Chapter 11.130 RCW

UNIFORM GUARDIANSHIP, CONSERVATORSHIP, AND OTHER PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENTS ACT

Sections

ARTICLE 1
GENERAL PROVISIONS
11.130.001Intent.
11.130.005Short title.
11.130.010Definitions.
11.130.015Supplemental principles of law and equity applicable.
11.130.020Subject matter jurisdiction.
11.130.025Transfer of proceeding.
11.130.030Venue.
11.130.035Practice in court.
11.130.037Presumption of legal capacity.
11.130.040Letters of office.
11.130.045Effect of acceptance of appointment.
11.130.050Co-guardianCo-conservator.
11.130.055Judicial appointment of successor guardian or successor conservator.
11.130.060Effect of death, removal, or resignation of guardian or conservator.
11.130.065Notice of hearing generally.
11.130.070Waiver of notice.
11.130.075Guardian ad litem.
11.130.080Request for notice.
11.130.085Disclosure of bankruptcy or criminal history.
11.130.090Qualifications.
11.130.095Multiple nominations.
11.130.100Compensation and expensesIn general.
11.130.105Compensation of guardian or conservator.
11.130.110Liability of guardian or conservator for act of individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship.
11.130.115Petition after appointment for instruction or ratification.
11.130.120Third-party acceptance of authority of guardian or conservator.
11.130.125Use of agent by guardian or conservator.
11.130.130Temporary substitute guardian or conservator.
11.130.135Registration of order—Effect.
11.130.140Grievance or complaint against guardian or conservator.
11.130.145Delegation by parent.
11.130.150Ex parte communications—Removal.
11.130.155Registry for guardians ad litem and visitors.
11.130.160Guardianship/conservatorship summary.
11.130.165Guardianship/conservatorship courthouse facilitator program.
11.130.170Filing fee.
11.130.175Guardianships involving veterans.
11.130.180Construction—Chapter applicable to state registered domestic partnerships—2009 c 521.
ARTICLE 2
GUARDIANSHIP OF MINOR
11.130.185Basis for appointment of guardian for minor.
11.130.190Petition for appointment of guardian for minor.
11.130.195Notice of hearing for appointment of guardian for minor.
11.130.200Attorney for minor or parent.
11.130.205Attendance and participation at hearing for appointment of guardian for minor.
11.130.210Custody orders—Background information to be consulted.
11.130.215Order of appointment—Priority of nominee—Limited guardianship for minor.
11.130.220Standby guardian for minor.
11.130.225Emergency guardian for minor.
11.130.230Duties of guardian for minor.
11.130.235Powers of guardian for minor.
11.130.240Removal of guardian for minor—Termination of guardianship—Appointment of successor.
11.130.245Prior court order validity.
11.130.250Application of the Indian child welfare act.
11.130.255Child support.
11.130.257Temporary support, restraining, and protective ordersEffectSupport debts to state.
11.130.259Order for relocation.
11.130.260Health insurance coverageConditions.
ARTICLE 3
GUARDIANSHIP OF ADULT
11.130.265Basis for appointment of guardian for adult.
11.130.270Petition for appointment of guardian for adult.
11.130.275Notice of hearing for appointment of guardian for adult.
11.130.280Appointment and role of court visitor.
11.130.285Appointment and role of attorney for adult.
11.130.290Professional evaluation.
11.130.295Attendance and rights at hearing.
11.130.300Confidentiality of records.
11.130.305Who may be guardian for adult—Order of priority.
11.130.310Order of appointment for guardian.
11.130.315Notice of order of appointment—Rights.
11.130.320Emergency guardian for adult.
11.130.325Duties of guardian for adult.
11.130.330Powers of guardian for adult.
11.130.335Special limitations on guardian's power.
11.130.340Guardian's plan.
11.130.345Guardian's reportMonitoring of guardianship.
11.130.350Removal of guardian for adultAppointment of successor.
11.130.355Termination or modification of guardianship for adult.
ARTICLE 4
CONSERVATORSHIP
11.130.360Basis for appointment of conservator.
11.130.365Petition for appointment of conservator.
11.130.370Notice and hearing for appointment of conservator.
11.130.375Order to preserve or apply property while proceeding pending.
11.130.380Appointment and role of court visitor.
11.130.385Appointment and role of attorney.
11.130.390Professional evaluation.
11.130.400Attendance and rights at hearing.
11.130.410Confidentiality of records.
11.130.415Who may be conservatorOrder of priority.
11.130.420Order of appointment of conservator.
11.130.425Notice of order of appointmentRights.
11.130.430Emergency conservator.
11.130.435Powers of conservator requiring court approval.
11.130.440Petition for order after appointment.
11.130.445BondAlternative verified receipt.
11.130.500Terms and requirements of bond.
11.130.505Duties of conservator.
11.130.510Conservator's plan.
11.130.515InventoryRecords.
11.130.520Administrative powers of conservator not requiring court approval.
11.130.525Distribution from conservatorship estate.
11.130.530Conservator's report and accountingMonitoring.
11.130.535Attempted transfer of property by individual subject to conservatorship.
11.130.540Transaction involving conflict of interest.
11.130.545Protection of person dealing with conservator.
11.130.547Access of conservator to certain assets.
11.130.550Death of individual subject to conservatorship.
11.130.555Presentation and allowance of claim.
11.130.560Personal liability of conservator.
11.130.565Removal of conservatorAppointment of successor.
11.130.570Termination or modification of conservatorship.
11.130.575Transfer for benefit of minor without appointment of conservator.
ARTICLE 5
OTHER PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENTS
11.130.580Authority for protective arrangement.
11.130.585Basis for protective arrangement instead of guardianship for adult.
11.130.590Basis for protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for adult or minor.
11.130.595Petition for protective arrangement.
11.130.600Notice and hearing.
11.130.605Appointment and role of court visitor.
11.130.610Appointment and role of attorney.
11.130.615Professional evaluation.
11.130.620Attendance and rights at hearing.
11.130.625Notice of order.
11.130.630Confidentiality of records.
11.130.635Appointment of special agent.
ARTICLE 6
FORMS
11.130.640Use of forms.
11.130.645Petition for guardianship for minor.
11.130.650Petition for guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement.
11.130.655Notification of rights for adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship.
11.130.657Notification of petition for guardianship or conservatorship.
11.130.660Letters of office.
11.130.665Guardianship/conservatorship summary.
ARTICLE 7
CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL GUARDIANSHIP BOARD
OF RESOLUTION GRIEVANCES
11.130.670Certified professional guardianship boardGrievances.
SUPPORTED DECISION-MAKING AGREEMENTS
11.130.700Definitions.
11.130.705Purpose.
11.130.710Presumption of capacity.
11.130.715Scope.
11.130.720Authority of supporter.
11.130.725Term.
11.130.730Disqualification of supporter.
11.130.735Access of supporter to personal information.
11.130.740Execution of agreement.
11.130.745Form.
11.130.750Reliance on agreementLimitation of liability.
11.130.755Reporting of suspected abuse, abandonment, neglect, exploitation.
ARTICLE 8
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
11.130.900Uniformity of application and construction.
11.130.905Relation to electronic signatures in global and national commerce act.
11.130.910Applicability.
11.130.911ConstructionChapters 11.88 and 11.92 RCW prevail.
11.130.915Effective date2020 c 312; 2019 c 437.

NOTES:

Allowing child to work without permit, penalty: RCW 26.28.060.
Bank soliciting appointment as guardian, penalty: RCW 30A.04.260.
Costs against guardian of infant plaintiff: RCW 4.84.140.
Declaratory judgments: Chapter 7.24 RCW.
Eminent domain service of notice on guardian: RCW 8.04.020, 8.20.020.
Excise taxes, liability for, notice to department of revenue: RCW 82.32.240.
Habeas corpus, granting of writ to guardian: RCW 7.36.020.
Incapacitated person, appearance by guardian: RCW 4.08.060.
Industrial insurance benefits, appointment of guardian to manage: RCW 51.04.070.
Investments, authorized
housing authority bonds: RCW 35.82.220.
United States corporation bonds: RCW 39.60.010.
Jurors, challenge of, guardian and ward relationship ground for implied bias: RCW 4.44.180.
Limitation of actions by ward against guardian, recovery of real estate sold by guardian: RCW 4.16.070.
Mental illness, proceedings: Chapter 71.05 RCW.
Minor's personal service contracts, recovery by guardian barred: RCW 26.28.050.
Motor vehicle financial responsibility, release by injured minor executed by guardian: RCW 46.29.120.
Name, action for change ofFees: RCW 4.24.130.
Partition: Chapter 7.52 RCW.
Public assistance grants, appointment of guardian to receive: RCW 74.08.280, 74.12.250.
Real estate licenses, guardian exemption: RCW 18.85.151.
Savings and loan association, guardian may be member of: RCW 33.20.060.
Seduction, action for seduction of ward: RCW 4.24.020.
State hospital patients, superintendent custodian of estate: RCW 72.23.230.
Support and care of dependent child, liability of guardian, procedure, judgment: RCW 13.34.160, 13.34.161.
Uniform veterans' guardianship act: Chapter 73.36 RCW.
Veterans: RCW 73.04.140.
Volunteer firefighters' relief, appointment of guardian for firefighter: RCW 41.24.140.
Washington uniform transfers to minors act: Chapter 11.114 RCW.
Witness, guardian as: RCW 5.60.030.
Wrongfully obtaining property: RCW 9A.56.010.


ARTICLE 1
GENERAL PROVISIONS



Intent. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

It is the intent of the legislature to protect the liberty and autonomy of all people of this state, and to enable them to exercise their rights under the law to the maximum extent, consistent with the capacity of each person. The legislature recognizes that people with incapacities have unique abilities and needs, and that some people with incapacities cannot exercise their rights or provide for their basic needs without the help of a guardian. However, their liberty and autonomy should be restricted through guardianship, conservatorship, emergency guardianship, emergency conservatorship, and other protective arrangements only to the minimum extent necessary to adequately provide for their own health or safety, or to adequately manage their financial affairs.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Short title. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

This chapter may be cited as the uniform guardianship, conservatorship, and other protective arrangements act.



Definitions. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(1) "Adult" means an individual at least eighteen years of age or an emancipated individual under eighteen years of age.
(2) "Adult subject to conservatorship" means an adult for whom a conservator has been appointed under this chapter.
(3) "Adult subject to guardianship" means an adult for whom a guardian has been appointed under this chapter.
(4) "Claim" includes a claim against an individual or conservatorship estate, whether arising in contract, tort, or otherwise.
(5) "Conservator" means a person appointed by a court to make decisions with respect to the property or financial affairs of an individual subject to conservatorship. The term includes a co-conservator.
(6) "Conservatorship estate" means the property subject to conservatorship under this chapter.
(7) "Court visitor" means the person appointed by the court pursuant to this chapter.
(8) "Evaluation and treatment facility" has the same meaning as provided in RCW 71.05.020.
(9) "Full conservatorship" means a conservatorship that grants the conservator all powers available under this chapter.
(10) "Full guardianship" means a guardianship that grants the guardian all powers available under this chapter.
(11) "Guardian" means a person appointed by the court to make decisions with respect to the personal affairs of an individual. The term includes a co-guardian but does not include a guardian ad litem.
(12) "Guardian ad litem" means a person appointed to inform the court about, and to represent, the needs and best interests of a minor.
(13) "Individual subject to conservatorship" means an adult or minor for whom a conservator has been appointed under this chapter.
(14) "Individual subject to guardianship" means an adult or minor for whom a guardian has been appointed under this chapter.
(15) "Less restrictive alternative" means an approach to meeting an individual's needs which restricts fewer rights of the individual than would the appointment of a guardian or conservator. The term includes supported decision making, appropriate technological assistance, appointment of a representative payee, and appointment of an agent by the individual, including appointment under a power of attorney for health care or power of attorney for finances.
(16) "Letters of office" means a record issued by a court certifying a guardian's or conservator's authority to act.
(17) "Limited conservatorship" means a conservatorship that grants the conservator less than all powers available under this chapter, grants powers over only certain property, or otherwise restricts the powers of the conservator.
(18) "Limited guardianship" means a guardianship that grants the guardian less than all powers available under this chapter or otherwise restricts the powers of the guardian.
(19) "Long-term care facility" has the same meaning as provided in RCW 70.129.010.
(20) "Minor" means an unemancipated individual under eighteen years of age.
(21) "Minor subject to conservatorship" means a minor for whom a conservator has been appointed under this chapter.
(22) "Minor subject to guardianship" means a minor for whom a guardian has been appointed under this chapter.
(23) "Notice party" means a person entitled to notice under this chapter or otherwise determined by the court to be entitled to notice.
(24) "Parent" does not include an individual whose parental rights have been terminated.
(25) "Person" means an individual, estate, business or nonprofit entity, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or other legal entity.
(26) "Professional guardian or conservator" means a guardian or conservator appointed under this chapter who is not a relative of the person subject to guardianship or conservatorship established under this chapter and who charges fees for carrying out the duties of court-appointed guardian or conservator for three or more persons.
(27) "Property" includes tangible and intangible property.
(28) "Protective arrangement instead of conservatorship" means a court order entered under RCW 11.130.590.
(29) "Protective arrangement instead of guardianship" means a court order entered under RCW 11.130.585.
(30) "Protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter" means a court order entered under RCW 11.130.585 or 11.130.590.
(31) "Record," used as a noun, means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
(32) "Relative" means any person related by blood or by law to the person subject to guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangements.
(33) "Respondent" means an individual for whom appointment of a guardian or conservator or a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship is sought.
(34) "Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record:
(a) To execute or adopt a tangible symbol; or
(b) To attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic symbol, sound, or process.
(35) "Special agent" means the person appointed by the court pursuant to RCW 11.130.375 or 11.130.635.
(36) "Standby guardian" means a person appointed by the court under RCW 11.130.220.
(37) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The term includes a federally recognized Indian tribe.
(38) "Supported decision making" means assistance from one or more persons of an individual's choosing in understanding the nature and consequences of potential personal and financial decisions, which enables the individual to make the decisions, and in communicating a decision once made if consistent with the individual's wishes.
(39) "Verified receipt" is a verified receipt signed by the custodian of funds stating that a savings and loan association or bank, trust company, escrow corporation, or other corporations approved by the court hold the cash or securities of the individual subject to conservatorship subject to withdrawal only by order of the court.
(40) "Visitor" means a court visitor.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Supplemental principles of law and equity applicable. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

Unless displaced by a particular provision of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement its provisions.



Subject matter jurisdiction. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except to the extent jurisdiction is precluded by the uniform child custody jurisdiction and enforcement act (chapter 26.27 RCW), the superior court of each county has jurisdiction over a guardianship for a minor domiciled or present in this state. The court has jurisdiction over a conservatorship or protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for a minor domiciled or having property in this state.
(2) The superior court of each county has jurisdiction over a guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter for an adult as provided in the uniform adult guardianship and protective proceedings jurisdiction act (chapter 11.90 RCW).
(3) After notice is given in a proceeding for a guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter and until termination of the proceeding, the court in which the petition is filed has:
(a) Exclusive jurisdiction to determine the need for the guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement;
(b) Exclusive jurisdiction to determine how property of the respondent must be managed, expended, or distributed to or for the use of the respondent, an individual who is dependent in fact on the respondent, or other claimant;
(c) Nonexclusive jurisdiction to determine the validity of a claim against the respondent or property of the respondent or a question of title concerning the property; and
(d) If a guardian or conservator is appointed, exclusive jurisdiction over issues related to administration of the guardianship or conservatorship.
(4) A court that appoints a guardian or conservator, or authorizes a protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter, has exclusive and continuing jurisdiction over the proceeding until the court terminates the proceeding or the appointment or protective arrangement expires by its terms.



