdam, as well as the maintenance and repair of the construction material or equipment. Care should be exercised prior to assignment of this classification as the workers could be subject to either or both of these acts. The criteria used in determining federal law and coverage is based on the most current federal court decisions and case law.
0202-04 Diving operations and subaqueous work, N.O.C.
Applies to establishments engaged in diving operations not covered by another classification (N.O.C.). Diving operations such as underwater diving, skin diving or scuba diving are performed in numerous types of uncontrolled environments such as the ocean, harbors, bays, dams, lakes, as well as controlled environments such as swimming pools or aquarium tanks. Work contemplated by this classification includes, but is not limited to, marine salvage and wreckage, underwater mining and sweeping, underwater construction or demolition, installation, repair and/or inspection of wharves, piers, and docks, inspection of ships, barges, and other vessels, underwater exploration, as well as diving instruction. Classification 0202 includes all diving activities with the following exception: Diving instructors who provide instructional lessons in a controlled environment such as a swimming pool may be reported separately in classification 6209 provided accurate time records are maintained for the instructional lesson hours. Failure to maintain accurate time records will result in the hours in question being assigned to classification 0202 without a division of hours between the two classifications.
Special note: Many diving operations and activities occur on or adjacent to navigable waters (a harbor, river, canal, dam, lake) which is defined as those which form a continuous highway for interstate or international commerce. Workers who perform diving activities (to include divers, deck hands, or "diving tenders" who are support personnel such as line handlers and pump persons) from on board a vessel could be subject to the Admiralty Law which recognizes such work crews and workers as a master or member of a vessel, and subject to federal law known as the Jones Act. Every person on board a vessel is deemed a seaman if connected with the operation while on navigable water. The term vessel has been interpreted by the courts to include any type of man-made floating object such as a floating derrick or dredge, a boat or ship, a barge, or type of pontoon (which is a flat bottom boat) or portable float. Workers who perform diving activities (to include divers, deck hands, or "diving tenders" who are support personnel such as line handlers and pump persons) from the shoreline or from adjacent areas such as an existing dock, pier or bridge may or may not be subject to federal law covered under the U.S. Longshore and Harbor Workers Act. Care should be exercised prior to assignment of this classification as the workers could be subject to either or both of these acts. The criteria used in determining federal law and coverage is based on the most current federal court decisions and case law.
0202-05 Geoduck harvesting by divers (to be assigned only by the maritime specialist)
Applies to establishments engaged in diving operations to harvest wild geoduck clams from natural areas. Work contemplated by this classification includes subaqueous harvesting of geoduck clams, sea cucumbers or similar marine life.
Special note: Many diving operations and activities occur on or adjacent to navigable waters (a harbor, river, canal, dam, lake) which is defined as those which form a continuous highway for interstate or international commerce. Workers who perform diving activities (to include divers, deck hands, or "diving tenders" who are support personnel such as line handlers and pump persons) from on board a vessel could be subject to the Jones Act or Admiralty Law which recognize such work crews and workers as masters or members of a vessel, and subject to federal law known as the Jones Act. Every person on board a vessel is deemed a seaman if connected with the operation while on navigable water. The term vessel has been interpreted by the courts to include any type of man-made floating object such as a floating derrick or dredge, a boat or ship, a barge, or type of pontoon (which is a flat bottom boat) or portable float. Workers who perform diving activities (to include divers, deck hands, or "diving tenders" or other support personnel such as line handlers and pump persons) from the shoreline or from adjacent areas such as an existing dock, pier or bridge may or may not be subject to federal law covered under the U.S. Longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act (LHWCA). Care should be exercised prior to assignment of this classification as the workers could be subject to either or both state fund or federal jurisdiction. The criteria used in determining federal law and coverage is based on the most current federal court decisions and case law.
0202-06 Pile construction: Drilled method
Applies to:
Businesses engaged in pile construction utilizing a drilling method. This classification also applies to other types of pile construction work that do not involve a drilled method but is a form of ground stabilization/improvement including, but not limited to:
• Cement grouting;
• Vibro concrete column;
• Vibro replacement.
Structural support (deep foundations), earth retention, ground improvement and grouting are necessary when:
- Surface layer is not adequate or is not economically feasible to use;
- Soils are soft or loose;
- Soil bearing capacity must be increased;
- Support is needed to stabilize slopes;
- Cutting off groundwater is needed;
- Remediating settlement.
Exclusions:
• Diving operations or activities which are to be reported separately in classification 0202-04.
• Pile construction work utilizing a driven or pounding method, which is to be reported in 0202-02, Pile construction: Driven method.
Note: Contractors engaged in both pile construction using the driven method and drilled method will have both subclassifications 0202-02 and 0202-06 assigned, and must report in each subclassification as it applies to the work performed.
