Chapter 47.52 RCW

LIMITED ACCESS FACILITIES

Sections

47.52.001Declaration of policy.
47.52.010"Limited access facility" defined.
47.52.011"Existing highway" defined.
47.52.020Powers of highway authoritiesState facility, county road crossings.
47.52.025Additional powersControlling use of limited access facilitiesHigh occupancy vehicle lanesDefinition.
47.52.026RulesControl of vehicles enteringRamp closure, metering, or restrictionsNotice.
47.52.027Standards and rules for interstate and defense highwaysConstruction, maintenance, access.
47.52.040DesignEntrance and exit restrictedClosure of intersecting roads.
47.52.041Closure of intersecting roadsRights of abutters.
47.52.042Closure of intersecting roadsOther provisions not affected.
47.52.050Acquisition of property.
47.52.060Court process expedited.
47.52.070Establishment of facilityGrade separationService roads.
47.52.080Abutter's right of access protectedCompensation.
47.52.090Cooperative agreementsUrban public transportation systemsTitle to highwayTraffic regulationsUnderground utilities and overcrossingsPassenger transportationStorm sewersCity street crossings.
47.52.100Existing roads and streets as service roads.
47.52.105Acquisition and construction to preserve limited access or reduce required compensation.
47.52.110Marking of facility with signs.
47.52.120Violations specifiedExceptionsPenalty.
47.52.121Prior determinations validated.
47.52.131Consideration of local conditionsReport to local authoritiesConferencesProposed plan.
47.52.133Local public hearingNotice.
47.52.134When access reports and hearings not required.
47.52.135Hearing procedure.
47.52.137Adoption of planService of findings and orderPublication of resumeFinalityReview.
47.52.139Local approval of planDisapproval, request for review.
47.52.145Modification of adopted plan without further public hearingsConditions.
47.52.150State facility through city or townBoard of review, composition and appointment.
47.52.160State facility through city or townHearingNoticeEvidenceDetermination of issues.
47.52.170State facility through city or townHearingProcedure.
47.52.180State facility through city or townHearingFindings of boardModification of proposed plan by stipulation.
47.52.190State facility through city or townHearingAssistantsCostsReporter.
47.52.195Review and appeal on petition of abutter.
47.52.200Law enforcement jurisdiction within city or town.
47.52.210Property title designation upon construction of limited access highways.
47.52.220Personal wireless service facilitiesApproach permitReport.

NOTES:

Description, plans of highways, filing: RCW 47.28.025, 47.28.026.
Port districts, toll facilities: Chapter 53.34 RCW.
Speed limits on limited access facilities: RCW 46.61.430.


47.52.001
Declaration of policy.

(1) Unrestricted access to and from public highways has resulted in congestion and peril for the traveler. It has caused undue slowing of all traffic in many areas. The investment of the public in highway facilities has been impaired and highway facilities costing vast sums of money will have to be relocated and reconstructed.
(2) Personal wireless service is a critical part of the state's infrastructure. The rapid deployment of personal wireless service facilities is critical to ensure public safety, network access, quality of service, and rural economic development.
(3) It is, therefore, the declared policy of this state to limit access to the highway facilities of this state in the interest of highway safety and for the preservation of the investment of the public in such facilities, and to assure that the use of rights-of-way of limited access facilities accommodate the deployment of personal wireless service facilities consistent with these interests.



47.52.010
"Limited access facility" defined.

For the purposes of this chapter, a "limited access facility" is defined as a highway or street especially designed or designated for through traffic, and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land, or other persons, have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility, or for any other reason to accomplish the purpose of a limited access facility. Such highways or streets may be parkways, from which vehicles forming part of an urban public transportation system, trucks, buses, or other commercial vehicles may be excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary forms of street and highway traffic, including vehicles forming a part of an urban public transportation system.

NOTES:

Urban public transportation system defined: RCW 47.04.082.



47.52.011
"Existing highway" defined.

For the purposes of this chapter, the term "existing highway" shall include all highways, roads and streets duly established, constructed, and in use. It shall not include new highways, roads or streets, or relocated highways, roads or streets, or portions of existing highways, roads or streets which are relocated.