Transfer of proceeding. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) This section does not apply to a guardianship or conservatorship for an adult that is subject to the transfer provisions of the uniform adult guardianship and protective proceedings jurisdiction act (chapter 11.90 RCW).
(2) After appointment of a guardian or conservator, the court that made the appointment may transfer the proceeding to a court in another county in this state or another state if transfer is in the best interest of the individual subject to the guardianship or conservatorship.
(3) If a proceeding for a guardianship or conservatorship is pending in another state or a foreign country and a petition for guardianship or conservatorship for the same individual is filed in a court in this state, the court shall notify the court in the other state or foreign country and, after consultation with that court, assume or decline jurisdiction, whichever is in the best interest of the respondent.
(4) A guardian or conservator appointed in another state or country may petition the court for appointment as a guardian or conservator in this state for the same individual if jurisdiction in this state is or will be established. The appointment may be made on proof of appointment in the other state or foreign country and presentation of a certified copy of the part of the court record in the other state or country specified by the court in this state.
(5) Notice of hearing on a petition under subsection (4) of this section, together with a copy of the petition, must be given to the respondent, if the respondent is at least twelve years of age at the time of the hearing, and to the persons that would be entitled to notice if the procedures for appointment of a guardian or conservator under this chapter were applicable. The court shall make the appointment unless it determines the appointment would not be in the best interest of the respondent.
(6) Not later than fourteen days after appointment under subsection (5) of this section, the guardian or conservator shall give a copy of the order of appointment to the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship, if the individual is at least twelve years of age, and to all persons given notice of the hearing on the petition.



Venue. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Venue for a guardianship proceeding for a minor is in:
(a) The county in which the minor resides or is present at the time the proceeding commences; or
(b) The county in which another proceeding concerning the custody or parental rights of the minor is pending.
(2) Venue for a guardianship proceeding or protective arrangement instead of guardianship for an adult is in:
(a) The county in which the respondent resides;
(b) If the respondent has been admitted to an institution by court order, the county in which the court is located; or
(c) If the proceeding is for appointment of an emergency guardian for an adult, the county in which the respondent is present.
(3) Venue for a conservatorship proceeding or protective arrangement instead of conservatorship is in:
(a) The county in which the respondent resides, whether or not a guardian has been appointed in another county or other jurisdiction; or
(b) If the respondent does not reside in this state, in any county in which property of the respondent is located.
(4) If proceedings under this chapter are brought in more than one county, the court of the county in which the first proceeding is brought has the exclusive right to proceed unless the court determines venue is properly in another court or the interest of justice otherwise requires transfer of the proceeding.



Practice in court. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the rules of evidence and civil procedure, including rules concerning appellate review, govern a proceeding under this chapter.
(2) If proceedings for a guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter for the same individual are commenced or pending in the same court, the proceedings may be consolidated.
(3) An adult respondent may demand a jury trial in a proceeding under this chapter on the issue of whether a basis exists for the appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.265 or a conservator under RCW 11.130.360(2) and on the rights to be retained or restricted if a guardian or conservator is appointed.
(4) Upon the motion of the respondent or the court visitor, prior to the appointment of a guardian or a conservator or the establishment of a protective arrangement for an adult, or upon the motion of the respondent, guardian, conservator, or any notice party subsequent to such appointment, whenever it appears that the adult respondent could benefit from mediation, the court may require the petitioner, adult respondent, guardian, conservator, and any notice party to participate in mediation pursuant to RCW 11.96A.300.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Presumption of legal capacity. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

For the purposes of this chapter, an adult is presumed to have legal capacity.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Letters of office. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court shall issue letters of guardianship to a guardian on filing by the guardian of an acceptance of appointment.
(2) The court shall issue letters of conservatorship to a conservator on filing by the conservator of an acceptance of appointment and filing of any required bond or compliance with any other verified receipt required by the court.
(3) Limitations on the powers of a guardian or conservator or on the property subject to conservatorship must be included on the form prescribed by RCW 11.130.660.
(4) The court at any time may limit the powers conferred on a guardian or conservator. The court shall issue new letters of office to reflect the limitation.
(5) A guardian or conservator may not act on behalf of a person under guardianship or conservatorship without valid letters of office.
(6) The clerk of the superior court shall issue letters of guardianship or conservatorship in or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.660.
(7) Letters of office issued to a guardian or conservator who is a nonresident of this state must include the name and contact information for the resident agent of the guardian or conservator, appointed pursuant to RCW 11.130.090(1)(c).
(8) This chapter does not affect the validity of letters of office issued under *chapter 11.88 RCW prior to January 1, 2021.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: Chapter 11.88 RCW was repealed by 2020 c 312 § 904, effective January 1, 2022.
Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Effect of acceptance of appointment. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

On acceptance of appointment, a guardian or conservator submits to personal jurisdiction of the court in this state in any proceeding relating to the guardianship or conservatorship.



Co-guardianCo-conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court at any time may appoint a co-guardian or co-conservator to serve immediately or when a designated event occurs.
(2) A co-guardian or co-conservator appointed to serve immediately may act when that co-guardian or co-conservator complies with RCW 11.130.040.
(3) A co-guardian or co-conservator appointed to serve when a designated event occurs may act when:
(a) The event occurs; and
(b) That co-guardian or co-conservator complies with RCW 11.130.040.
(4) Unless an order of appointment under subsection (1) of this section or subsequent order states otherwise, co-guardians or co-conservators shall make decisions jointly.



Judicial appointment of successor guardian or successor conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court at any time may appoint a successor guardian or successor conservator to serve immediately or when a designated event occurs.
(2) A person entitled under RCW 11.130.190 or 11.130.270 to petition the court to appoint a guardian may petition the court to appoint a successor guardian. A person entitled under RCW 11.130.365 to petition the court to appoint a conservator may petition the court to appoint a successor conservator.
(3) A successor guardian or successor conservator appointed to serve when a designated event occurs may act as guardian or conservator when:
(a) The event occurs; and
(b) The successor complies with RCW 11.130.040.
(4) A successor guardian or successor conservator has the predecessor's powers unless otherwise provided by the court.



Effect of death, removal, or resignation of guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Appointment of a guardian or conservator terminates on the death or removal of the guardian or conservator, or when the court under subsection (2) of this section approves a resignation of the guardian or conservator.
(2) A guardian or conservator must petition the court to resign. The petition may include a request that the court appoint a successor. Resignation of a guardian or conservator is effective on the date the resignation is approved by the court.
(3) Death, removal, or resignation of a guardian or conservator does not affect liability for a previous act or the obligation to account for:
(a) An action taken on behalf of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship; or
(b) The individual's funds or other property.



Notice of hearing generally. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 11.130.195, 11.130.220, 11.130.275, 11.130.370, and 11.130.600, if notice of a hearing under this chapter is required, the movant shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the hearing to the person to be notified unless otherwise ordered by the court for good cause. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, notice must be given in compliance with the local superior court's rule of civil procedure at least fourteen days before the hearing.
(2) Proof of notice of a hearing under this chapter must be made before or at the hearing and filed in the proceeding.
(3) Notice of a hearing under this chapter must be in at least sixteen-point font, in plain language, and, to the extent feasible, in a language in which the person to be notified is proficient.



Waiver of notice. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section, a person may waive notice under this chapter in a record signed by the person or person's attorney and filed in the proceeding.
(2) A respondent, individual subject to guardianship, individual subject to conservatorship, or individual subject to a protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter may not waive notice under this chapter.



Guardian ad litem. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

The court at any time may appoint a guardian ad litem for an individual if the court determines the individual's interest otherwise would not be adequately represented. If no conflict of interest exists, a guardian ad litem may be appointed to represent multiple individuals or interests. The guardian ad litem may not be the same individual as the attorney representing the respondent. The court shall state the duties of the guardian ad litem and the reasons for the appointment.



Request for notice. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A person may file with the court a request for notice under this chapter if the person is:
(a) Not otherwise entitled to notice; and
(b) Interested in the welfare of a respondent, individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship, or individual subject to a protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter.
(2) A request under subsection (1) of this section must include a statement showing the interest of the person making the request and the address of the person or an attorney for the person to whom notice is to be given.
(3) If the court approves a request under subsection (1) of this section, the approved individual shall give notice of the approval to the guardian or conservator, if one has been appointed, or the respondent if no guardian or conservator has been appointed.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Disclosure of bankruptcy or criminal history. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Before accepting appointment as a guardian or conservator, a person shall disclose to the court whether the person:
(a) Is or has been a debtor in a bankruptcy, insolvency, or receivership proceeding;
(b) Has been convicted of:
(i) A felony;
(ii) A crime involving dishonesty, neglect, violence, or use of physical force; or
(iii) Other crimes relevant to the functions the individual would assume as guardian or conservator; or
(c) Has any court finding of a breach of fiduciary duty or a violation of any state's consumer protection act, or violation of any other statute proscribing unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the conduct of any business.
(2) A guardian or conservator that engages or anticipates engaging an agent the guardian or conservator knows has been convicted of a felony, a crime involving dishonesty, neglect, violence, or use of physical force, or other crimes relevant to the functions the agent is being engaged to perform promptly shall disclose that knowledge to the court.
(3) If a conservator engages or anticipates engaging an agent to manage finances of the individual subject to conservatorship and knows the agent is or has been a debtor in a bankruptcy, insolvency, or receivership proceeding, the conservator promptly shall disclose that knowledge to the court.
(4) If a guardian or conservator that engages or anticipates engaging an agent and knows the agent has any court finding of a breach of fiduciary duty or a violation of any state's consumer protection act, or violation of any other statute proscribing unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the conduct of any business, the guardian or conservator promptly shall disclose that knowledge to the court.



Qualifications. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Any suitable person over the age of twenty-one years, or any parent under the age of twenty-one years or, if the petition is for appointment of a professional guardian or conservator, any individual or guardianship or conservatorship service that meets any certification requirements established by the administrator for the courts, may, if not otherwise disqualified, be appointed guardian or conservator of a person subject to guardianship, conservatorship, or both. A financial institution subject to the jurisdiction of the department of financial institutions and authorized to exercise trust powers, and a federally chartered financial institution when authorized to do so, may be appointed to act as a guardian or conservator of a person subject to guardianship, conservatorship, or both without having to meet the certification requirements established by the administrator for the courts. No person is qualified to serve as a guardian or conservator who is:
(a) Under eighteen years of age except as otherwise provided herein;
(b)(i) Except as provided otherwise in (b)(ii) of this subsection, convicted of a crime involving dishonesty, neglect, or use of physical force or other crime relevant to the functions the individual would assume as guardian;
(ii) A court may, upon consideration of the facts, find that a relative convicted of a crime is qualified to serve as a guardian or conservator;
(c) A nonresident of this state who has not appointed a resident agent to accept service of process in all actions or proceedings with respect to the estate and caused such appointment to be filed with the court;
(d) A corporation not authorized to act as a fiduciary, guardian, or conservator in the state;
(e) A person whom the court finds unsuitable.
(2) If a guardian, or conservator is not a certified professional guardian, conservator, or financial institution authorized under this section, the guardian or conservator must complete any standardized training video or web cast for lay guardians or conservators made available by the administrative office of the courts and the superior court where the petition is filed unless granted a waiver by the court. The training video or web cast must be provided at no cost to the guardian, or conservator.
(a) If a petitioner requests the appointment of a specific individual to act as a guardian or conservator, the petition for guardianship or conservatorship must include evidence of the successful completion of the required training video or web cast by the proposed guardian or conservator. The superior court may defer the completion of the training requirement to a date no later than ninety days after appointment if the petitioner requests expedited appointment due to emergent circumstances.
(b) If no person is identified to be appointed guardian or conservator at the time the petition is filed, then the court must require that the petitioner identify within fourteen days from the filing of the petition a specific individual to act as guardian subject to the training requirements set forth herein.



Multiple nominations. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

If a respondent or other person makes more than one nomination of a guardian or conservator, the latest in time governs.



Compensation and expensesIn general. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Unless otherwise compensated or reimbursed, an attorney for a respondent in a proceeding under this chapter is entitled to reasonable compensation for services and reimbursement of reasonable expenses from the property of the respondent.
(2) Unless otherwise compensated or reimbursed, an attorney or other person whose services resulted in an order beneficial to an individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship or for whom a protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter was ordered is entitled to reasonable compensation for services and reimbursement of reasonable expenses from the property of the individual.
(3) Where the person subject to guardianship or conservatorship is a department of social and health services client, or health care authority client, and is required to contribute a portion of their income towards the cost of long-term care services or room and board, the amount of compensation or reimbursement shall not exceed the amount allowed by the department of social and health services or health care authority by rule.
(4) Where the person subject to guardianship or conservatorship receives guardianship, conservatorships, or other protective services from the *office of public guardianship, the amount of compensation or reimbursement shall not exceed the amount allowed by the *office of public guardianship.
(5) The court must approve compensation and expenses payable under this section before payment. Approval is not required before a service is provided or an expense is incurred.
(6) If the court dismisses a petition under this chapter and determines the petition was filed in bad faith, the court may assess the cost of any court-ordered professional evaluation or court visitor against the petitioner.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: The "office of public guardianship" was renamed the "office of public guardianship and conservatorship" by 2020 c 312 § 403, effective January 1, 2022.
Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Compensation of guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Subject to court approval, a guardian is entitled to reasonable compensation for services as guardian and to reimbursement for room, board, clothing, and other appropriate expenses advanced for the benefit of the individual subject to guardianship. The court shall determine if the fees charged by a guardian and conservator are just and reasonable.
(2) Subject to court approval, a conservator is entitled to reasonable compensation for services and reimbursement for appropriate expenses from the property of the individual subject to conservatorship.
(3) In determining reasonable compensation for a guardian or conservator, the court, or a conservator in determining reasonable compensation for a guardian as provided in subsection (1) of this section, shall approve compensation that shall not exceed the typical amounts paid for comparable services in the community, at a rate for which the service can be performed in the most efficient and cost-effective manner, considering:
(a) The necessity and quality of the services provided;
(b) The experience, training, professional standing, and skills of the guardian or conservator;
(c) The difficulty of the services performed, including the degree of skill and care required;
(d) The conditions and circumstances under which a service was performed, including whether the service was provided outside regular business hours or under dangerous or extraordinary conditions;
(e) The effect of the services on the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship;
(f) The extent to which the services provided were or were not consistent with the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 or conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510; and
(g) The fees customarily paid to a person that performs a like service in the community.
(4) A guardian or conservator need not use personal funds of the guardian or conservator for the expenses of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship.
(5) Where the person subject to guardianship or conservatorship is a department of social and health services client, or health care authority client, and is required to contribute a portion of their income towards the cost of long-term care services or room and board, the amount of compensation or reimbursement shall not exceed the amount allowed by the department of social and health services or health care authority by rule.
(6) Where the person subject to guardianship or conservatorship receives guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective services from the *office of public guardianship, the amount of compensation or reimbursement shall not exceed the amount allowed by the *office of public guardianship.
(7) If an individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship seeks to modify or terminate the guardianship or conservatorship or remove the guardian or conservator, the court may order compensation to the guardian or conservator for time spent opposing modification, termination, or removal only to the extent the court determines the opposition was reasonably necessary to protect the interests of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: The "office of public guardianship" was renamed the "office of public guardianship and conservatorship" by 2020 c 312 § 403, effective January 1, 2022.
Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Liability of guardian or conservator for act of individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

A guardian or conservator is not personally liable to another person solely because of the guardianship or conservatorship for an act or omission of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship.