Industry terminology:
Augercast piles - Are formed by drilling into the ground with a hollow stemmed continuous flight auger to the required depth or degree of resistance.
Drilled shafts - Are typically high-capacity cast-in-place deep foundation elements constructed using an auger, drilling bucket or grab.
Helical piles - Are formed by rotating galvanized heads and steel pipe extensions, with attached helical cutting blades, into the ground at any angle using a high torque hydraulic motor.
Macropiles/micropiles/tiedowns - Are shallow or deep foundation elements constructed using threaded steel pipe or typically in the case of tiedown anchors just a reinforcing steel bar.
Pit underpinning - This technique creates support for an existing building when there is foundation damage or when there is going to be excavation or foundation work performed adjacent to it.
Soldier beams and lagging - Support technique where vertical piles are drilled at regular intervals along the planned excavation perimeter. The lagging effectively resists the load of the retained soil and transfers it to the beams.
Soil nailing - Is an earth retention technique using grouted tension-resisting steel elements (nails) that can be designed for permanent or temporary support.
Secant piles - Are piles constructed by overlapping drilled shafts with either structural or lean concrete fill.
Tangent pile walls - Are constructed using methods similar to secant piles but tangent piles are equally shaped and abut each other instead of intersecting.
Soil mixing - Process used to improve the characteristics of soft or loose soil profiles by mechanically mixing them with cementitious grout to create soil cement columns or panels.
Vibro concrete columns - Transfers loads through weak strata to a firm underlying stratum, using high modulus concrete columns.
Vibro replacement - Constructs dense aggregate columns (stone columns) by means of a crane-suspended downhole vibrator, to reinforce all soils and densify granular soils.
Compaction grouting - The densification of loose granular soils with the controlled injection of a low slump mortar-like grout.
Permeation grouting - A grouting technique that transforms granular soils into sandstone-like masses, by permeation with a low viscosity sodium silicate chemical grout or the use of microfine or ultrafine cement grouts.
Grout injection pile - Are steel and concrete pipe composite piles that are screwed into the ground under very high torque and down-pressure.
Jet grouting - A drill rod equipped with jet nozzles injects high-pressure water, air, and cement into the ground as the drill rod is rotated and raised.
Special note: Pile driving projects could occur on or adjacent to navigable waters (harbors, rivers, canals) which are defined as those which form a continuous highway for interstate or international commerce. Workers who perform the work activities from on board a vessel could be subject to the Admiralty Law which recognizes such work crews and workers as a master or member of a vessel, and subject to federal law known as the Jones Act. Every person on board a vessel is deemed a seaman if connected with the operation while on navigable waters. The term vessel has been interpreted by the courts to include any type of man-made floating object such as a floating derrick, pile driver or dredge, a barge, or a pontoon (which is a flat bottom boat) or portable float. Workers who perform the work activities from the shoreline or from adjacent areas such as an existing dock, pier, or bridge may or may not be subject to federal law covered under the U.S. Longshore and Harbor Workers Act. Usually, pile construction projects involve a variety of types of work crews such as those working from a floating derrick or pile driver, a barge, a pontoon, a shoreline pile crew, workers inside the cofferdam, as well as the maintenance and repair of the construction material or equipment. Care should be exercised prior to assignment of this classification as the workers could be subject to either or both of these acts. The criteria used in determining federal law and coverage is based on the most current federal court decisions and case law.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 51.04.020 and 51.16.035. WSR 19-17-069, § 296-17A-0202, filed 8/20/19, effective 10/1/19. Statutory Authority: RCW 51.16.035, 51.16.100, 2008 c 70, and Title 51 RCW. WSR 08-15-132, § 296-17A-0202, filed 7/22/08, effective 1/1/09. WSR 07-01-014, recodified as § 296-17A-0202, filed 12/8/06, effective 12/8/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 51.16.035. WSR 98-18-042, § 296-17-509, filed 8/28/98, effective 10/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 51.04.020(1) and 51.16.035. WSR 89-24-051 (Order 89-22), § 296-17-509, filed 12/1/89, effective 1/1/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 51.16.035. WSR 87-12-032 (Order 87-12), § 296-17-509, filed 5/29/87, effective 7/1/87; WSR 85-24-032 (Order 85-33), § 296-17-509, filed 11/27/85, effective 1/1/86; WSR 85-06-026 (Order 85-7), § 296-17-509, filed 2/28/85, effective 4/1/85; WSR 83-24-017 (Order 83-36), § 296-17-509, filed 11/30/83, effective 1/1/84; Order 76-36, § 296-17-509, filed 11/30/76; Order 73-22, § 296-17-509, filed 11/9/73, effective 1/1/74.]
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