47.52.020
Powers of highway authorities—State facility, county road crossings.

The highway authorities of the state, counties, and incorporated cities and towns, acting alone or in cooperation with each other, or with any federal, state, or local agency, or any other state having authority to participate in the construction and maintenance of highways, may plan, designate, establish, regulate, vacate, alter, improve, construct, maintain, and provide limited access facilities for public use wherever the authority or authorities are of the opinion that traffic conditions, present or future, will justify the special facilities. However, upon county roads within counties, the state or county authorities are subject to the consent of the county legislative authority, except that where a state limited access facility crosses a county road the department may, without the consent of the county legislative authority, close off the county road so that it will not intersect such limited access facility.
The department may, in constructing or relocating any state highway, cross any county road at grade without obtaining the consent of the county legislative authority, and in so doing may revise the alignment of the county road to the extent that the department finds necessary for reasons of traffic safety or practical engineering considerations.
[ 1984 c 7 § 239; 1961 c 13 § 47.52.020. Prior: 1957 c 235 § 2; prior: 1953 c 30 § 1; 1951 c 167 § 4; 1947 c 202 § 2, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-61, part.]



47.52.025
Additional powers—Controlling use of limited access facilities—High occupancy vehicle lanes—Definition.

(1) Highway authorities of the state, counties, and incorporated cities and towns, in addition to the specific powers granted in this chapter, shall also have, and may exercise, relative to limited access facilities, any and all additional authority, now or hereafter vested in them relative to highways or streets within their respective jurisdictions, and may regulate, restrict, or prohibit the use of such limited access facilities by various classes of vehicles or traffic. Such highway authorities may reserve any limited access facility or portions thereof, including designated lanes or ramps for the exclusive or preferential use of (a) public transportation vehicles, (b) privately owned buses, (c) motorcycles, (d) private motor vehicles carrying not less than a specified number of passengers, or (e) the following private transportation provider vehicles if the vehicle has the capacity to carry eight or more passengers, regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle, and if such use does not interfere with the efficiency, reliability, and safety of public transportation operations: (i) Auto transportation company vehicles regulated under chapter 81.68 RCW; (ii) passenger charter carrier vehicles regulated under chapter 81.70 RCW, except marked or unmarked stretch limousines and stretch sport utility vehicles as defined under department of licensing rules; (iii) private nonprofit transportation provider vehicles regulated under chapter 81.66 RCW; and (iv) private employer transportation service vehicles, when such limitation will increase the efficient utilization of the highway facility or will aid in the conservation of energy resources. Regulations authorizing such exclusive or preferential use of a highway facility may be declared to be effective at all time or at specified times of day or on specified days.
(2) Any transit-only lanes that allow other vehicles to access abutting businesses that are reserved pursuant to subsection (1) of this section may not be authorized for the use of private transportation provider vehicles as described under subsection (1) of this section.
(3) Highway authorities of the state, counties, or incorporated cities and towns may prohibit the use of limited access facilities by the following private transportation provider vehicles: (a) Auto transportation company vehicles regulated under chapter 81.68 RCW; (b) passenger charter carrier vehicles regulated under chapter 81.70 RCW, and marked or unmarked limousines and stretch sport utility vehicles as defined under department of licensing rules; (c) private nonprofit transportation provider vehicles regulated under chapter 81.66 RCW; and (d) private employer transportation service vehicles, when the average transit speed in the high occupancy vehicle travel lane fails to meet department standards and falls below forty-five miles per hour at least ninety percent of the time during the peak hours for two consecutive months.
(4)(a) Local authorities are encouraged to establish a process for private transportation providers, described under subsections (1) and (3) of this section, to apply for the use of limited access facilities that are reserved for the exclusive or preferential use of public transportation vehicles.
(b) The process must provide a list of facilities that the local authority determines to be unavailable for use by the private transportation provider and must provide the criteria used to reach that determination.
(c) The application and review processes must be uniform and should provide for an expeditious response by the authority.
(5) For the purposes of this section, "private employer transportation service" means regularly scheduled, fixed-route transportation service that is similarly marked or identified to display the business name or logo on the driver and passenger sides of the vehicle, meets the annual certification requirements of the department, and is offered by an employer for the benefit of its employees.
[ 2013 c 26 § 3; 2011 c 379 § 3; 1974 ex.s. c 133 § 1; 1961 c 13 § 47.52.025. Prior: 1957 c 235 § 3; prior: 1951 c 167 § 5; 1947 c 202 § 2, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-61, part.]

NOTES:

Conflict with state and federal environmental mitigation requirements2011 c 379: See note following RCW 46.61.165.
High occupancy vehicle lanes: RCW 46.61.165.



47.52.026
Rules—Control of vehicles entering—Ramp closure, metering, or restrictions—Notice.

(1) The department may adopt rules for the control of vehicles entering any state limited access highway as it deems necessary (a) for the efficient or safe flow of traffic traveling upon any part of the highway or connections with it or (b) to avoid exceeding federal, state, or regional air pollution standards either along the highway corridor or within an urban area served by the highway.
(2) Rules adopted by the department pursuant to subsection (1) of this section may provide for the closure of highway ramps or the metering of vehicles entering highway ramps or the restriction of certain classes of vehicles entering highway ramps (including vehicles with less than a specified number of passengers), and any such restrictions may vary at different times as necessary to achieve the purposes mentioned in subsection (1) of this section.
(3) Vehicle restrictions authorized by rules adopted pursuant to this section are effective when proper notice is given by any police officer, or by appropriate signals, signs, or other traffic control devices.