Petition after appointment for instruction or ratification. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A guardian or conservator may petition the court for instruction concerning fiduciary responsibility or ratification of a particular act related to the guardianship or conservatorship.
(2) Fourteen days after notice of a petition under subsection (1) of this section, the court may give an instruction and issue an appropriate order.
(3) The petitioner must provide reasonable notice of the petition and hearing to the individual subject to a guardianship or conservatorship and any notice party.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Third-party acceptance of authority of guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A person must not recognize the authority of a guardian or conservator to act on behalf of an individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship if:
(a) The person has actual knowledge or a reasonable belief that the letters of office of the guardian or conservator are invalid or the conservator or guardian is exceeding or improperly exercising authority granted by the court; or
(b) The person has actual knowledge that the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship is subject to physical or financial abuse, neglect, exploitation, or abandonment by the guardian or conservator or a person acting for or with the guardian or conservator.
(2) A person may refuse to recognize the authority of a guardian or conservator to act on behalf of an individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship if:
(a) The guardian's or conservator's proposed action would be inconsistent with this chapter; or
(b) The person makes, or has actual knowledge that another person has made, a report to the department of children, youth, and families or the department of social and health services stating a good faith belief that the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship is subject to physical or financial abuse, neglect, exploitation, or abandonment by the guardian or conservator or a person acting for or with the guardian or conservator.
(3) A person that refuses to accept the authority of a guardian or conservator in accordance with subsection (2) of this section may report the refusal and the reason for refusal to the court. The court on receiving the report shall consider whether removal of the guardian or conservator or other action is appropriate.
(4) A guardian or conservator may petition the court to require a third party to accept a decision made by the guardian or conservator on behalf of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship.
(5) If the court determines that a third party has failed to recognize the legitimate authority of a guardian or conservator, or requires a third party to accept a decision made by the guardian on behalf of the individual subject to guardianship, the court may order that third party to compensate the guardian or conservator, for the time spent only to the extent the court determines the opposition was reasonably necessary to protect the interests of the individual subject to guardianship.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Use of agent by guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3) of this section, a guardian or conservator may delegate a power to an agent which a prudent guardian or conservator of comparable skills could delegate prudently under the circumstances if the delegation is consistent with the guardian's or conservator's fiduciary duties and the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 or the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510.
(2) In delegating a power under subsection (1) of this section, the guardian or conservator shall exercise reasonable care, skill, and caution in:
(a) Selecting the agent;
(b) Establishing the scope and terms of the agent's work in accordance with the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 or the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510;
(c) Monitoring the agent's performance and compliance with the delegation;
(d) Redressing an act or omission of the agent which would constitute a breach of the guardian's or conservator's duties if done by the guardian or conservator; and
(e) Ensuring a background check is conducted on the agent, or conducted on persons employed by the agent when those persons are providing services to the individual subject to a guardianship or conservatorship.
(3) A guardian or conservator may not delegate all powers to an agent.
(4) In performing a power delegated under this section, an agent shall:
(a) Exercise reasonable care to comply with the terms of the delegation and use reasonable care in the performance of the power; and
(b) If the guardian or conservator has delegated to the agent the power to make a decision on behalf of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship, use the same decision-making standard the guardian or conservator would be required to use.
(5) By accepting a delegation of a power under subsection (1) of this section from a guardian or conservator, an agent submits to the personal jurisdiction of the courts of this state in an action involving the agent's performance as agent.
(6) A guardian or conservator that delegates and monitors a power in compliance with this section is not liable for the decision, act, or omission of the agent.



Temporary substitute guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court may appoint a temporary substitute guardian for an individual subject to guardianship for a period not exceeding six months if:
(a) A proceeding to remove a guardian for the individual is pending; or
(b) The court finds a guardian is not effectively performing the guardian's duties and the welfare of the individual requires immediate action.
(2) The court may appoint a temporary substitute conservator for an individual subject to conservatorship for a period not exceeding six months if:
(a) A proceeding to remove a conservator for the individual is pending; or
(b) The court finds that a conservator for the individual is not effectively performing the conservator's duties and the welfare of the individual or the conservatorship estate requires immediate action.
(3) The court shall hold a hearing to appoint a temporary substitute guardian pursuant to subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section, or to appoint a temporary substitute conservator pursuant to subsection (2)(a) or (b) of this section. The court shall give notice under RCW 11.130.065 to the adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship and to any other person the court determines should receive notice. The adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship shall have the right to attend the hearing and to be represented by counsel of the adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship's choosing.
(4) Except as otherwise ordered by the court, a temporary substitute guardian or temporary substitute conservator appointed under this section has the powers stated in the order of appointment of the guardian or conservator. The authority of the existing guardian or conservator is suspended for as long as the temporary substitute guardian or conservator has authority.
(5) The court shall give notice of appointment of a temporary substitute guardian or temporary substitute conservator, not later than five days after the appointment, to:
(a) The individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship;
(b) The affected guardian or conservator; and
(c) In the case of a minor, each parent of the minor and any person currently having care or custody of the minor.
(6) The court may remove a temporary substitute guardian or temporary substitute conservator at any time. The temporary substitute guardian or temporary substitute conservator shall make any report the court requires.



Registration of order—Effect. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) If a guardian has been appointed in another state for an individual, and a petition for guardianship for the individual is not pending in this state, the guardian appointed in the other state, after giving notice to the appointing court, may register the guardianship order in this state by filing as a foreign judgment, in a court of an appropriate county of this state, certified copies of the order and letters of office.
(2) If a conservator has been appointed in another state for an individual, and a petition for conservatorship for the individual is not pending in this state, the conservator appointed for the individual in the other state, after giving notice to the appointing court, may register the conservatorship in this state by filing as a foreign judgment, in a court of a county in which property belonging to the individual subject to conservatorship is located, certified copies of the order of conservatorship, letters of office, and any bond or other verified receipt required by the court.
(3) On registration under this section of a guardianship or conservatorship order from another state, the guardian or conservator may exercise in this state all powers authorized in the order except as prohibited by this chapter and law of this state other than this chapter. If the guardian or conservator is not a resident of this state, the guardian or conservator may maintain an action or proceeding in this state subject to any condition imposed by this state on an action or proceeding by a nonresident party.
(4) The court may grant any relief available under this chapter and law of this state other than this chapter to enforce an order registered under this section.



Grievance or complaint against guardian or conservator. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) An individual who is subject to guardianship or conservatorship, or person interested in the welfare of an individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship, that reasonably believes the guardian or conservator is breaching the guardian's or conservator's fiduciary duty or otherwise acting in a manner inconsistent with this chapter may file a grievance in a record with the court.
(2)(a) An unrepresented person or entity may submit a complaint to the court. Complaints must be addressed to one of the following designees of the court: The clerk of the court having jurisdiction in the guardianship, the court administrator, or the guardianship monitoring program, and must identify the complainant and the person who is the subject of the guardianship or conservatorship. The complaint must also provide the complainant's address, the case number (if available), and the address of the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship (if available). The complaint must state facts to support the claim.
(b) By the next judicial day after receipt of a complaint from an unrepresented person, the court's designee must ensure the original complaint is filed and deliver the complaint to the court.
(c) Within fourteen days of being presented with a complaint, the court must enter an order to do one or more of the following actions:
(i) To show cause, with fourteen days' notice, directing the guardian or conservator to appear at a hearing set by the court in order to respond to the complaint;
(ii) To appoint a court visitor or other court representative to investigate the issues raised by the complaint or to take any emergency action the court deems necessary to protect the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship until a hearing can be held;
(iii) To dismiss the complaint without scheduling a hearing, if it appears to the court that the complaint: Is without merit on its face; is filed in other than good faith; is filed for an improper purpose; regards issues that have already been adjudicated; or is frivolous. In making a determination, the court may review the matter and consider previous behavior of the complainant that is documented in the guardianship or conservatorship record;
(iv) To direct the guardian or conservator to provide, in not less than fourteen days, a written report to the court on the issues raised in the complaint;
(v) To defer consideration of the complaint until the next regularly scheduled hearing in the guardianship or conservatorship, if the date of that hearing is within the next three months, provided that there is no indication that the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship will suffer physical, emotional, financial, or other harm as a result of the court's deferral of consideration;
(vi) To order other action, in the court's discretion, in addition to doing one or more of the actions set out in this subsection.
(3) Subject to subsection (4) of this section, after receiving a grievance under subsection (1) of this section, the court:
(a) Shall promptly review the grievance against a guardian and shall act to protect the autonomy, values, preferences, and independence of the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship;
(b) Shall schedule a hearing if the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship is an adult and the grievance supports a reasonable belief that:
(i) Removal of the guardian and appointment of a successor may be appropriate under RCW 11.130.350;
(ii) Termination or modification of the guardianship may be appropriate under RCW 11.130.355;
(iii) Removal of the conservator and appointment of a successor may be appropriate under RCW 11.130.565;
(iv) Termination or modification of the conservatorship may be appropriate under RCW 11.130.570; or
(v) A hearing is necessary to resolve the allegations set forth in the grievance; and
(c) May take any action supported by the evidence, including:
(i) Ordering the guardian or conservator to provide the court a report, accounting, inventory, updated plan, or other information;
(ii) Appointing a court visitor;
(iii) Appointing an attorney for the individual subject to guardianship or conservatorship; or
(iv) Holding a hearing.
(4) The court may decline to act under subsection (3) of this section if a similar grievance was filed within the six months preceding the filing of the current grievance and the court followed the procedures of subsection (3) of this section in considering the earlier grievance; and may levy necessary sanctions, including but not limited to the imposition of reasonable attorney fees, costs, striking pleadings, or other appropriate relief, if after consideration the court finds that the grievance is made for reason to harass, delay, with malice, or other bad faith.
(5) In any court action under this section where the court finds the professional guardian or conservator breached a fiduciary duty, the court must direct the clerk of the court to send a copy of the order entered under this section to the certified professional guardianship board.
(6) A court shall not dismiss a grievance that has been filed against a guardian or conservator due to an inability to resolve the grievance in a timely manner.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Delegation by parent.

Except as otherwise provided in RCW 11.125.410, a parent of a minor, by a power of attorney, may delegate to another person for a period not exceeding twenty-four months any of the parent's powers regarding care, custody, or property of the minor, other than power to consent to marriage or adoption.



Ex parte communications—Removal. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

A guardian ad litem or visitor shall not engage in ex parte communications with any judicial officer involved in the matter for which he or she is appointed during the pendency of the proceeding, except as permitted by court rule or statute for ex parte motions. Ex parte motions shall be heard in open court on the record. The record may be preserved in a manner deemed appropriate by the county where the matter is heard. The court, upon its own motion, or upon the motion of a party, may consider the removal of any guardian ad litem or visitor who violates this section from any pending case or from any court-authorized registry, and if so removed may require forfeiture of any fees for professional services on the pending case.



Registry for guardians ad litem and visitors. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The superior court of each county shall develop and maintain a registry of persons who are willing and qualified to serve as guardians ad litem and visitors in guardianship and conservatorship matters. The court shall choose as guardian ad litem or visitor a person whose name appears on the registry in a system of consistent rotation, except in extraordinary circumstances such as the need for particular expertise. The court shall develop procedures for periodic review of the persons on the registry and for probation, suspension, or removal of persons on the registry for failure to perform properly their duties as guardian ad litem or visitor. In the event the court does not select the person next on the list, it shall include in the order of appointment a written reason for its decision.
(2) To be eligible for the registry a person shall:
(a) Present a written statement outlining his or her background and qualifications. The background statement shall include, but is not limited to, the following information:
(i) Level of formal education;
(ii) Training related to the duties of a guardian ad litem or visitor;
(iii) Number of years' experience as a guardian ad litem or visitor;
(iv) Number of appointments as a guardian ad litem or visitor and the county or counties of appointment;
(v) Criminal history, as defined in RCW 9.94A.030; and
(vi) Evidence of the person's knowledge, training, and experience in each of the following: Needs of impaired elderly people, physical disabilities, mental illness, developmental disabilities, and other areas relevant to the needs of persons subject to guardianship or conservatorship, legal procedure, and the requirements of this chapter.
The written statement of qualifications shall include the names of any counties in which the person was removed from a guardian ad litem or visitor registry pursuant to a grievance action, and the name of the court and the cause number of any case in which the court has removed the person for cause; and
(b) Complete the training as described in subsection (5) of this section. The training is not applicable to guardians ad litem appointed pursuant to special proceeding rule 98.16W.
(3) The superior court shall remove any person from the guardian ad litem or visitor registry who misrepresents his or her qualifications pursuant to a grievance procedure established by the court.
(4) The background and qualification information shall be updated annually.
(5) The department of social and health services shall convene an advisory group to develop a model lay guardian, guardian ad litem, and visitor training program and shall update the program biennially. The advisory group shall consist of representatives from consumer, advocacy, and professional groups knowledgeable in developmental disabilities, neurological impairment, physical disabilities, mental illness, domestic violence, aging, legal, court administration, the Washington state bar association, and other interested parties.
(6) The superior court shall require utilization of the model program developed by the advisory group as described in subsection (5) of this section to assure that candidates applying for registration as a qualified guardian ad litem or visitor shall have satisfactorily completed training to attain these essential minimum qualifications to act as guardian ad litem or visitor.



Guardianship/conservatorship summary. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

Every order appointing a guardian or conservator and every court order approving accounts or reports filed by a guardian or conservator must include a guardianship/conservatorship summary placed directly below the case caption or on a separate cover page in or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.665.



Guardianship/conservatorship courthouse facilitator program. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

A county may create a guardianship/conservatorship courthouse facilitator program to provide basic services to pro se litigants in guardianship and conservatorship cases. The legislative authority of any county may impose user fees or may impose a surcharge of up to twenty dollars, or both, on superior court cases filed under this chapter, chapter 11.90 RCW, and chapter 73.36 RCW to pay for the expenses of the guardianship/conservatorship courthouse facilitator program. Fees collected under this section shall be collected and deposited in the same manner as other county funds are collected and deposited, and shall be maintained in a separate guardianship/conservatorship courthouse facilitator account to be used as provided in this section.



Filing fee. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1)(a) The attorney general may petition for the appointment of a guardian, conservator, or other protective arrangement under RCW 11.130.270, 11.130.365, and 11.130.595 in which there is cause to believe that a guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement is necessary and no private party is able and willing to petition.
(b) Prepayment of a filing fee shall not be required in any guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement proceeding brought by the attorney general. Payment of the filing fee shall be ordered from the estate of the respondent person at the hearing on the merits of the petition, unless in the judgment of the court, such payment would impose a hardship upon the respondent, in which case the filing shall be waived.
(2) No filing fee shall be charged by the court for filing a petition for guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement filed under RCW 11.130.270, 11.130.365, and 11.130.595 if the petition alleges that the respondent has total assets of a value of less than three thousand dollars.
(3) No filing fee shall be charged by the court for filing a petition for guardianship or conservatorship filed under Article 2 of this chapter, where the potential guardian is a relative and not a professional guardian or conservator.



Guardianships involving veterans. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

For guardianships involving veterans see chapter 73.36 RCW.



Construction—Chapter applicable to state registered domestic partnerships—2009 c 521. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

For the purposes of this chapter, the terms spouse, marriage, marital, husband, wife, widow, widower, next of kin, and relative shall be interpreted as applying equally to state registered domestic partnerships or individuals in state registered domestic partnerships as well as to marital relationships and married persons, and references to dissolution of marriage shall apply equally to state registered domestic partnerships that have been terminated, dissolved, or invalidated, to the extent that such interpretation does not conflict with federal law. Where necessary to implement chapter 521, Laws of 2009, gender-specific terms such as husband and wife used in any statute, rule, or other law shall be construed to be gender neutral, and applicable to individuals in state registered domestic partnerships.