47.52.027
Standards and rules for interstate and defense highways—Construction, maintenance, access.

The secretary of transportation may adopt design standards, rules, and regulations relating to construction, maintenance, and control of access of the national system of interstate and defense highways within this state as it deems advisable to properly control access thereto, to preserve the traffic-carrying capacity of such highways, and to provide the maximum degree of safety to users thereof. In adopting such standards, rules, and regulations the secretary shall take into account the policies, rules, and regulations of the United States secretary of commerce and the federal highway administration relating to the construction, maintenance, and operation of the system of interstate and defense highways. The standards, rules, and regulations so adopted by the secretary shall constitute the public policy of this state and shall have the force and effect of law.

NOTES:

Nonmotorized traffic may be prohibited: RCW 46.61.160.



47.52.040
Design—Entrance and exit restricted—Closure of intersecting roads.

The highway authorities of the state, counties and incorporated cities and towns may so design any limited access facility and so regulate, restrict, or prohibit access as to best serve the traffic for which such facility is intended; and the determination of design by such authority shall be conclusive and final. In this connection such highway authorities may divide and separate any limited access facility into separate roadways by the construction of raised curbings, central dividing sections, or other physical separations, or by designating such separate roadways by signs, markers, stripes, and the proper lane for such traffic by appropriate signs, markers, stripes and other devices. No person shall have any right of ingress or egress to, from, or across limited access facilities to or from abutting lands, except at designated points at which access may be permitted by the highway authorities upon such terms and conditions as may be specified from time to time: PROVIDED, That any intersecting streets, roads or highways, not made a part of such facility, shall be deemed closed at the right-of-way line by the designation and construction of said facility and without the consent of any other party or the necessity of any other legal proceeding for such closing, notwithstanding any laws to the contrary.
[ 1961 c 13 § 47.52.040. Prior: 1955 c 75 § 1; 1947 c 202 § 3; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-62.]



47.52.041
Closure of intersecting roads—Rights of abutters.

No person, firm or corporation, private or municipal, shall have any claim against the state, city or county by reason of the closing of such streets, roads or highways as long as access still exists or is provided to such property abutting upon the closed streets, roads or highways. Circuity of travel shall not be a compensable item of damage.



47.52.042
Closure of intersecting roads—Other provisions not affected.

RCW 47.52.040 and 47.52.041 shall not be construed to affect provisions for establishment, notice, hearing and court review of any decision establishing a limited access facility on an existing highway pursuant to chapter 47.52 RCW.



47.52.050
Acquisition of property.

(1) For the purpose of this chapter the highway authorities of the state, counties and incorporated cities and towns, respectively, or in cooperation one with the other, may acquire private or public property and property rights for limited access facilities and service roads, including rights of access, air, view and light, by gift, devise, purchase, or condemnation, in the same manner as such authorities are now or hereafter may be authorized by law to acquire property or property rights in connection with highways and streets within their respective jurisdictions. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section all property rights acquired under the provisions of this chapter shall be in fee simple. In the acquisition of property or property rights for any limited access facility or portion thereof, or for any service road in connection therewith, the state, county, incorporated city and town authority may, in its discretion, acquire an entire lot, block or tract of land, if by so doing the interest of the public will be best served, even though said entire lot, block or tract is not immediately needed for the limited access facility.
(2) The highway authorities of the state, counties, and incorporated cities and towns may acquire by gift, devise, purchase, or condemnation a three dimensional air space corridor in fee simple over or below the surface of the ground, together with such other property in fee simple and other property rights as are needed for the construction and operation of a limited access highway facility, but only if the acquiring authority finds that the proposal will not:
(a) impair traffic safety on the highway or interfere with the free flow of traffic; or
(b) permit occupancy or use of the air space above or below the highway which is hazardous to the operation of the highway.
[ 1971 ex.s. c 39 § 1; 1961 c 13 § 47.52.050. Prior: 1947 c 202 § 4; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-63.]

NOTES:

Award of costs in air space corridor acquisitions: RCW 8.25.073.
Right-of-way donations: Chapter 47.14 RCW.



47.52.060
Court process expedited.

Court proceedings necessary to acquire property or property rights for purposes of this chapter shall take precedence over all other causes not involving the public interest in all courts to the end that the provision for limited access facilities may be expedited.
[ 1961 c 13 § 47.52.060. Prior: 1947 c 202 § 5; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-64.]



47.52.070
Establishment of facility—Grade separation—Service roads.

The designation or establishment of a limited access facility shall, by the authority making the designation or establishment, be entered upon the records or minutes of such authority in the customary manner for the keeping of such records or minutes. The state, counties and incorporated cities and towns may provide for the elimination of intersections at grade of limited access facilities with existing state or county roads, and with city or town streets, by grade separation or service road, or by closing off such roads and streets at the right-of-way boundary line of such limited access facility; and after the establishment of any such facility, no highway or street which is not part of said facility, shall intersect the same at grade. No city or town street, county road, or state highway, or any other public or private way, shall be opened into or connect with any such limited access facility without the consent and previous approval of the highway authority of the state, county, incorporated city or town having jurisdiction over such limited access facility. Such consent and approval shall be given only if the public interest shall be served thereby.
[ 1961 c 13 § 47.52.070. Prior: 1951 c 167 § 10; 1947 c 202 § 6; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-65.]



47.52.080
Abutter's right of access protected—Compensation.

No existing public highway, road, or street shall be constructed as a limited access facility except upon the waiver, purchase, or condemnation of the abutting owner's right of access thereto as herein provided. In cases involving existing highways, if the abutting property is used for business at the time the notice is given as provided in RCW 47.52.133, the owner of such property shall be entitled to compensation for the loss of adequate ingress to or egress from such property as business property in its existing condition at the time of the notice provided in RCW 47.52.133 as for the taking or damaging of property for public use.



47.52.090
Cooperative agreements—Urban public transportation systems—Title to highway—Traffic regulations—Underground utilities and overcrossings—Passenger transportation—Storm sewers—City street crossings.

The highway authorities of the state, counties, incorporated cities and towns, and municipal corporations owning or operating an urban public transportation system are authorized to enter into agreements with each other, or with the federal government, respecting the financing, planning, establishment, improvement, construction, maintenance, use, regulation, or vacation of limited access facilities in their respective jurisdictions to facilitate the purposes of this chapter. Any such agreement may provide for the exclusive or nonexclusive use of a portion of the facility by streetcars, trains, or other vehicles forming a part of an urban public transportation system and for the erection, construction, and maintenance of structures and facilities of such a system including facilities for the receipt and discharge of passengers. Within incorporated cities and towns the title to every state limited access highway vests in the state, and, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the department shall exercise full jurisdiction, responsibility, and control to and over the highway from the time it is declared to be operational as a limited access facility by the department, subject to the following provisions:
(1) Cities and towns shall regulate all traffic restrictions on such facilities except as provided in RCW 46.61.430, and all regulations adopted are subject to approval of the department before becoming effective. Nothing herein precludes the state patrol or any county, city, or town from enforcing any traffic regulations and restrictions prescribed by state law, county resolution, or municipal ordinance.
(2) The city, town, or franchise holder shall at its own expense maintain its underground facilities beneath the surface across the highway and has the right to construct additional facilities underground or beneath the surface of the facility or necessary overcrossings of power lines and other utilities as may be necessary insofar as the facilities do not interfere with the use of the right-of-way for limited access highway purposes. The city or town has the right to maintain any municipal utility and the right to open the surface of the highway. The construction, maintenance until permanent repair is made, and permanent repair of these facilities shall be done in a time and manner authorized by permit to be issued by the department or its authorized representative, except to meet emergency conditions for which no permit will be required, but any damage occasioned thereby shall promptly be repaired by the city or town itself, or at its direction. Where a city or town is required to relocate overhead facilities within the corporate limits of a city or town as a result of the construction of a limited access facility, the cost of the relocation shall be paid by the state.
(3) Cities and towns have the right to grant utility franchises crossing the facility underground and beneath its surface insofar as the franchises are not inconsistent with the use of the right-of-way for limited access facility purposes and the franchises are not in conflict with state laws. The department is authorized to enforce, in an action brought in the name of the state, any condition of any franchise that a city or town has granted. No franchise for transportation of passengers in motor vehicles may be granted on such highways without the approval of the department, except cities and towns are not required to obtain a franchise for the operation of municipal vehicles or vehicles operating under franchises from the city or town operating within the corporate limits of a city or town and within a radius not exceeding eight miles outside the corporate limits for public transportation on such facilities, but these vehicles may not stop on the limited access portion of the facility to receive or to discharge passengers unless appropriate special lanes or deceleration, stopping, and acceleration space is provided for the vehicles.
Every franchise or permit granted any person by a city or town for use of any portion of a limited access facility shall require the grantee or permittee to restore, permanently repair, and replace to its original condition any portion of the highway damaged or injured by it. Except to meet emergency conditions, the construction and permanent repair of any limited access facility by the grantee of a franchise shall be in a time and manner authorized by a permit to be issued by the department or its authorized representative.
(4) The department has the right to use all storm sewers that are adequate and available for the additional quantity of runoff proposed to be passed through such storm sewers.
(5) The construction and maintenance of city streets over and under crossings and surface intersections of the limited access facility shall be in accordance with the governing policy entered into between the department and the association of Washington cities on June 21, 1956, or as such policy may be amended by agreement between the department and the association of Washington cities.