Basis for appointment of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A person becomes a guardian for a minor only on appointment by the court.
(2) The court may appoint a guardian for a minor who does not have a guardian if the court finds the appointment is in the minor's best interest and:
(a) Each parent of the minor, after being fully informed of the nature and consequences of guardianship, consents;
(b) All parental rights have been terminated; or
(c) There is clear and convincing evidence that no parent of the minor is willing or able to exercise parenting functions as defined in RCW 26.09.004.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Petition for appointment of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A person interested in the welfare of a minor, including the minor, may petition for appointment of a guardian for the minor.
(2) A petition under subsection (1) of this section must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, current street address, if different, relationship to the minor, interest in the appointment, the name and address of any attorney representing the petitioner, and, to the extent known, the following:
(a) The minor's name, age, principal residence, current street address, if different, and, if different, address of the dwelling in which it is proposed the minor will reside if the appointment is made;
(b) The name and current street address of the minor's parents;
(c) The name and address, if known, of each person that had primary care or custody of the minor for at least sixty days during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition or for at least seven hundred thirty days during the five years immediately before the filing of the petition;
(d) The name and address of any attorney for the minor and any attorney for each parent of the minor;
(e) The legal basis for the guardianship. Factual reasons why the guardianship is sought and would be in the best interest of the minor shall be set out in a separate supplemental declaration;
(f) The name and address of any proposed guardian and the reason the proposed guardian should be selected;
(g) If the minor has property other than personal effects, a general statement of the minor's property with an estimate of its value;
(h) Whether the minor needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings;
(i) Whether any parent of the minor needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings; and
(j) Whether any other proceeding concerning the care or custody of the minor is pending in any court in this state or another jurisdiction.
(3) The court may, upon a showing of good cause, order that the information concerning the reasons for the guardianship contained in the supplemental declaration to the petition and all subsequently filed pleadings and evidence by any party not be served on the minor if the minor is unrepresented. A minor entitled to service under this subsection may request access to the court pleadings and evidence filed in the court record.
(4) Courts may develop forms for the purpose of filing petitions under subsection (1) of this section.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Notice of hearing for appointment of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) If a petition is filed under RCW 11.130.190, the court shall schedule a hearing and the petitioner shall:
(a) Serve notice of the date, time, and place of the hearing, together with a copy of the petition and supplemental declaration, personally on each of the following that is not the petitioner:
(i) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older. The court may, upon a showing of good cause, order that information concerning the reasons for the guardianship contained in the petition, the supplemental declaration, and all subsequently filed pleadings and evidence by any party, not be served on the minor if the minor is unrepresented. A minor entitled to service under this subsection may request access to the court pleadings and evidence filed in the court record;
(ii) Each parent of the minor or, if there is none, the adult nearest in kinship who can be found with reasonable diligence;
(iii) Any guardian or person with nonparental custody of the minor issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW; and
(iv) Any other person the court determines should receive personal service of notice; and
(b)(i) Give notice by mail or other action reasonably calculated to give notice under RCW 11.130.065 of the date, time, and place of the hearing, together with a copy of the petition, to:
(A) Any adult with primary care and custody of the minor who is not a parent, guardian, or person with nonparental custody issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW;
(B) Each person that had primary care or custody of the minor for at least sixty days during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition or for at least seven hundred thirty days during the five years immediately before the filing of the petition, if known;
(C) Any person nominated as guardian by the minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older;
(D) Any nominee of a parent;
(E) Each grandparent and adult sibling of the minor, if known;
(F) Any conservator acting for the minor in any jurisdiction; and
(G) Any other person the court determines.
(ii) The court may waive notice to persons listed under (b)(i) of this subsection for good cause. Good cause includes an allegation that giving notice may risk harm to the minor.
(2) Notice required by subsection (1) of this section must include a statement of the right to request appointment of an attorney for the minor or object to appointment of a guardian and a description of the nature, purpose, and consequences of appointment of a guardian. Notice for the minor must specifically state all rights retained by the minor including the right to request counsel, the right to attend, and the right to participate and communicate with the court. Notice for the minor must also state whether the court has entered any prior order limiting information served upon the minor, and that the minor may ask the court to reconsider the court's order at any time. Notice for the minor must include information on how the minor can respond to the petition.
(3) The court may not grant a petition for guardianship of a minor if notice substantially complying with subsection (1)(a) of this section is not served on:
(a) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older; and
(b) Each parent of the minor, unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent cannot with due diligence be located and served or the parent waived, in a record, the right to notice.
(4) If a petitioner is unable to serve notice under subsection (1)(a) of this section on a parent of a minor or alleges that the parent waived, in a record, the right to notice under this section, and in all cases involving a minor twelve years of age and older when the minor is unrepresented, the court shall appoint a court visitor who shall:
(a) Interview the petitioner and the minor;
(b) Meet with the minor and explain the rights retained by the minor as outlined in the notice requirements under this section. The court visitor shall ascertain the minor's views or positions regarding the guardianship and shall file a report with the court regarding the minor's views or positions. If the minor wishes the court to reconsider any prior order limiting information served upon the minor, the court visitor shall inform the court of the minor's request;
(c) If the petitioner alleges the parent cannot be located, ascertain whether the parent cannot be located with due diligence;
(d) Investigate any other matter relating to the petition the court directs; and
(e) Ascertain whether the parent consents to the guardian for the minor.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: Chapter 26.10 RCW was repealed by 2020 c 312 § 905, effective January 1, 2021.
Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Attorney for minor or parent. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.190 if:
(a) Requested by the minor and the minor is twelve years of age or older;
(b) Recommended by a guardian ad litem; or
(c) The court determines the minor needs representation.
(2) An attorney appointed under subsection (1) of this section shall:
(a) Make a reasonable effort to ascertain the minor's wishes;
(b) Advocate for the minor's wishes to the extent reasonably ascertainable; and
(c) If the minor's wishes are not reasonably ascertainable, advocate for the minor's legal rights.
(3) A minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.190 may retain an attorney to represent the minor in the proceeding.
(4) A parent of a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.190 may retain an attorney to represent the parent in the proceeding.
(5) The court must appoint an attorney to represent a parent of a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.190 if:
(a) The parent has appeared in the proceeding;
(b) The parent is indigent; and
(c) Any of the following is true:
(i) The parent objects to appointment of a guardian for the minor; or
(ii) The court determines that counsel is needed to ensure that consent to appointment of a guardian is informed; or
(iii) The court otherwise determines the parent needs representation.
(6) The court must inquire about whether a parent is indigent to ensure that counsel is appointed in a timely manner. For purposes of this section, "indigent" has the same meaning as under RCW 10.101.010.
(7) The court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent a parent of a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.190, even if the parent is not indigent, if:
(a) The parent objects to appointment of a guardian for the minor;
(b) The court determines that counsel is needed to ensure that consent to appointment of a guardian is informed; or
(c) The court otherwise determines that the parent needs representation.
(8) A party represented by an attorney in proceedings under this article has the right to introduce evidence, to be heard in his or her own behalf, and to examine witnesses. If a party to an action under this article is represented by counsel, no order may be provided to that party for signature without prior notice and provision of the order to counsel.



Attendance and participation at hearing for appointment of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) The court shall allow a minor who is the subject of a hearing under RCW 11.130.195 to attend the hearing and allow the minor to participate in the hearing unless the court determines that:
(a) The minor lacks the ability or maturity to participate meaningfully in the hearing; or
(b) Attendance would be harmful to the minor.
(2) Unless excused by the court for good cause, the person proposed to be appointed as guardian for a minor shall attend a hearing under RCW 11.130.195.
(3) Each parent of a minor who is the subject of a hearing under RCW 11.130.195 has the right to attend the hearing.
(4) A person may request permission to participate in a hearing under RCW 11.130.195. The court may grant the request, with or without hearing, on determining that it is in the best interest of the minor who is the subject of the hearing. The court may impose appropriate conditions on the person's participation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Custody orders—Background information to be consulted. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Before granting any order under this chapter, the court must consult the judicial information system, if available, to determine the existence of any information and proceedings that are relevant to the placement of the child.
(2) Before entering a final order, the court must:
(a) Direct the department of children, youth, and families to release information as provided under RCW 13.50.100; and
(b) Require the petitioner to provide the results of an examination of state and national criminal identification data provided by the Washington state patrol criminal identification system as described in chapter 43.43 RCW for the petitioner and adult members of the petitioner's household.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Order of appointment—Priority of nominee—Limited guardianship for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) After a hearing under RCW 11.130.195, the court may appoint a guardian for a minor, if appointment is proper under RCW 11.130.185, dismiss the proceeding, or take other appropriate action consistent with this chapter or law of this state other than this chapter.
(2) In appointing a guardian under subsection (1) of this section, the following rules apply:
(a) The court shall appoint a person nominated as guardian by a parent of the minor in a will or other record unless the court finds the appointment is contrary to the best interest of the minor.
(b) If multiple parents have nominated different persons to serve as guardian, the court shall appoint the nominee whose appointment is in the best interest of the minor, unless the court finds that appointment of none of the nominees is in the best interest of the minor.
(c) If a guardian is not appointed under (a) or (b) of this subsection, the court shall appoint the person nominated by the minor if the minor is twelve years of age or older unless the court finds that appointment is contrary to the best interest of the minor. In that case, the court shall appoint as guardian a person whose appointment is in the best interest of the minor.
(3) In the interest of maintaining or encouraging involvement by a minor's parent in the minor's life, developing self-reliance of the minor, or for other good cause, the court, at the time of appointment of a guardian for the minor or later, on its own or on motion of the minor or other interested person, may create a limited guardianship by limiting the powers otherwise granted by this article to the guardian. Following the same procedure, the court may grant additional powers or withdraw powers previously granted.
(4) The court, as part of an order appointing a guardian for a minor, shall state rights retained by any parent of the minor, which shall preserve the parent-child relationship through an order for parent-child visitation and other contact, unless the court finds the relationship should be limited or restricted under RCW 26.09.191; and which may include decision making regarding the minor's health care, education, or other matter, or access to a record regarding the minor.
(5) An order granting a guardianship for a minor must state that each parent of the minor is entitled to notice that:
(a) The guardian has delegated custody of the minor subject to guardianship;
(b) The court has modified or limited the powers of the guardian; or
(c) The court has removed the guardian.
(6) An order granting a guardianship for a minor must identify any person in addition to a parent of the minor which is entitled to notice of the events listed in subsection (5) of this section.
(7) An order granting guardianship for a minor must direct the clerk of the court to issue letters of office to the guardian containing an expiration date which should be the minor's eighteenth birthday.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Standby guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A standby guardian appointed under this section may act as guardian, with all duties and powers of a guardian under RCW 11.130.230 and 11.130.235, when no parent of the minor is willing or able to exercise the duties and powers granted to the guardian.
(2) A parent of a minor, in a signed record, may nominate a person to be appointed by the court as standby guardian for the minor. The parent, in a signed record, may state desired limitations on the powers to be granted the standby guardian. The parent, in a signed record, may revoke or amend the nomination at any time before the court appoints a standby guardian.
(3) The court may appoint a standby guardian for a minor on:
(a) Petition by a parent of the minor or a person nominated under subsection (2) of this section; and
(b) Finding that, within two years after the appointment, no parent of the minor likely will be able or willing to perform parenting functions as defined in RCW 26.09.004.
(4) A petition under subsection (3)(a) of this section must include the same information required under RCW 11.130.190 for the appointment of a guardian for a minor.
(5) On filing a petition under subsection (3)(a) of this section, the petitioner shall:
(a) Serve a copy of the petition personally on:
(i) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older, and the minor's attorney, if any;
(ii) Each parent of the minor;
(iii) The person nominated as standby guardian; and
(iv) Any other person the court determines; and
(b) Include with the copy of the petition served under (a) of this subsection a statement of the right to request appointment of an attorney for the minor or to object to appointment of the standby guardian, and a description of the nature, purpose, and consequences of appointment of a standby guardian.
(6) The court may, upon a showing of good cause, order that the information concerning the reasons for the standby guardianship contained in the petition and all subsequently filed pleadings and evidence by any party not be served on the minor if the minor is unrepresented. A minor entitled to service under this subsection may request access to the court pleadings and evidence filed in the court record.
(7) A person entitled to notice under subsection (5) of this section, not later than sixty days after service of the petition and statement, may object to appointment of the standby guardian by filing an objection with the court and giving notice of the objection to each other person entitled to notice under subsection (5) of this section.
(8) If an objection is filed under subsection (7) of this section, the court shall hold a hearing to determine whether a standby guardian should be appointed and, if so, the person that should be appointed. If no objection is filed, the court may make the appointment.
(9) The court may not grant a petition for a standby guardian of the minor if notice substantially complying with subsection (5) of this section is not served on:
(a) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older; and
(b) Each parent of the minor, unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent, in a record, waived the right to notice or cannot be located and served with due diligence.
(10) If a petitioner is unable to serve notice under subsection (5) of this section on a parent of the minor or alleges that a parent of the minor waived the right to notice under this section, the court shall appoint a court visitor who shall:
(a) Interview the petitioner and the minor;
(b) If the petitioner alleges the parent cannot be located and served, ascertain whether the parent cannot be located with due diligence; and
(c) Investigate any other matter relating to the petition the court directs.
(11) If the court finds under subsection (3) of this section that a standby guardian should be appointed, the following rules apply:
(a) The court shall appoint the person nominated under subsection (2) of this section unless the court finds the appointment is contrary to the best interest of the minor.
(b) If the parents have nominated different persons to serve as standby guardian, the court shall appoint the nominee whose appointment is in the best interest of the minor, unless the court finds that appointment of none of the nominees is in the best interest of the minor.
(12) An order appointing a standby guardian under this section must state that each parent of the minor is entitled to notice, and identify any other person entitled to notice, if:
(a) The standby guardian assumes the duties and powers of the guardian;
(b) The guardian delegates custody of the minor;
(c) The court modifies or limits the powers of the guardian; or
(d) The court removes the guardian.
(13) Before assuming the duties and powers of a guardian, a standby guardian must file with the court an acceptance of appointment as guardian and give notice of the acceptance to:
(a) Each parent of the minor, unless the parent, in a record, waived the right to notice or cannot be located and served with due diligence;
(b) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older; and
(c) Any person, other than the parent, having care or custody of the minor.
(14) A person that receives notice under subsection (13) of this section or any other person interested in the welfare of the minor may file with the court an objection to the standby guardian's assumption of duties and powers of a guardian. The court shall hold a hearing if the objection supports a reasonable belief that the conditions for assumption of duties and powers have not been satisfied.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Emergency guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) On its own, or on petition by a person interested in a minor's welfare, including the minor, the court may appoint an emergency guardian for the minor if the court finds:
(a) Appointment of an emergency guardian is likely to prevent substantial harm to the minor's health, safety, or welfare; and
(b) No other person appears to have authority and willingness to act in the circumstances.
(2) The duration of authority of an emergency guardian for a minor may not exceed sixty days and the emergency guardian may exercise only the powers specified in the order of appointment. The emergency guardian's authority may be extended once for not more than sixty days if the court finds that the conditions for appointment of an emergency guardian in subsection (1) of this section continue.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (4) of this section, reasonable notice of the date, time, and place of a hearing on a petition for appointment of an emergency guardian for a minor must be given to:
(a) The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older;
(b) Any attorney appointed under RCW 11.130.200;
(c) Each parent of the minor;
(d) Any person, other than a parent, having care or custody of the minor; and
(e) Any other person the court determines.
(4) The court may appoint an emergency guardian for a minor without notice under subsection (3) of this section and a hearing only if the court finds from an affidavit or testimony that the minor's health, safety, or welfare will be substantially harmed before a hearing with notice on the appointment can be held. If the court appoints an emergency guardian without notice to an unrepresented minor or the attorney for a represented minor, notice of the appointment must be given not later than forty-eight hours after the appointment to the individuals listed in subsection (3) of this section. Not later than five days after the appointment, the court shall hold a hearing on the appropriateness of the appointment.
(5) Appointment of an emergency guardian under this section, with or without notice, is not a determination that a basis exists for appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.185.
(6) The court may remove an emergency guardian appointed under this section at any time. The emergency guardian shall make any report the court requires.
(7) Notwithstanding subsection (2) of this section, the court may extend an emergency guardianship pending the outcome of a full hearing under RCW 11.130.190 or 11.130.220.
(8) If a petition for guardianship under RCW 11.130.215 is pending, or is subsequently filed after a petition under this section, the cases shall be linked or consolidated.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Duties of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) A guardian for a minor is a fiduciary. Except as otherwise limited by the court, a guardian for a minor has the duties and responsibilities of a parent regarding the minor's support, care, education, health, safety, and welfare. A guardian shall act in the minor's best interest and exercise reasonable care, diligence, and prudence.
(2) A guardian for a minor shall:
(a) Be personally acquainted with the minor and maintain sufficient contact with the minor to know the minor's abilities, limitations, needs, opportunities, and physical and mental health;
(b) Take reasonable care of the minor's personal effects and bring a proceeding for a conservatorship or protective arrangement instead of conservatorship if necessary to protect other property of the minor;
(c) Expend funds of the minor which have been received by the guardian for the minor's current needs for support, care, education, health, safety, and welfare;
(d) Conserve any funds of the minor not expended under (c) of this subsection for the minor's future needs, but if a conservator is appointed for the minor, pay the funds at least quarterly to the conservator to be conserved for the minor's future needs;
(e) Report the condition of the minor and account for funds and other property of the minor in the guardian's possession or subject to the guardian's control, if ordered by the court on its own motion or on application of a person interested in the minor's welfare;
(f) Inform the court of any change in the minor's dwelling or address; and
(g) In determining what is in the minor's best interest, take into account the minor's preferences to the extent actually known or reasonably ascertainable by the guardian.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Powers of guardian for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Except as otherwise limited by court order, a guardian of a minor has the powers a parent otherwise would have regarding the minor's support, care, education, health, safety, and welfare.
(2) Except as otherwise limited by court order, a guardian for a minor may:
(a) Apply for and receive funds and benefits otherwise payable for the support of the minor to the minor's parent, guardian, or custodian under a statutory system of benefits or insurance or any private contract, devise, trust, conservatorship, or custodianship;
(b) Unless inconsistent with a court order entitled to recognition in this state, take custody of the minor and establish the minor's place of dwelling in this state and, after following the process in RCW 26.09.405 through 26.09.560 and on authorization of the court, establish or move the minor's dwelling outside this state;
(c) If the minor is not subject to conservatorship, commence a proceeding, including an administrative proceeding, or take other appropriate action to compel a person to support the minor, pay child support, or make other payments for the benefit of the minor;
(d) Consent to health or other care, treatment, or service for the minor; or
(e) To the extent reasonable, delegate to the minor responsibility for a decision affecting the minor's well-being.
(3) The court may authorize a guardian for a minor to consent to the adoption of the minor if the minor does not have a parent.



Removal of guardian for minor—Termination of guardianship—Appointment of successor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Guardianship under this chapter for a minor terminates:
(a) On the minor's death, adoption, emancipation, or attainment of majority; or
(b) When the court finds that the basis in RCW 11.130.185 for appointment of a guardian no longer exists, unless the court finds that:
(i) Termination of the guardianship would be harmful to the minor; and
(ii) The minor's interest in the continuation of the guardianship outweighs the interest of any parent of the minor in restoration of the parent's right to make decisions for the minor.
(2) A minor subject to guardianship or a person interested in the welfare of the minor, including a parent, may petition the court to terminate the guardianship, modify the guardianship, remove the guardian and appoint a successor guardian, or remove a standby guardian and appoint a different standby guardian.
(3) A petitioner under subsection (2) of this section shall give notice of the hearing on the petition to the minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older and is not the petitioner, the guardian, each parent of the minor, and any other person the court determines.
(4) The court shall follow the priorities in RCW 11.130.215(2) when selecting a successor guardian for a minor.
(5) Not later than thirty days after appointment of a successor guardian for a minor, the court shall give notice of the appointment to the minor subject to guardianship, if the minor is twelve years of age or older, each parent of the minor, and any other person the court determines.
(6) When terminating a guardianship for a minor under this section, the court may issue an order providing for transitional arrangements that will assist the minor with a transition of custody and is in the best interest of the minor.
(7) A guardian for a minor that is removed shall cooperate with a successor guardian to facilitate transition of the guardian's responsibilities and protect the best interest of the minor.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Prior court order validity. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) This chapter does not affect the validity of any court order issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW prior to January 1, 2021. Orders issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW prior to January 1, 2021, remain in effect and do not need to be reissued in a new order under this chapter.
(2) All orders issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW prior to the effective date of chapter 437, Laws of 2019 remain operative after the effective date of chapter 437, Laws of 2019. After the effective date of chapter 437, Laws of 2019, if an order issued under *chapter 26.10 RCW is modified, the modification is subject to the requirements of this chapter.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: Chapter 26.10 RCW, with the exception of RCW 26.10.115, was repealed by 2020 c 312 § 905, effective January 1, 2021.
Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Application of the Indian child welfare act. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) Every petition filed in proceedings under this chapter shall contain a statement alleging whether the child is or may be an Indian child as defined in RCW 13.38.040. If the child is an Indian child, chapter 13.38 RCW shall apply.
(2) Every order or decree entered in any proceeding under this chapter shall contain a finding that the federal Indian child welfare act or chapter 13.38 RCW does or does not apply. Where there is a finding that the federal Indian child welfare act or chapter 13.38 RCW does apply, the decree or order must also contain a finding that all notice, evidentiary requirements, and placement preferences under the federal Indian child welfare act and chapter 13.38 RCW have been satisfied.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Child support. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

In entering or modifying an order under this chapter, the court may order one or more parents of the child to pay an amount reasonable or necessary for the child's support pursuant to chapter 26.19 RCW.



Temporary support, restraining, and protective ordersEffectSupport debts to state. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) In a proceeding under this chapter either party may file a motion for temporary support of children entitled to support. The motion shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the factual basis for the motion and the amount requested.
(2) In a proceeding under this chapter either party may file a motion for a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction, providing relief proper in the circumstances, and restraining or enjoining another party from:
(a) Molesting or disturbing the peace of the other party or of any child;
(b) Entering the family home or the home of the other party upon a showing of the necessity therefor;
(c) Knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location; and
(d) Removing a child from the jurisdiction of the court.
(3) Either party may request a domestic violence protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW or an antiharassment protection order under chapter 10.14 RCW on a temporary basis by filing an appropriate separate civil cause of action. The petitioner shall inform the court of the existence of the action under this title. The court shall set all future protection hearings on the guardianship calendar to be heard concurrent with the action under this title and the clerk shall relate the cases in the case management system. The court may grant any of the relief provided in RCW 26.50.060 except relief pertaining to residential provisions for the children which provisions shall be provided for under this chapter, and any of the relief provided in RCW 10.14.080. Ex parte orders issued under this subsection shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days, or upon court order, not to exceed twenty-four days if necessary to ensure that all temporary motions in the case can be heard at the same time.
(4) In issuing the order, the court shall consider the provisions of RCW 9.41.800, and shall order the respondent to surrender, and prohibit the respondent from possessing, all firearms, dangerous weapons, and any concealed pistol license as required in RCW 9.41.800. Such orders may only be made in the civil protection case related to the action under this title.
(5) The court may issue a temporary restraining order without requiring notice to the other party only if it finds on the basis of the moving affidavit or other evidence that irreparable injury could result if an order is not issued until the time for responding has elapsed.
(6) The court may issue a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction and an order for temporary support in such amounts and on such terms as are just and proper in the circumstances.
(7) A temporary order, temporary restraining order, or preliminary injunction:
(a) Does not prejudice the rights of a party or any child which are to be adjudicated at subsequent hearings in the proceeding;
(b) May be revoked or modified;
(c) Terminates when the final order is entered or when the motion is dismissed;
(d) May be entered in a proceeding for the modification of an existing order.
(8) A support debt owed to the state for public assistance expenditures which has been charged against a party pursuant to RCW 74.20A.040 and/or 74.20A.055 shall not be merged in, or otherwise extinguished by, the final decree or order, unless the office of support enforcement has been given notice of the final proceeding and an opportunity to present its claim for the support debt to the court and has failed to file an affidavit as provided in this subsection. Notice of the proceeding shall be served upon the office of support enforcement personally, or by certified mail, and shall be given no fewer than thirty days prior to the date of the final proceeding. An original copy of the notice shall be filed with the court either before service or within a reasonable time thereafter. The office of support enforcement may present its claim, and thereby preserve the support debt, by filing an affidavit setting forth the amount of the debt with the court, and by mailing a copy of the affidavit to the parties or their attorney prior to the date of the final proceeding.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Order for relocation. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

Any order for the relocation of a minor under a guardianship must comply with the notice requirements of RCW 26.09.430 through 26.09.490.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Health insurance coverageConditions. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

(1) In entering or modifying a custody order under this chapter, the court must require one or more parents to maintain or provide health insurance coverage for any dependent child if the following conditions are met:
(a) Health insurance that can be extended to cover the child is available to that parent through an employer or other organization; and
(b) The employer or other organization offering health insurance will contribute all or a part of the premium for coverage of the child.
(2) A parent who is required to extend insurance coverage to a child under this section is liable for any covered health care costs for which the parent receives direct payment from an insurer.
(3) This section may not be construed to limit the authority of the court to enter or modify support orders containing provisions for payment of medical expenses, medical costs, or insurance premiums which are in addition to and not inconsistent with this section. "Health insurance" as used in this section does not include medical assistance provided under chapter 74.09 RCW.



Basis for appointment of guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On petition and after notice and hearing, the court may:
(a) Appoint a guardian for an adult if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(i) The respondent lacks the ability to meet essential requirements for physical health, safety, or self-care because the respondent is unable to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions, even with appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making;
(ii) Appointment is necessary to prevent significant risk of harm to the adult respondent's physical health, safety, or self-care; and
(iii) The respondent's identified needs cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative; or
(b) With appropriate findings, treat the petition as one for a conservatorship under Article 4 of this chapter or protective arrangement under Article 5 of this chapter, issue any appropriate order, or dismiss the proceeding.
(2) The court shall grant a guardian appointed under subsection (1) of this section only those powers necessitated by the demonstrated needs and limitations of the respondent and issue orders that will encourage development of the respondent's maximum self-determination and independence. The court may not establish a full guardianship if a limited guardianship, protective arrangement instead of guardianship, or other less restrictive alternative would meet the needs of the respondent.
(3) A determination by the court that a basis exists under subsection (1) of this section for the appointment of a guardian and on the issue of the rights that will be retained or restricted by the appointment of a guardian is a legal decision, not a medical decision. The determination must be based on a demonstration of management insufficiencies over time in the area of physical health, safety, or self-care. Age, eccentricity, poverty, or medical diagnosis alone are not sufficient basis under subsection (1) of this section to justify a determination that a guardian should be appointed for the respondent.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Petition for appointment of guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A person interested in an adult's welfare, including the adult for whom the order is sought, may petition for appointment of a guardian for the adult.
(2) A petition under subsection (1) of this section must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, current street address, if different, relationship to the respondent, interest in the appointment, the name and address of any attorney representing the petitioner, and, to the extent known, the following:
(a) The respondent's name, age, principal residence, current street address, if different, and, if different, address of the dwelling in which it is proposed the respondent will reside if the petition is granted;
(b) The name and address of the respondent's:
(i) Spouse or domestic partner or, if the respondent has none, an adult with whom the respondent has shared household responsibilities for more than six months in the twelve-month period immediately before the filing of the petition;
(ii) Adult children or, if none, each parent and adult sibling of the respondent, or, if none, at least one adult nearest in kinship to the respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence; and
(iii) Adult stepchildren whom the respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom the respondent had an ongoing relationship in the two-year period immediately before the filing of the petition;
(c) The name and current address of each of the following, if applicable:
(i) A person responsible for care of the respondent;
(ii) Any attorney currently representing the respondent;
(iii) Any representative payee appointed by the social security administration for the respondent;
(iv) A guardian or conservator acting for the respondent in this state or in another jurisdiction;
(v) A trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which the respondent is a beneficiary;
(vi) Any fiduciary for the respondent appointed by the department of veterans affairs;
(vii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(viii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(ix) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent;
(x) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent's parent or spouse or domestic partner in a will or other signed record;
(xi) A proposed guardian and the reason the proposed guardian should be selected; and
(xii) A person known to have routinely assisted the respondent with decision making during the six months immediately before the filing of the petition;
(d) The reason a guardianship is necessary, including a brief description of:
(i) The nature and extent of the respondent's alleged need;
(ii) Any protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternatives for meeting the respondent's alleged need which have been considered or implemented;
(iii) If no protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternatives have been considered or implemented, the reason they have not been considered or implemented; and
(iv) The reason a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative is insufficient to meet the respondent's alleged need;
(e) Whether the petitioner seeks a limited guardianship or full guardianship;
(f) If the petitioner seeks a full guardianship, the reason a limited guardianship or protective arrangement instead of guardianship is not appropriate;
(g) If a limited guardianship is requested, the powers to be granted to the guardian;
(h) The name and current address, if known, of any person with whom the petitioner seeks to limit the respondent's contact;
(i) If the respondent has property other than personal effects, a general statement of the respondent's property, with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of other anticipated income or receipts; and
(j) Whether the respondent needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings.