NOTES:

Urban public transportation system defined: RCW 47.04.082.



47.52.100
Existing roads and streets as service roads.

In connection with the development of any limited access facility the state, county or incorporated city or town highway authorities are authorized to plan, designate, establish, use, regulate, alter, improve, construct, maintain and vacate local service roads and streets, or to designate as local service roads and streets any existing road or street, and to exercise jurisdiction over service roads in the same manner as is authorized for limited access facilities under the terms of this chapter. If, in their opinion such local service roads and streets are necessary or desirable, such local service roads or streets shall be separated from the limited access facility by such means or devices designated as necessary or desirable by the proper authority.
[ 1961 c 13 § 47.52.100. Prior: 1947 c 202 § 9; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-68.]



47.52.105
Acquisition and construction to preserve limited access or reduce required compensation.

Whenever, in the opinion of the department, frontage or service roads in connection with limited access facilities are not feasible either from an engineering or economic standpoint, the department may acquire private or public property by purchase or condemnation and construct any road, street, or highway connecting to or leading into any other road, street, or highway, when by so doing, it will preserve a limited access facility or reduce compensation required to be paid to an owner by reason of reduction in or loss of access. The department shall provide by agreement with a majority of the legislative authority of the county or city concerned as to location, future maintenance, and control of any road, street, or highway to be so constructed. The road, street, or highway need not be made a part of the state highway system or connected thereto, but may upon completion by the state be turned over to the county or city for location, maintenance, and control pursuant to the agreement as part of the system of county roads or city streets.



47.52.110
Marking of facility with signs.

After the opening of any new and additional limited access highway facility, or after the designation and establishment of any existing street or highway, as included the particular highways and streets or those portions thereof designated and established, shall be physically marked and indicated as follows: By the erection and maintenance of such signs as in the opinion of the respective authorities may be deemed proper, indicating to drivers of vehicles that they are entering a limited access area and that they are leaving a limited access area.
[ 1961 c 13 § 47.52.110. Prior: 1947 c 202 § 10; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6402-69.]



47.52.120
Violations specified—Exceptions—Penalty.

(1) After the opening of any limited access highway facility, it shall be unlawful for any person to: (a) Drive a vehicle over, upon, or across any curb, central dividing section, or other separation or dividing line on limited access facilities; (b) make a left turn or semicircular or U-turn except through an opening provided for that purpose in the dividing curb section, separation, or line; (c) drive any vehicle except in the proper lane provided for that purpose and in the proper direction and to the right of the central dividing curb, separation section, or line; (d) drive any vehicle into the limited access facility from a local service road except through an opening provided for that purpose in the dividing curb, dividing section, or dividing line which separates such service road from the limited access facility proper; (e) stop or park any vehicle or equipment within the right-of-way of such facility, including the shoulders thereof, except at points specially provided therefor, and to make only such use of such specially provided stopping or parking points as is permitted by the designation thereof: PROVIDED, That this subsection (1)(e) shall not apply to authorized emergency vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, assistance vans, or to vehicles stopped for emergency causes or equipment failures; (f) travel to or from such facility at any point other than a point designated by the establishing authority as an approach to the facility or to use an approach to such facility for any use in excess of that specified by the establishing authority.
(2) For the purposes of this section, an assistance van is a vehicle rendering aid free of charge to vehicles with equipment or fuel problems. The state patrol shall establish by rule additional standards and operating procedures, as needed, for assistance vans.
(3) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon arrest and conviction therefor shall be punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the city or county jail for not less than five days nor more than ninety days, or by both fine and imprisonment.
(4) Nothing contained in this section prevents the highway authority from proceeding to enforce the prohibitions or limitations of access to such facilities by injunction or as otherwise provided by law.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
ConstructionApplication of rulesSeverability1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.



47.52.121
Prior determinations validated.

Any determinations of an authority establishing a limited access facility subsequent to March 19, 1947, and prior to March 16, 1951, in connection with new highways, roads or streets, or relocated highways, roads or streets, or portions of existing highways, roads or streets which are relocated, and all acquirements of property or access rights in connection therewith are hereby validated, ratified, approved and confirmed, notwithstanding any lack of power (other than constitutional) of such authority, and notwithstanding any defects or irregularities (other than constitutional) in such proceedings.



47.52.131
Consideration of local conditions—Report to local authorities—Conferences—Proposed plan.

When the department is planning a limited access facility through a county or an incorporated city or town, the department or its staff, before any hearing, shall give careful consideration to available data as to the county or city's comprehensive plan, land use pattern, present and potential traffic volume of county roads and city streets crossing the proposed facility, origin and destination traffic surveys, existing utilities, the physical appearance the facility will present, and other pertinent surveys and, except as provided in RCW 47.52.134, shall submit to the county and city officials for study a report showing how these factors have been taken into account and how the proposed plan for a limited access facility will serve public convenience and necessity, together with the locations and access and egress plans, and over and under crossings that are under consideration. This report shall show the proposed approximate right-of-way limits and profile of the facility with relation to the existing grade, and shall discuss in a general manner plans for landscaping treatment, fencing, and illumination, and shall include sketches of typical roadway sections for the roadway itself and any necessary structures such as viaducts or bridges, subways, or tunnels.
Conferences shall be held on the merits of this state report and plans and any proposed modification or alternate proposal of the county, city, or town in order to attempt to reach an agreement between the department and the county or city officials. As a result of the conference, the proposed plan, together with any modifications, shall be prepared by the department and presented to the county or city for inspection and study.



47.52.133
Local public hearing—Notice.

Except as provided in RCW 47.52.134, the department and the highway authorities of the counties and incorporated cities and towns, with regard to facilities under their respective jurisdictions, prior to the establishment of any limited access facility, shall hold a public hearing within the county, city, or town wherein the limited access facility is to be established to determine the desirability of the plan proposed by such authority. Notice of such hearing shall be given to the owners of property abutting the section of any existing highway, road, or street being established as a limited access facility, as indicated in the tax rolls of the county, and in the case of a state limited access facility, to the county and/or city or town. Such notice shall be by United States mail in writing, setting forth a time for the hearing, which time shall be not less than fifteen days after mailing of such notice. Notice of such hearing also shall be given by publication not less than fifteen days prior to such hearing in one or more newspapers of general circulation within the county, city, or town. Such notice by publication shall be deemed sufficient as to any owner or reputed owner or any unknown owner or owner who cannot be located. Such notice shall indicate a suitable location where plans for such proposal may be inspected.

NOTES:

Effective date2006 c 334: See note following RCW 47.01.051.



47.52.134
When access reports and hearings not required.

Access reports and hearings on the establishment of limited access facilities are not required if:
(1) The limited access facility would lie wholly within state or federal lands and the agency or agencies with jurisdiction of the land agree to the access plan; or
(2) The access rights to the affected section of roadway have previously been purchased or established by others; or
(3) The limited access facility would not significantly change local road use, and all affected local agencies and abutting property owners agree in writing to waive a formal hearing on the establishment of the facility after publication of a notice of opportunity for a limited access hearing. This notice of opportunity for a limited access hearing shall be given in the same manner as required for published notice of hearings under RCW 47.52.133. If the authority specified in the notice receives a request for a hearing from one or more abutting property owners or affected local agencies on or before the date stated in the notice, an access report shall be submitted as provided in RCW 47.52.131 and a hearing shall be held. Notice of the hearing shall be given by mail and publication as provided in RCW 47.52.133.



47.52.135
Hearing procedure.

At the hearing any representative of the county, city or town, or any other person may appear and be heard even though such official or person is not an abutting property owner. Such hearing may, at the option of the highway authority, be conducted in accordance with federal laws and regulations governing highway design public hearings. The members of such authority shall preside, or may designate some suitable person to preside as examiner. The authority shall introduce by competent evidence a summary of the proposal for the establishment of a limited access facility and any evidence that supports the adoption of the plan as being in the public interest. At the conclusion of such evidence, any person entitled to notice who has entered a written appearance shall be deemed a party to this hearing for purposes of this chapter and may thereafter introduce, either in person or by counsel, evidence and statements or counterproposals bearing upon the reasonableness of the proposal. Any such evidence and statements or counterproposals shall receive reasonable consideration by the authority before any proposal is adopted. Such evidence must be material to the issue before the authority and shall be presented in an orderly manner.

NOTES:

Effective date1982 c 189: See note following RCW 34.12.020.
Effective datesSeverability1981 c 67: See notes following RCW 34.12.010.