Notice of hearing for appointment of guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) All petitions filed under RCW 11.130.270 for appointment of a guardian for an adult shall be heard within sixty-days unless an extension of time is requested by a party or the court visitor within such sixty-day period and granted for good cause shown. If an extension is granted, the court shall set a new hearing date.
(2)(a) A copy of a petition under RCW 11.130.270 and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the respondent and the court visitor appointed under RCW 11.130.280 not more than five court days after the petition under RCW 11.130.270 has been filed.
(b) Notice under this subsection shall include a clear and easily readable statement of the legal rights of the respondent that could be restricted or transferred to a guardian by a guardianship order as well as the right to counsel of choice and to a jury trial on whether a basis exists under RCW 11.130.265 for the appointment of a guardian and the issue of the respondent's rights that will be retained or restricted if a guardian is appointed. Such notice must be in substantially the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.657 and must be double-spaced and in a type size not smaller than sixteen point font. The court may not grant the petition if notice substantially complying with this subsection is not served on the respondent.
(3) In a proceeding on a petition under RCW 11.130.270, the notice required under subsection (2) of this section must be given to the persons required to be listed in the petition under RCW 11.130.270(2) (a) through (c) and any other notice party. Failure to give notice under this subsection does not preclude the court from appointing a guardian.
(4) After the appointment of a guardian, notice of a hearing on a petition for an order under this article, together with a copy of the petition, must be given to:
(a) The adult subject to guardianship;
(b) The guardian; and
(c) Any other notice party or person the court determines pursuant to RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent court order.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Appointment and role of court visitor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On receipt of a petition under RCW 11.130.270 for appointment of a guardian for an adult, the court shall appoint a court visitor. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the type of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the petition.
(2) The court, in the order appointing a court visitor, shall specify the hourly rate the court visitor may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the court visitor may charge without additional court review and approval. The fee shall be charged to the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding unless the court finds that such payment would result in substantial hardship upon such person, in which case the county shall be responsible for such costs: PROVIDED, That the court may charge such fee to the petitioner, the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding, or any person who has appeared in the action; or may allocate the fee, as it deems just. If the petition is found to be frivolous or not brought in good faith, the court visitor fee shall be charged to the petitioner. The court shall not be required to provide for the payment of a fee to any salaried employee of a public agency.
(3)(a) The court visitor appointed under subsection (1) of this section shall within five days of receipt of notice of appointment file with the court and serve, either personally or by certified mail with return receipt, the respondent or his or her legal counsel, the petitioner or his or her legal counsel, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.080 with a statement including: His or her training relating to the duties as a court visitor; his or her criminal history as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 for the period covering ten years prior to the appointment; his or her hourly rate, if compensated; whether the court visitor has had any contact with a party to the proceeding prior to his or her appointment; and whether he or she has an apparent conflict of interest. Within three days of the later of the actual service or filing of the court visitor's statement, any party may set a hearing and file and serve a motion for an order to show cause why the court visitor should not be removed for one of the following three reasons:
(i) Lack of expertise necessary for the proceeding;
(ii) An hourly rate higher than what is reasonable for the particular proceeding; or
(iii) A conflict of interest.
(b) Notice of the hearing shall be provided to the court visitor and all parties. If, after a hearing, the court enters an order replacing the court visitor, findings shall be included, expressly stating the reasons for the removal. If the court visitor is not removed, the court has the authority to assess to the moving party attorneys' fees and costs related to the motion. The court shall assess attorneys' fees and costs for frivolous motions.
(4) A court visitor appointed under subsection (1) of this section shall interview the respondent in person and, in a manner the respondent is best able to understand:
(a) Explain to the respondent the substance of the petition, the nature, purpose, and effect of the proceeding, the respondent's rights at the hearing on the petition, and the general powers and duties of a guardian;
(b) Determine the respondent's views about the appointment sought by the petitioner, including views about a proposed guardian, the guardian's proposed powers and duties, and the scope and duration of the proposed guardianship; and
(c) Inform the respondent that all costs and expenses of the proceeding, including the respondent's attorney's fees, may be paid from the respondent's assets.
(5) The court visitor appointed under subsection (1) of this section shall:
(a) Interview the petitioner and proposed guardian, if any;
(b) Visit the respondent's present dwelling and any dwelling in which it is reasonably believed the respondent will live if the appointment is made;
(c) Obtain information from any physician or other person known to have treated, advised, or assessed the respondent's relevant physical or mental condition; and
(d) Investigate the allegations in the petition and any other matter relating to the petition the court directs.
(6) A court visitor appointed under subsection (1) of this section shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the respondent, petitioner, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.080 at least fifteen days prior to the hearing on the petition filed under RCW 11.130.270, which must include:
(a) A summary of self-care and independent living tasks the respondent can manage without assistance or with existing supports, could manage with the assistance of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making, and cannot manage;
(b) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of guardianship, including whether a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available and:
(i) If a guardianship is recommended, whether it should be full or limited; and
(ii) If a limited guardianship is recommended, the powers to be granted to the guardian;
(c) A statement of the qualifications of the proposed guardian and whether the respondent approves or disapproves of the proposed guardian;
(d) A statement whether the proposed dwelling meets the respondent's needs and whether the respondent has expressed a preference as to residence;
(e) A statement whether the respondent declined a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.290 and what other information is available to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation;
(f) A statement whether the respondent is able to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held;
(g) A statement whether the respondent is able to participate in a hearing and which identifies any technology or other form of support that would enhance the respondent's ability to participate; and
(h) Any other matter the court directs.
(7) The appointment of a court visitor has no effect on the determination of the adult respondent's legal capacity and does not overcome the presumption of legal capacity or full legal and civil rights of the adult respondent.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Appointment and role of attorney for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1)(a) The respondent shall have the right to be represented by a willing attorney of their choosing at any stage in guardianship proceedings. Any attorney purporting to represent a respondent or person subject to guardianship shall petition the court to be appointed to represent the respondent or person subject to guardianship.
(b) Unless the respondent in a proceeding for appointment of a guardian for an adult is represented by an attorney, the court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent the respondent, regardless of the respondent's ability to pay, except as provided otherwise in (c) of this subsection.
(c)(i) The court must appoint an attorney to represent the respondent at public expense when either:
(A) The respondent is unable to afford an attorney;
(B) The expense of an attorney would result in substantial hardship to the respondent; or
(C) The respondent does not have practical access to funds with which to pay an attorney. If the respondent can afford an attorney but lacks practical access to funds, the court must provide an attorney and may impose a reimbursement requirement as part of a final order.
(ii) When, in the opinion of the court, the rights and interests of the respondent cannot otherwise be adequately protected and represented, the court on its own motion must appoint an attorney at any time to represent the respondent.
(iii) An attorney must be provided under this subsection (1)(c) as soon as practicable after a petition is filed and long enough before any final hearing to allow adequate time for consultation and preparation. Absent a convincing showing in the record to the contrary, a period of less than three weeks is presumed by a reviewing court to be inadequate time for consultation and preparation.
(2) An attorney representing the respondent in a proceeding for appointment of a guardian for an adult shall:
(a) Make reasonable efforts to ascertain the respondent's wishes;
(b) Advocate for the respondent's wishes to the extent reasonably ascertainable; and
(c) If the respondent's wishes are not reasonably ascertainable, advocate for the result that is the least restrictive in type, duration, and scope, consistent with the respondent's interests.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Professional evaluation. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On receipt of a petition under RCW 11.130.270 and at the time the court appoints a court visitor under RCW 11.130.280, the court shall order a professional evaluation of the respondent.
(2) The respondent must be examined by a physician licensed to practice under chapter 18.71 or 18.57 RCW, psychologist licensed under chapter 18.83 RCW, advanced registered nurse practitioner licensed under chapter 18.79 RCW, or physician assistant licensed under chapter 18.71A RCW selected by the court visitor who is qualified to evaluate the respondent's alleged cognitive and functional abilities and limitations and will not be advantaged or disadvantaged by a decision to grant the petition or otherwise have a conflict of interest. If the respondent opposes the professional selected by the court visitor, the court visitor shall obtain a professional evaluation from the professional selected by the respondent. The court visitor, after receiving a professional evaluation from the individual selected by the respondent, may obtain a supplemental evaluation from a different professional.
(3) The individual conducting the evaluation shall provide the completed evaluation report to the court visitor within thirty days of the examination of the respondent. The court visitor shall file the report in a sealed record with the court. Unless otherwise directed by the court, the report must contain:
(a) The professional's name, address, education, and experience;
(b) A description of the nature, type, and extent of the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities and limitations;
(c) An evaluation of the respondent's mental and physical condition and, if appropriate, educational potential, adaptive behavior, and social skills;
(d) A prognosis for improvement and recommendation for the appropriate treatment, support, or habilitation plan;
(e) A description of the respondent's current medications, and the effect of the medications on the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities;
(f) Identification or persons with whom the professional has met or spoken with regarding the respondent; and
(g) The date of the examination on which the report is based.
(4) If the respondent declines to participate in an evaluation ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the court may proceed with the hearing under RCW 11.130.275 if the court finds that it has sufficient information to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Attendance and rights at hearing. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section, a hearing under RCW 11.130.275 may not proceed unless the respondent attends the hearing. If it is not reasonably feasible for the respondent to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held, the court shall make reasonable efforts to hold the hearing at an alternative location convenient to the respondent or allow the respondent to attend the hearing using real-time audio-visual technology.
(2) A hearing under RCW 11.130.275 may proceed without the respondent in attendance if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The respondent has refused to attend the hearing after having been fully informed of the right to attend and the potential consequences of failing to do so; or
(b) There is no practicable way for the respondent to attend and participate in the hearing even with appropriate supportive services and technological assistance.
(3) The respondent may be assisted in a hearing under RCW 11.130.275 by a person or persons of the respondent's choosing, assistive technology, or an interpreter or translator, or a combination of these supports. If assistance would facilitate the respondent's participation in the hearing, but is not otherwise available to the respondent, the court shall make reasonable efforts to provide it.
(4) The respondent has a right to choose an attorney to represent the respondent at a hearing under RCW 11.130.275.
(5) At a hearing held under RCW 11.130.275, the respondent may:
(a) Present evidence and subpoena witnesses and documents;
(b) Examine witnesses, including any court-appointed evaluator and the court visitor; and
(c) Otherwise participate in the hearing.
(6) Unless excused by the court for good cause, a proposed guardian shall attend a hearing under RCW 11.130.275.
(7) A hearing under RCW 11.130.275 must be closed on request of the respondent and a showing of good cause.
(8) Any person may request to participate in a hearing under RCW 11.130.275. The court may grant the request, with or without a hearing, on determining that the best interest of the respondent will be served. The court may impose appropriate conditions on the person's participation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Confidentiality of records. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The existence of a proceeding for or the existence of a guardianship for an adult is a matter of public record unless the court seals the record after:
(a) The respondent or individual subject to guardianship requests the record be sealed; and
(b) Either:
(i) The petition for guardianship is dismissed; or
(ii) The guardianship is terminated.
(2) An adult subject to a proceeding for a guardianship, whether or not a guardian is appointed, an attorney designated by the adult, and a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order are entitled to access court records of the proceeding and resulting guardianship, including the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 and report under RCW 11.130.345. A person not otherwise entitled to access court records under this subsection for good cause may petition the court for access to court records of the guardianship, including the guardian's report and plan. The court shall grant access if access is in the best interest of the respondent or adult subject to guardianship or furthers the public interest and does not endanger the welfare or financial interests of the adult.
(3) A report under RCW 11.130.280 of a visitor or a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.290 is confidential and must be sealed on filing, but is available to:
(a) The court;
(b) The individual who is the subject of the report or evaluation, without limitation as to use;
(c) The petitioner, visitor, and petitioner's and respondent's attorneys, for purposes of the proceeding;
(d) Unless the court orders otherwise, an agent appointed under a power of attorney for health care or power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is the principal; and
(e) Any other person if it is in the public interest or for a purpose the court orders for good cause.



Who may be guardian for adult—Order of priority. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3) of this section, the court in appointing a guardian for an adult shall consider persons qualified to be guardian in the following order of priority:
(a) A guardian, other than a temporary or emergency guardian, currently acting for the respondent in another jurisdiction;
(b) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent, including the respondent's most recent nomination made in a power of attorney;
(c) An agent appointed by the respondent under a power of attorney for health care;
(d) A spouse or domestic partner of the respondent;
(e) A relative or other individual who has shown special care and concern for the respondent; and
(f) A certified professional guardian or conservator.
(2) If two or more persons have equal priority under subsection (1) of this section, the court shall select as guardian the person the court considers best qualified. In determining the best qualified person, the court shall consider the person's relationship with the respondent, the person's skills, the expressed wishes of the respondent, the extent to which the person and the respondent have similar values and preferences, and the likelihood the person will be able to perform the duties of a guardian successfully.
(3) The court, acting in the best interest of the respondent, may decline to appoint as guardian a person having priority under subsection (1) of this section and appoint a person having a lower priority or no priority.
(4) A person that provides paid services to the respondent, or an individual who is employed by a person that provides paid services to the respondent or is the spouse, domestic partner, parent, or child of an individual who provides or is employed to provide paid services to the respondent, may not be appointed as guardian unless:
(a) The individual is related to the respondent by blood, marriage, or adoption; or
(b) The court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is the best qualified person available for appointment and the appointment is in the best interest of the respondent.
(5) An owner, operator, or employee of a long-term care facility at which the respondent is receiving care may not be appointed as guardian unless the owner, operator, or employee is related to the respondent by blood, marriage, or adoption.



Order of appointment for guardian. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A court order appointing a guardian for an adult must:
(a) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established that the identified needs of the respondent cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative, including use of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making;
(b) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established the respondent was given proper notice of the hearing on the petition;
(c) State whether the adult subject to guardianship retains the right to vote and, if the adult does not retain the right to vote, include findings that support removing that right which must include a finding that the adult cannot communicate, with or without support, a specific desire to participate in the voting process; and
(d) State whether the adult subject to guardianship retains the right to marry and, if the adult does not retain the right to marry, include findings that support removing that right.
(2) An adult subject to guardianship retains the right to vote unless the order under subsection (1) of this section includes the statement required by subsection (1)(c) of this section. An adult subject to guardianship retains the right to marry unless the order under subsection (1) of this section includes the findings required by subsection (1)(d) of this section.
(3) A court order establishing a full guardianship for an adult must state the basis for granting a full guardianship and include specific findings that support the conclusion that a limited guardianship would not meet the functional needs of the adult subject to guardianship.
(4) A court order establishing a limited guardianship for an adult must state the specific powers granted to the guardian.
(5) The court, as part of an order establishing a guardianship for an adult, shall identify any person that subsequently is entitled to:
(a) Notice of the rights of the adult under RCW 11.130.315(2);
(b) Notice of a change in the primary dwelling of the adult;
(c) Notice that the guardian has delegated:
(i) The power to manage the care of the adult;
(ii) The power to make decisions about where the adult lives;
(iii) The power to make major medical decisions on behalf of the adult;
(iv) A power that requires court approval under RCW 11.130.335; or
(v) Substantially all powers of the guardian;
(d) Notice that the guardian will be unavailable to visit the adult for more than two months or unavailable to perform the guardian's duties for more than one month;
(e) A copy of the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 and the guardian's report under RCW 11.130.345;
(f) Access to court records relating to the guardianship;
(g) Notice of the death or significant change in the condition of the adult;
(h) Notice that the court has limited or modified the powers of the guardian; and
(i) Notice of the removal of the guardian.
(6) A spouse, domestic partner, and adult children of an adult subject to guardianship are entitled to notice under subsection (5) of this section unless the court determines notice would be contrary to the preferences or prior directions of the adult subject to guardianship or not in the best interest of the adult.
(7) All orders establishing a guardianship for an adult must contain:
(a) A guardianship summary placed directly below the case caption or on a separate cover page in the form or substantially the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.665;
(b) The date which the limited guardian or guardian must file the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340(1);
(c) The date by which the court will review the guardian's plan as required by RCW 11.130.340(4);
(d) The report interval which the guardian shall file its guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.345. The report interval may be annual, biennial, or triennial;
(e) The date the limited guardian or guardian must file its guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.345. The due date of the filing of the report shall be within ninety days after the anniversary date of the appointment;
(f) The date for the court to review the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.345 and enter its order. The court shall conduct the review within one hundred twenty days after the anniversary date of the appointment.



Notice of order of appointment—Rights. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A guardian appointed under RCW 11.130.305 shall give the adult subject to guardianship and all other persons given notice under RCW 11.130.275 a copy of the order of appointment, together with notice of the right to request termination or modification. The order and notice must be given not later than fourteen days after the appointment.
(2) Not later than thirty days after appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.305, the guardian shall give to the adult subject to guardianship and any other person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order a statement of the rights of the adult subject to guardianship and procedures to seek relief if the adult is denied those rights. The statement must be in at least sixteen-point font, in plain language, and, to the extent feasible, in a language in which the adult subject to guardianship is proficient. The statement must notify the adult subject to guardianship of the right to:
(a) Seek termination or modification of the guardianship, or removal of the guardian, and choose an attorney to represent the adult in these matters;
(b) Be involved in decisions affecting the adult, including decisions about the adult's care, dwelling, activities, or social interactions, to the extent reasonably feasible;
(c) Be involved in health care decision making to the extent reasonably feasible and supported in understanding the risks and benefits of health care options to the extent reasonably feasible;
(d) Be notified at least fourteen days before a change in the adult's primary dwelling or permanent move to a nursing home, mental health facility, or other facility that places restrictions on the individual's ability to leave or have visitors unless the change or move is proposed in the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 or authorized by the court by specific order;
(e) Object to a change or move described in (d) of this subsection and the process for objecting;
(f) Communicate, visit, or interact with others, including receiving visitors, and making or receiving telephone calls, personal mail, or electronic communications, including through social media, unless:
(i) The guardian has been authorized by the court by specific order to restrict communications, visits, or interactions;
(ii) A protective order or protective arrangement instead of guardianship is in effect that limits contact between the adult and a person; or
(iii) The guardian has good cause to believe restriction is necessary because interaction with a specified person poses a risk of significant physical, psychological, or financial harm to the adult, and the restriction is:
(A) For a period of not more than seven business days if the person has a relative or preexisting social relationship with the adult; or
(B) For a period of not more than sixty days if the person does not have a relative or preexisting social relationship with the adult;
(g) Receive a copy of the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340 and the guardian's report under RCW 11.130.345;
(h) Object to the guardian's plan or report; and
(i) Associate with persons of their choosing as provided in RCW 11.130.335(5).