47.52.137
Adoption of plan—Service of findings and order—Publication of resume—Finality—Review.

Following the conclusion of such hearing the authority shall adopt a plan with such modifications, if any, it deems proper and necessary. Its findings and order shall be in writing and copies thereof shall be served by United States mail upon all persons having entered a written appearance at such hearing, and in the case of a state limited access facility, the county commissioners of the county affected and the mayor of the city or town affected. The authority shall also cause a resume of such plan to be published once each week for two weeks in one or more newspapers of general circulation within such county, city or town beginning not less than ten days after the mailing of such findings and order. Such determination by the authority shall become final within thirty days after such mailing unless a review is taken as hereinafter provided. In case of an appeal, the order shall be final as to all parties not appealing.



47.52.139
Local approval of plan—Disapproval, request for review.

Upon receipt of the findings and order adopting a plan, the county, city, or town may notify the department of transportation of its approval of such plan in writing, in which event such plan shall be final.
In the event that a county, city, or town does not approve the plan, the county, city, or town shall file its disapproval in writing with the secretary of transportation within thirty days after the mailing thereof to such mayor or county commissioner. Along with the written disapproval shall be filed a written request for a hearing before a board of review, hereinafter referred to as the board. The request for hearing shall set forth the portions of the plan of the department to which the county, city, or town objects, and shall include every issue to be considered by the board. The hearing before a board of review shall be governed by RCW 47.52.150 through 47.52.190, as now or hereafter amended.



47.52.145
Modification of adopted plan without further public hearings—Conditions.

Whenever after the final adoption of a plan for a limited access highway by the department, an additional design public hearing with respect to the facility or any portion thereof is conducted pursuant to federal law resulting in a revision of the design of the limited access plan, the department may modify the previously adopted limited access plan to conform to the revised design without further public hearings providing the following conditions are met:
(1) As compared with the previously adopted limited access plan, the revised plan will not require additional or different right-of-way with respect to that section of highway for which the design has been revised, in excess of five percent by area; and
(2) If the previously adopted limited access plan was modified by a board of review convened at the request of a county, city, or town, the legislative authority of the county, city, or town shall approve any revisions of the plan which conflict with modifications ordered by the board of review.

NOTES:

Effective date2006 c 334: See note following RCW 47.01.051.



47.52.150
State facility through city or town—Board of review, composition and appointment.

Upon request for a hearing before the board by any county, city, or town, a board consisting of five members shall be appointed as follows: The mayor or the county commissioners, as the case may be shall appoint two members of the board, of which one shall be a duly elected official of the city, county, or legislative district, except that of the legislative body of the county, city, or town requesting the hearing, subject to confirmation by the legislative body of the city or town; the secretary of transportation shall appoint two members of the board; and one member shall be selected by the four members thus appointed. Such fifth member shall be a licensed civil engineer or a recognized professional city or town planner, who shall be chair of the board. In the case both the county and an included city or town request a hearing, the board shall consist of nine members appointed as follows: The mayor and the county commission shall each appoint two members from the elective officials of their respective jurisdictions, and of the four thus selected no more than two thereof may be members of a legislative body of the county, city, or town. The secretary of transportation shall appoint four members of the board. One member shall be selected by the members thus selected, and such ninth member shall be a licensed civil engineer or a recognized city or town planner, who shall be chair of the board. Such boards as are provided by this section shall be appointed within thirty days after the receipt of such a request by the secretary. In the event the secretary or a county, city, or town shall not appoint members of the board or members thus appointed fail to appoint a fifth or ninth member of the board, as the case may be, either the secretary or the county, city, or town may apply to the superior court of the county in which the county, city, or town is situated to appoint the member or members of the board in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.



47.52.160
State facility through city or town—Hearing—Notice—Evidence—Determination of issues.

The board shall fix a reasonable time not more than thirty days after the date of its appointment and shall indicate the time and place for the hearing, and shall give notice to the county, city, or town and to the department. At the time and place fixed for the hearing, the state and the county, city, or town shall present all of their evidence with respect to the objections set forth in the request for the hearing before the board, and if either the state, the county, or the city or town fails to do so, the board may determine the issues upon such evidence as may be presented to it at the hearing.



47.52.170
State facility through city or town—Hearing—Procedure.

No witness's testimony shall be received unless he or she shall have been duly sworn, and the board may cause all oral testimony to be stenographically reported. Members of the board, its duly authorized representatives, and all persons duly commissioned by it for the purpose of taking depositions, shall have power to administer oaths; to preserve and enforce order during such hearings; to issue subpoenas for, and to compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses, or the production of books, papers, documents and other evidence, or the taking of depositions before any designated individual competent to administer oaths, and it shall be their duty so to do; to examine witnesses; and to do all things conformable to law which may be necessary to enable them, or any of them, effectively to discharge the duties of their office.