Emergency guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A person interested in an adult's welfare, including the adult for whom the order is sought, may petition for appointment of an emergency guardian for the adult.
(2) An emergency petition under subsection (1) of this section must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, and current street address, if different, and[,] to the extent known, the following:
(a) The respondent's name, age, principal residence[,] and current street address, if different;
(b) The name and address of the respondent's:
(i) Spouse or domestic partner or, if the respondent has none, an adult with whom the respondent has shared household responsibilities for more than six months in the twelve-month period immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(ii) Adult children or, if none, each parent and adult sibling of the respondent, or, if none, at least one adult nearest in kinship to the respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence; and
(iii) Adult stepchildren whom the respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom the respondent had an ongoing relationship in the two-year period immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(c) The name and current address of each of the following, if applicable:
(i) A person responsible for care of the respondent;
(ii) Any attorney currently representing the respondent;
(iii) Any representative payee appointed by the social security administration for the respondent;
(iv) A guardian or conservator acting for the respondent in this state or in another jurisdiction;
(v) A trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which the respondent is a beneficiary;
(vi) Any fiduciary for the respondent appointed by the department of veterans affairs;
(vii) Any representative payee or authorized representative or protective payee;
(viii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(ix) An agent designated under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(x) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent;
(xi) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent's parent or spouse or domestic partner in a will or other signed record;
(xii) A proposed emergency guardian, and the reason the proposed emergency guardian should be selected; and
(xiii) A person known to have routinely assisted the respondent with decision making during the six months immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(d) The reason an emergency guardianship is necessary, including a specific description of:
(i) The nature and extent of the emergency situation;
(ii) The nature and extent of the respondent's alleged emergency need that arose because of the emergency situation;
(iii) The substantial and irreparable harm to the respondent's health, safety, welfare, or rights that is likely to be prevented by the appointment of an emergency guardian;
(iv) All protective arrangements or other less restrictive alternatives that have been considered or implemented to meet the respondent's alleged emergency need instead of emergency guardianship;
(v) If no protective arrangements or other less restrictive alternatives have been considered or implemented instead of emergency guardianship, the reason they have not been considered or implemented; and
(vi) The reason a protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternative instead of emergency guardianship is insufficient to meet the respondent's alleged emergency need;
(e) The reason the petitioner believes that a basis for appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.265 exists;
(f) Whether the petitioner intends to also seek guardianship for an adult under RCW 11.130.270;
(g) The reason the petitioner believes that no other person appears to have authority and willingness to act to address the respondent's identified needs caused by the emergency circumstances;
(h) The specific powers to be granted to the proposed emergency guardian and a description of how those powers will be used to meet the respondent's alleged emergency need;
(i) If the respondent has property other than personal effects, a general statement of the respondent's property, with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of other anticipated income or receipts; and
(j) Whether the respondent needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings.
(3) The requirements of RCW 11.130.090 apply to an emergency guardian appointed for an adult with the following exceptions for any proposed emergency guardian required to complete the training under RCW 11.130.090:
(a) The proposed emergency guardian shall present evidence of the successful completion of the required training video or web cast to the court no later than the hearing on the petition for appointment of an emergency guardian for an adult; and
(b) The superior court may defer the completion of the training requirement to a date no later than fourteen days after appointment if the petitioner requests an extension of time to complete the training due to emergent circumstances beyond the control of [the] petitioner.
(4) On its own after a petition has been filed under RCW 11.130.270, or on petition for appointment of an emergency guardian for an adult, the court may appoint an emergency guardian for the adult if the court makes specific findings based on clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) An emergency exists such that appointment of an emergency guardian is likely to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the adult's physical health, safety, or welfare;
(b) The respondent's identified needs caused by the emergency cannot be met by a protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternative instead of emergency guardianship;
(c) No other person appears to have authority and willingness to act to address the respondent's identified needs caused by the emergency circumstances; and
(d) There is reason to believe that a basis for appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.265 exists.
(5) If the court acts on its own to appoint an emergency guardian after a petition has been filed under RCW 11.130.270, all requirements of this section shall be met.
(6) A court order appointing an emergency guardian for an adult shall:
(a) Grant only the specific powers necessary to meet the adult's identified emergency need and to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the adult's physical health, safety, or welfare;
(b) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established that an emergency exists such that appointment of an emergency guardian is likely to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the respondent's health, safety, or welfare;
(c) Include a specific finding that the identified emergency need of the respondent cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative, including any relief available under chapter 74.34 RCW or use of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making;
(d) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established the respondent was given proper notice of the hearing on the petition;
(e) State that the adult subject to emergency guardianship retains all rights the adult enjoyed prior to the emergency guardianship with the exception of the rights not retained during the period of emergency guardianship;
(f) Include the date that the sixty-day period of emergency guardianship ends, and the date the emergency guardian's report, required by this section, is due to the court; and
(g) Identify any person or notice party that subsequently is entitled to:
(i) Notice of the rights of the adult;
(ii) Notice of a change in the primary dwelling of the adult;
(iii) Notice of the removal of the guardian;
(iv) A copy of the emergency guardian's plan and the emergency guardian's report under this section;
(v) Access to court records relating to the emergency guardianship;
(vi) Notice of the death or significant change in the condition of the adult;
(vii) Notice that the court has limited or modified the powers of the emergency guardian; and
(viii) Notice of the removal of the emergency guardian.
(7) A spouse, a domestic partner, and adult children of an adult subject to emergency guardianship are entitled to notice under this section unless the court orders otherwise based on good cause. Good cause includes the court's determination that notice would be contrary to the preferences or prior directions of the adult subject to emergency guardianship or not in the best interest of the adult subject to the emergency guardianship.
(8) The duration of authority of an emergency guardian for an adult may not exceed sixty days, and the emergency guardian may exercise only the powers specified in the order of appointment. Upon a motion by the petitioner, adult subject to emergency guardianship, court visitor, or the emergency guardian, with notice served upon all applicable notice parties, the emergency guardian's authority may be extended once for not more than sixty days if the court finds that the conditions for appointment of an emergency guardian in subsection (4) of this section continue.
(9) Immediately on filing of a petition for appointment of an emergency guardian for an adult, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the respondent in the proceeding. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (10) of this section, an order appointing an emergency guardian for the respondent may not be entered unless the respondent, the respondent's attorney, and the court visitor appointed under subsection (11) of this section have received a minimum of fourteen days' notice of the date, time, and place of a hearing on the petition. A copy of the emergency petition and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the respondent, the respondent's attorney, and the court visitor not more than two court days after the petition has been filed. The notice must inform the respondent of the respondent's rights at the hearing, including the right to an attorney and to attend the hearing. The notice must include a description of the nature, purpose, and consequences of granting the emergency petition. The court shall not grant the emergency petition if notice substantially complying with this subsection is not served on the respondent.
(10) The court may appoint an emergency guardian for an adult without notice to the adult and any attorney for the adult only if the court finds from an affidavit or testimony that the respondent's physical health, safety, or welfare will be substantially harmed before a hearing with notice on the appointment can be held. If the court appoints an emergency guardian without giving notice under subsection (9) of this section, the court must:
(a) Give notice of the appointment not later than forty-eight hours after the appointment to:
(i) The respondent;
(ii) The respondent's attorney; and
(iii) Any other person the court determines; and
(b) Hold a hearing on the appropriateness of the appointment not later than five days after the appointment.
(11) On receipt of a petition for appointment of emergency guardian for an adult, the court shall appoint a court visitor. Notice of appointment of the court visitor must be served upon the court visitor within two days of appointment. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the type of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the emergency petition. The court, in the order appointing a court visitor, shall specify the hourly rate the [court] visitor may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the court visitor may charge without additional court review and approval.
(a) The court visitor shall within two days of service of notice of appointment file with the court and serve, either personally or by certified mail with return receipt, the respondent or the respondent's legal counsel, the petitioner or the petitioner's legal counsel, and any notice party with a statement including the court visitor's: Training relating to the duties as a court visitor; criminal history as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 for the period covering ten years prior to the appointment; hourly rate, if compensated; contact, if any, with a party to the proceeding prior to appointment; and apparent or actual conflicts of interest.
(b) A court visitor appointed under this section shall use due diligence to attempt to interview the respondent in person and, in a manner the respondent is best able to understand:
(i) Explain to the respondent the substance of the emergency petition, the nature, purpose, and effect of the proceeding, the respondent's rights at the hearing on the petition, and the proposed specific powers and duties of the proposed guardian as stated in the emergency petition;
(ii) Determine the respondent's views about the emergency appointment sought by the petitioner, including views about a proposed emergency guardian, the emergency guardian's proposed powers and duties, and the scope and duration of the proposed emergency guardianship; and
(iii) Inform the respondent that all costs and expenses of the proceeding, including but not limited to the respondent's attorneys' fees, the appointed guardian's fees, and the appointed guardian's attorneys' fees, will be paid from the respondent's assets upon approval by the court.
(c) The court visitor appointed under this section shall:
(i) Interview the petitioner and proposed emergency guardian;
(ii) Use due diligence to attempt to visit the respondent's present dwelling;
(iii) Use due diligence to attempt to obtain information from any physician or other person known to have treated, advised, or assessed the respondent's relevant physical or mental condition; and
(iv) Investigate the allegations in the emergency petition and any other matter relating to the emergency petition the court directs.
(d) A court visitor appointed under this section shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the respondent, petitioner, and any notice party at least seven days prior to the hearing on the emergency petition, which must include:
(i) A summary of self-care and independent living tasks the respondent can manage without assistance or with existing supports, could manage with the assistance of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making, and cannot manage;
(ii) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of emergency guardianship, including whether a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available, and if an emergency guardianship is recommended;
(iii) A detailed summary of the alleged emergency and the substantial and irreparable harm to the respondent's health, safety, welfare, or rights that is likely to be prevented by the appointment of an emergency guardian;
(iv) A statement as to whether the alleged emergency and the respondent's alleged needs are likely to require an extension of sixty days as authorized under this section;
(v) The specific powers to be granted to the emergency guardian and how the specific powers will address the alleged emergency and the respondent's alleged need;
(vi) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of an ongoing guardianship for an adult, including whether a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available;
(vii) A statement of the qualifications of the proposed emergency guardian and whether the respondent approves or disapproves of the proposed emergency guardian, and the reasons for such approval or disapproval;
(viii) A recommendation whether a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.290 is necessary;
(ix) A statement whether the respondent is able to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held;
(x) A statement whether the respondent is able to participate in a hearing which identifies any technology or other form of support that would enhance the respondent's ability to participate;
(xi) A statement, as needed when the petition seeks emergency authority to change the respondent's place of dwelling, as to whether the proposed dwelling meets the respondent's needs and whether the respondent has expressed a preference as to residence; and
(xii) Any other matter the court directs.
(12) An emergency guardian shall:
(a) Comply with the requirements of RCW 11.130.325, the requirements regarding the adult's right to association under RCW 11.130.335, and the requirements of this chapter that pertain to the rights of an adult subject to guardianship;
(b) Not have authority to make decisions or take actions that a guardian for an adult is prohibited by law from having; and
(c) Be subject to the same special limitations on a guardian's power that apply to a guardian for an adult.
(13) Appointment of an emergency guardian under this section is not a determination that a basis exists for appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.265.
(14) The court may remove an emergency guardian appointed under this section at any time.
(15) The emergency guardian shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the adult subject to emergency guardianship, and any notice party no later than forty-five days after appointment. The report shall include specific and updated information regarding the emergency alleged in the emergency petition, the adult's emergency needs, all actions and decisions by the emergency guardian, and a recommendation as to whether a guardian for an adult should be appointed. If the appointment of the emergency guardian is extended for an additional sixty days, the emergency guardian shall file a second report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the adult subject to emergency guardianship, and any notice party no later than forty-five days after extension of the appointment is granted by the court, which shall include the same information required for the first report. The emergency guardian shall make any other report the court requires.
(16) The court shall issue letters of emergency guardianship to the emergency guardian in compliance with RCW 11.130.040. Such letters shall be issued on an expedited basis.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Duties of guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A guardian for an adult is a fiduciary and owes the highest duty of good faith and care to the person under a guardianship. The guardian shall not substitute his or her moral or religious values, opinions, or philosophical beliefs for those of the person under a guardianship. Except as otherwise limited by the court, a guardian for an adult shall make decisions regarding the support, care, education, health, and welfare of the adult subject to guardianship to the extent necessitated by the adult's limitations.
(2) A guardian for an adult shall promote the self-determination of the adult and, to the extent reasonably feasible, encourage the adult to participate in decisions, act on the adult's own behalf, and develop or regain the capacity to manage the adult's personal affairs. In furtherance of this duty, the guardian shall:
(a) Become or remain personally acquainted with the adult and maintain sufficient contact with the adult, including through regular visitation, to know the adult's abilities, limitations, needs, opportunities, and physical and mental health;
(b) To the extent reasonably feasible, identify the values and preferences of the adult and involve the adult in decisions affecting the adult, including decisions about the adult's care, dwelling, activities, or social interactions; and
(c) Make reasonable efforts to identify and facilitate supportive relationships and services for the adult.
(3) A guardian for an adult at all times shall exercise reasonable care, diligence, and prudence when acting on behalf of or making decisions for the adult. In furtherance of this duty, the guardian shall:
(a) Take reasonable care of the personal effects, pets, and service or support animals of the adult and bring a proceeding for a conservatorship or protective arrangement instead of conservatorship if necessary to protect the adult's property;
(b) Expend funds and other property of the adult received by the guardian for the adult's current needs for support, care, education, health, and welfare;
(c) Conserve any funds and other property of the adult not expended under (b) of this subsection for the adult's future needs, but if a conservator has been appointed for the adult, pay the funds and other property at least quarterly to the conservator to be conserved for the adult's future needs; and
(d) Monitor the quality of services, including long-term care services, provided to the adult.
(4) In making a decision for an adult subject to guardianship, the guardian shall make the decision the guardian reasonably believes the adult would make if the adult were able unless doing so would unreasonably harm or endanger the welfare or personal or financial interests of the adult. To determine the decision the adult subject to guardianship would make if able, the guardian shall consider the adult's previous or current directions, preferences, opinions, values, and actions, to the extent actually known or reasonably ascertainable by the guardian.
(5) If a guardian for an adult cannot make a decision under subsection (4) of this section because the guardian does not know and cannot reasonably determine the decision the adult probably would make if able, or the guardian reasonably believes the decision the adult would make would unreasonably harm or endanger the welfare or personal or financial interests of the adult, the guardian shall act in accordance with the best interests of the adult. In determining the best interests of the adult, the guardian shall consider:
(a) Information received from professionals and persons that demonstrate sufficient interest in the welfare of the adult;
(b) Other information the guardian believes the adult would have considered if the adult were able to act; and
(c) Other factors a reasonable person in the circumstances of the adult would consider, including consequences for others.
(6) A guardian for an adult immediately shall notify the court if the condition of the adult has changed so that the adult is capable of exercising rights previously removed.
(7) The guardian shall file with the court within thirty days of any substantial change in the condition of the person under guardianship or any changes in the residence of the person under guardianship and shall provide a copy of the notice to the adult subject to guardianship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order, and any other person the court has determined is entitled to notice.
(8) To inform any person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order, and any other person the court has determined is entitled to notice, but in no case more than five business days, after the person subject to guardianship:
(a) Makes a change in residence that is intended or likely to last more than fourteen calendar days;
(b) Has been admitted to a medical facility for acute care in response to a life-threatening injury or medical condition that requires inpatient care;
(c) Has been treated in an emergency room setting or kept for hospital observation for more than twenty-four hours; or
(d) Dies, in which case the notification must be made in person, by telephone, or by certified mail.