47.52.180
State facility through city or town—Hearing—Findings of board—Modification of proposed plan by stipulation.

At the conclusion of such hearing, the board shall consider the evidence taken and shall make specific findings with respect to the objections and issues within thirty days after the hearing, which findings shall approve, disapprove, or modify the proposed plan of the department of transportation. Such findings shall be final and binding upon both parties. Any modification of the proposed plan of the department of transportation made by the board of review may thereafter be modified by stipulation of the parties.



47.52.190
State facility through city or town—Hearing—Assistants—Costs—Reporter.

The board shall employ such assistance and clerical help as is necessary to perform its duties. The costs thereby incurred and incident to the conduct of the hearing, necessary expenses, and fees, if any, of members of the board shall be borne equally by the county, city, or town requesting the hearing and the department. When oral testimony is stenographically reported, the department shall provide a reporter at its expense.



47.52.195
Review and appeal on petition of abutter.

An abutting property owner may petition for review in the superior court of the state of Washington in the county where the limited access facility is to be located. Such review and any appeal therefrom shall be considered and determined by said court upon the record of the authority in the manner, under the conditions and subject to the limitations and with the effect specified in the Administrative Procedure Act, chapter 34.05 RCW, as amended.



47.52.200
Law enforcement jurisdiction within city or town.

Whenever any limited access highway facility passes within or through any incorporated city or town the municipal police officers of such city or town, the sheriff of the county wherein such city or town is situated and officers of the Washington state patrol shall have independent and concurrent jurisdiction to enforce any violation of the laws of this state occurring thereon: PROVIDED, The Washington state patrol shall bear primary responsibility for the enforcement of laws of this state relating to motor vehicles within such limited access highway facilities.



47.52.210
Property title designation upon construction of limited access highways.

(1) Whenever the department adopts a plan for a limited access highway to be constructed within the corporate limits of a city or town which incorporates existing city or town streets, title to such streets shall remain in the city or town, and the provisions of RCW 47.24.020 as now or hereafter amended shall continue to apply to such streets until such time that the highway is operated as either a partially or fully controlled access highway. Title to and full control over that portion of the city or town street incorporated into the limited access highway shall be vested in the state upon a declaration by the secretary of transportation that such highway is operational as a limited access facility, but in no event prior to the acquisition of right-of-way for such highway including access rights, and not later than the final completion of construction of such highway.
(2) Upon the completion of construction of a state limited access highway within a city or town, the department of transportation may relinquish to the city or town streets constructed or improved as a functional part of the limited access highway, slope easements, landscaping areas, and other related improvements to be maintained and operated by the city or town in accordance with the limited access plan. Title to such property relinquished to a city or town shall be conveyed by a deed executed by the secretary of transportation and duly acknowledged. Relinquishment of such property to the city or town may be expressly conditioned upon the maintenance of access control acquired by the state and the continued operation of such property as a functional part of the limited access highway.

NOTES:

Effective date2006 c 334: See note following RCW 47.01.051.



47.52.220
Personal wireless service facilities—Approach permit—Report.

(1) The department shall authorize an off and on approach to partially controlled limited access highways for the placement and service of facilities providing personal wireless services.
(a) The approach shall be in a legal manner not to exceed thirty feet in width.
(b) The approach may be specified at a point satisfactory to the department at or between designated highway stations.
(c) The permit holder may use the approach for ingress and egress from the highway for construction or maintenance of the personal wireless service facility during nonpeak traffic hours so long as public safety is not adversely affected. The permit holder may use the approach for ingress and egress at any time for the construction of the facility if public safety is not adversely affected and if construction will not substantially interfere with traffic flow during peak traffic periods.
(2) The department shall authorize the approach by an annual permit, which may only be canceled upon one hundred eighty days' written notice to the permit holder.
(a) The department shall set the yearly cost of a permit in rule.
(b) The permit shall be assignable to the contractors and subcontractors of the permit holder. The permit shall also be transferable to a new owner following the sale or merger of the permit holder.
(3) For the purposes of this section:
(a) "Personal wireless services" means any federally licensed personal wireless service.
(b) "Facilities" means unstaffed facilities that are used for the transmission or reception, or both, of wireless communication services including, but not necessarily limited to, antenna arrays, transmission cables, equipment shelters, and support structures.
(4) The department shall present a report to the house of representatives technology, telecommunications, and energy committee and the senate technology and communications committee on the implementation of the permit process and the cost of permits by January 15, 2004, and by the first day of the legislative session following adoption of any rule increasing the cost of permits.