Powers of guardian for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as limited by court order, a guardian for an adult may:
(a) Apply for and receive funds and benefits as a representative payee or an authorized representative or protective payee for the support of the adult, unless a conservator is appointed for the adult and the application or receipt is within the powers of the conservator;
(b) Unless inconsistent with a court order, establish the adult's place of dwelling;
(c) Consent to health or other care, treatment, or service for the adult;
(d) If a conservator for the adult has not been appointed, commence a proceeding, including an administrative proceeding, or take other appropriate action to compel another person to support the adult or pay funds for the adult's benefit;
(e) To the extent reasonable, delegate to the adult responsibility for a decision affecting the adult's well-being; and
(f) Receive personally identifiable health care information regarding the adult.
(2) The court by specific order may authorize a guardian for an adult to consent to the adoption of the adult.
(3) The court by specific order may authorize a guardian for an adult to:
(a) Consent or withhold consent to the marriage of the adult if the adult's right to marry has been removed under RCW 11.130.310;
(b) Petition for divorce, dissolution, or annulment of marriage of the adult or a declaration of invalidity of the adult's marriage; or
(c) Support or oppose a petition for divorce, dissolution, or annulment of marriage of the adult or a declaration of invalidity of the adult's marriage.
(4) In determining whether to authorize a power under subsection (2) or (3) of this section, the court shall consider whether the underlying act would be in accordance with the adult's preferences, values, and prior directions and whether the underlying act would be in the adult's best interest.
(5) In exercising a guardian's power under subsection (1)(b) of this section to establish the adult's place of dwelling, the guardian shall:
(a) Select a residential setting the guardian believes the adult would select if the adult were able, in accordance with the decision-making standard in RCW 11.130.325 (4) and (5). If the guardian does not know and cannot reasonably determine what setting the adult subject to guardianship probably would choose if able, or the guardian reasonably believes the decision the adult would make would unreasonably harm or endanger the welfare or personal or financial interests of the adult, the guardian shall choose in accordance with RCW 11.130.325(5) a residential setting that is consistent with the adult's best interest;
(b) In selecting among residential settings, give priority to a residential setting in a location that will allow the adult to interact with persons important to the adult and meet the adult's needs in the least restrictive manner reasonably feasible unless to do so would be inconsistent with the decision-making standard in RCW 11.130.325 (4) and (5);
(c) Not later than thirty days after a change in the dwelling of the adult:
(i) Give notice of the change to the court, the adult, and any other notice party; and
(ii) Include in the notice the address and nature of the new dwelling and state whether the adult received advance notice of the change and whether the adult objected to the change;
(d) Establish or move the permanent place of dwelling of the adult to a care setting that places restrictions on the adult's ability to leave or have visitors only if:
(i) The establishment or move is in the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340;
(ii) The court authorizes the establishment or move; or
(iii) The guardian gives notice of the establishment or move at least fourteen days before the establishment or move to the adult and all persons entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5)(b) or a subsequent order, and no objection is filed;
(e) Establish or move the place of dwelling of the adult outside this state only if consistent with the guardian's plan and authorized by the court by specific order; and
(f) Take action that would result in the sale of or surrender of the lease to the primary dwelling of the adult only if:
(i) The action is specifically included in the guardian's plan under RCW 11.130.340;
(ii) The court authorizes the action by specific order; or
(iii) Notice of the action was given at least fourteen days before the action to the adult and all persons entitled to the notice under RCW 11.130.310(5)(b) or a subsequent order and no objection has been filed.
(6) In exercising a guardian's power under subsection (1)(c) of this section to make health care decisions, the guardian shall:
(a) Involve the adult in decision making to the extent reasonably feasible, including, when practicable, by encouraging and supporting the adult in understanding the risks and benefits of health care options;
(b) Defer to a decision by an agent under a power of attorney for health care executed by the adult and cooperate to the extent feasible with the agent making the decision; and
(c) Take into account:
(i) The risks and benefits of treatment options; and
(ii) The current and previous wishes and values of the adult, if known or reasonably ascertainable by the guardian.
(7) Notwithstanding subsection (1)(b) of this section no care setting which provides nursing or other care may detain a person within such facility against their will. Any court order, other than an order issued in accordance with the involuntary treatment provisions of chapters  10.77, 71.05, and  72.23 RCW, which purports to authorize such involuntary detention or purports to authorize a guardian or limited guardian to consent to such involuntary detention on behalf of an individual subject to a guardianship shall be void and of no force or effect.
(8) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a court order authorizing placement of an incapacitated person in a care setting if such order is not otherwise required by law: PROVIDED, That notice of any residential placement of an individual subject to a guardianship shall be served, either before or after placement, by the guardian or limited guardian on such individual, any court visitor of record, any guardian ad litem of record, and any attorney of record.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Special limitations on guardian's power. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A guardian for an adult does not have the power to revoke or amend a power of attorney for health care or power of attorney for finances executed by the adult. If a power of attorney for health care is in effect, unless there is a court order to the contrary, a health care decision of an agent takes precedence over that of the guardian and the guardian shall cooperate with the agent to the extent feasible. If a power of attorney for finances is in effect, unless there is a court order to the contrary, a decision by the agent which the agent is authorized to make under the power of attorney for finances takes precedence over that of the guardian and the guardian shall cooperate with the agent to the extent feasible. The court has authority to revoke or amend any power of attorney executed by the adult.
(2) A guardian for an adult shall not initiate the commitment of the adult to an evaluation and treatment facility except in accordance with the provisions of chapter 10.77, 71.05, or 72.23 RCW.
(3) Unless authorized by the court in accordance with subsection (4) of this section within the past thirty days, a guardian for an adult may not consent to any of the following procedures for the adult:
(a) Therapy or other procedure to induce convulsion;
(b) Surgery solely for the purpose of psychosurgery; or
(c) Other psychiatric or mental health procedures that restrict physical freedom of movement or the rights set forth in RCW 71.05.217.
(4) The court may order a procedure listed in subsection (3) of this section only after giving notice to the adult's attorney and holding a hearing. If the adult does not have an attorney, the court must appoint an attorney for the adult prior to entering an order under this subsection.
(5) Persons under a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangements—Right to associate with persons of their choosing.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an adult subject to a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement retains the right to associate with other persons of the adult's choosing. This right includes, but is not limited to, the right to freely communicate and interact with other persons, whether through in-person visits, telephone calls, electronic communication, personal mail, or other means. If the adult subject to a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement is unable to express consent for communication, visitation, or interaction with another person, or is otherwise unable to make a decision regarding association with another person, the guardian, conservator, or person acting under a protective arrangement, whether full or limited, must:
(i) Personally inform the adult subject to a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement of the decision under consideration, using plain language, in a manner calculated to maximize the understanding of the adult;
(ii) Maximize the adult's participation in the decision-making process to the greatest extent possible, consistent with the adult's abilities; and
(iii) Give substantial weight to the adult's preferences, both expressed and historical.
(b) A guardian or limited guardian, a conservator or limited conservator, or a person acting under a protective arrangement may not restrict an adult's right to communicate, visit, interact, or otherwise associate with persons of the adult's choosing, unless:
(i) The restriction is specifically authorized by the court in the court order establishing or modifying the guardianship or limited guardianship, the conservatorship or limited conservatorship, or the protective arrangement under this chapter;
(ii) The restriction is pursuant to a protection order issued under chapter 74.34 or 26.50 RCW, or other law, that limits contact between the adult under a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement and other persons;
(iii)(A) The guardian or limited guardian, the conservator or limited conservator, or the person acting under the protective arrangement has good cause to believe that there is an immediate need to restrict the adult's right to communicate, visit, interact, or otherwise associate with persons of the adult's choosing in order to protect the adult from abuse, neglect, abandonment, or financial exploitation, as those terms are defined in RCW 74.34.020, or to protect the adult from activities that unnecessarily impose significant distress on the adult; and
(B) Within fourteen calendar days of imposing the restriction under (b)(iii)(A) of this subsection, the guardian or limited guardian, the conservator or limited conservator, or [the] person acting under the protective arrangement files a petition for a protection order under chapter 74.34 RCW. The immediate need restriction may remain in place until the court has heard and issued an order or decision on the petition; or
(iv) The restriction is pursuant to participation in the community protection program under chapter 71A.12 RCW.
(6) A protection order under chapter 74.34 RCW issued to protect the adult under a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement as described in subsection (5)(b)(iii)(B) of this section:
(a) Must include written findings of fact and conclusions of law;
(b) May not be more restrictive than necessary to protect the adult from abuse, neglect, abandonment, or financial exploitation as those terms are defined in RCW 74.34.020; and
(c) May not deny communication, visitation, interaction, or other association between the adult and another person unless the court finds that placing reasonable time, place, or manner restrictions is unlikely to sufficiently protect the adult from abuse, neglect, abandonment, or financial exploitation as those terms are defined in RCW 74.34.020.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Guardian's plan. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A guardian for an adult, not later than ninety days after appointment, shall file with the court a plan for the care of the adult and shall provide a copy of the plan to the adult subject to guardianship and any other notice party. The plan must be based on the needs of the adult and take into account the best interest of the adult as well as the adult's preferences, values, and prior directions, to the extent known to or reasonably ascertainable by the guardian. The guardian shall include in the plan:
(a) The living arrangement, services, and supports the guardian expects to arrange, facilitate, or continue for the adult;
(b) Social and educational activities the guardian expects to facilitate on behalf of the adult;
(c) Any person with whom the adult has a close personal relationship or relationship involving regular visitation and any plan the guardian has for facilitating visits with the person;
(d) The anticipated nature and frequency of the guardian's visits and communication with the adult;
(e) Goals for the adult, including any goal related to the restoration of the adult's rights, and how the guardian anticipates achieving the goals;
(f) Whether the adult has an existing plan and, if so, whether the guardian's plan is consistent with the adult's plan; and
(g) A statement or list of the amount the guardian proposes to charge for each service the guardian anticipates providing to the adult.
(2) A guardian shall give notice of the filing of the guardian's plan under subsection (1) of this section, together with a copy of the plan, to the adult subject to guardianship and any other notice party. The notice must include a statement of the right to object to the plan and be given not later than fourteen days after the filing.
(3) An adult subject to guardianship and any person entitled under subsection (2) of this section to receive notice and a copy of the guardian's plan may object to the plan.
(4) The court shall review the guardian's plan filed under subsection (1) of this section and determine whether to approve the plan or require a new plan. In deciding whether to approve the plan, the court shall consider an objection under subsection (3) of this section and whether the plan is consistent with the guardian's duties and powers under RCW 11.130.325 and 11.130.330. The court may not approve the plan until thirty days after its filing.
(5) After the guardian's plan filed under this section is approved by the court, the guardian shall provide a copy of the order approving the plan to the adult subject to guardianship and any other notice party.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Guardian's reportMonitoring of guardianship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A guardian for an adult shall file with the court by the date established by the court a report in a record regarding the condition of the adult and accounting for funds and other property in the guardian's possession or subject to the guardian's control. The guardian shall provide a copy of the report to the adult subject to guardianship and any other notice party.
(2) A report under subsection (1) of this section must state or contain:
(a) The mental, physical, and social condition of the adult;
(b) The living arrangements of the adult during the reporting period;
(c) A summary of the supported decision making, technological assistance, medical services, educational and vocational services, and other supports and services provided to the adult and the guardian's opinion as to the adequacy of the adult's care;
(d) A summary of the guardian's visits with the adult, including the dates of the visits;
(e) Action taken on behalf of the adult;
(f) The extent to which the adult has participated in decision making;
(g) If the adult is living in a care setting, whether the guardian considers the facility's current plan for support, care, treatment, or habilitation consistent with the adult's preferences, values, prior directions, and best interests;
(h) Anything of more than de minimis value which the guardian, any individual who resides with the guardian, or the spouse, domestic partner, parent, child, or sibling of the guardian has received from an individual providing goods or services to the adult. A professional guardian must abide by the standards of practice regarding the acceptance of gifts;
(i) If the guardian delegated a power to an agent, the power delegated and the reason for the delegation;
(j) Any business relation the guardian has with a person the guardian has paid or that has benefited from the property of the adult;
(k) A copy of the guardian's most recently approved plan under RCW 11.130.340 and a statement whether the guardian has deviated from the plan and, if so, how the guardian has deviated and why;
(l) Plans for future care and support of the adult;
(m) A recommendation as to the need for continued guardianship and any recommended change in the scope of the guardianship; and
(n) Whether any co-guardian or successor guardian appointed to serve when a designated event occurs is alive and able to serve.
(3) The court may appoint a court visitor to review a report submitted under this section or a guardian's plan submitted under RCW 11.130.340, interview the guardian or adult subject to guardianship, or investigate any other matter involving the guardianship.
(4) Notice of the filing under this section of a guardian's report, together with a copy of the report, must be given to the adult subject to guardianship and any other notice party. The notice and report must be given not later than fourteen days after the filing.
(5) The court shall establish procedures for monitoring a report submitted under this section and review each report to determine whether:
(a) The report provides sufficient information to establish the guardian has complied with the guardian's duties;
(b) The guardianship should continue; and
(c) The guardian's requested fees, if any, should be approved.
(6) If the court determines there is reason to believe a guardian for an adult has not complied with the guardian's duties or the guardianship should be modified or terminated, the court:
(a) Shall notify the adult, the guardian, and any other person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order;
(b) May require additional information from the guardian;
(c) May appoint a court visitor to interview the adult or guardian or investigate any matter involving the guardianship; and
(d) Consistent with this section and RCW 11.130.350, may hold a hearing to consider removal of the guardian, termination of the guardianship, or a change in the powers granted to the guardian or terms of the guardianship.
(7) If the court has reason to believe fees requested by a guardian for an adult are not reasonable, the court shall hold a hearing to determine whether to adjust the requested fees.
(8) A guardian for an adult must petition the court for approval of a report filed under this section. The court after review may approve the report. If the court approves the report, there is a rebuttable presumption the report is accurate as to a matter adequately disclosed in the report.
(9) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall set the due date for the filing of the next report to be filed under this section. The court may set the review interval at annual, biennial, or triennial with the report due date to be within ninety days of the anniversary date of appointment. When determining the report interval, the court can consider: The length of time the guardian has been serving the person under guardianship; whether the guardian has timely filed all required reports with the court; whether the guardian is monitored by other state or local agencies; and whether there have been any allegations of abuse, neglect, or a breach of fiduciary duty against the guardian.
(10) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall contain a guardianship summary or be accompanied by a guardianship summary in the form or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.665.
(11) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall direct the clerk of the court to reissue letters of office in the form or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.660 to the guardian containing an expiration date which will be within one hundred twenty days after the date the court directs the guardian file its next report.
(12) Any requirement to establish a monitoring program under this section is subject to appropriation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Removal of guardian for adultAppointment of successor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The court may remove a guardian for an adult for failure to perform the guardian's duties or for other good cause and appoint a successor guardian to assume the duties of guardian.
(2) The court shall hold a hearing to determine whether to remove a guardian for an adult and appoint a successor guardian on:
(a) Petition of the adult, guardian, or person interested in the welfare of the adult, which contains allegations that, if true, would support a reasonable belief that removal of the guardian and appointment of a successor guardian may be appropriate, but the court may decline to hold a hearing if a petition based on the same or substantially similar facts was filed during the preceding six months;
(b) Communication from the adult, guardian, or person interested in the welfare of the adult which supports a reasonable belief that removal of the guardian and appointment of a successor guardian may be appropriate; or
(c) Determination by the court that a hearing would be in the best interest of the adult.
(3) Notice of a hearing under subsection (2)(a) of this section and notice of the adult subject to guardianship's right to be represented at the hearing by counsel of the individual's choosing must be given to the adult subject to guardianship, the guardian, and any other person the court determines.
(4) An adult subject to guardianship who seeks to remove the guardian and have a successor guardian appointed has the right to choose an attorney to represent the adult in this matter. The court shall award reasonable attorneys' fees to the attorney for the adult as provided in RCW 11.130.100.
(5) In selecting a successor guardian for an adult, the court shall follow the priorities under RCW 11.130.305.
(6) Not later than fourteen days after appointing a successor guardian, the successor guardian shall give notice of the appointment to the adult subject to guardianship and any person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.310(5) or a subsequent order.



Termination or modification of guardianship for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) An adult subject to guardianship, the guardian for the adult, or a person interested in the welfare of the adult may petition for:
(a) Termination of the guardianship on the ground that a basis for appointment under RCW 11.130.265 does not exist or termination would be in the best interest of the adult or for other good cause; or
(b) Modification of the guardianship on the ground that the extent of protection or assistance granted is not appropriate or for other good cause.
(2) The court shall hold a hearing to determine whether termination or modification of a guardianship for an adult is appropriate on:
(a) Petition under subsection (1) of this section that contains allegations that, if true, would support a reasonable belief that termination or modification of the guardianship may be appropriate, but the court may decline to hold a hearing if a petition based on the same or substantially similar facts was filed during the preceding six months;
(b) Communication from the adult, guardian, or person interested in the welfare of the adult which supports a reasonable belief that termination or modification of the guardianship may be appropriate, including because the functional needs of the adult or supports or services available to the adult have changed;
(c) A report from a guardian or conservator which indicates that termination or modification may be appropriate because the functional needs of the adult or supports or services available to the adult have changed or a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the adult's needs is available; or
(d) A determination by the court that a hearing would be in the best interest of the adult.
(3) Notice of a petition under subsection (2)(a) of this section must be given to the adult subject to guardianship, the guardian, and any other person the court determines.
(4) On presentation of prima facie evidence for termination of a guardianship for an adult, the court shall order termination unless it is proven that a basis for appointment of a guardian under RCW 11.130.265 exists.
(5) The court shall modify the powers granted to a guardian for an adult if the powers are excessive or inadequate due to a change in the abilities or limitations of the adult, the adult's supports, or other circumstances.
(6) Unless the court otherwise orders for good cause, before terminating or modifying a guardianship for an adult, the court shall follow the same procedures to safeguard the rights of the adult which apply to a petition for guardianship.
(7) An adult subject to guardianship who seeks to terminate or modify the terms of the guardianship has the right to choose an attorney to represent the adult in the matter. The court shall award reasonable attorneys' fees to the attorney for the adult as provided in RCW 11.130.100.



Basis for appointment of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On petition and after notice and hearing, the court may appoint a conservator for the property or financial affairs of a minor if the court finds by a preponderance of evidence that appointment of a conservator is in the minor's best interest, and:
(a) If the minor has a parent, the court gives weight to any recommendation of the parent whether an appointment is in the minor's best interest; and
(b) Either:
(i) The minor owns funds or other property requiring management or protection that otherwise cannot be provided;
(ii) The minor has or may have financial affairs that may be put at unreasonable risk or hindered because of the minor's age; or
(iii) Appointment is necessary or desirable to obtain or provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor.
(2) On petition and after notice and hearing, the court may appoint a conservator for the property or financial affairs of an adult if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The adult is unable to manage property or financial affairs because:
(i) Of a limitation in the adult's ability to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions, even with the use of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making; or
(ii) The adult is missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States;
(b) Appointment is necessary to:
(i) Avoid harm to the adult or significant dissipation of the property of the adult; or
(ii) Obtain or provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the adult or of an individual entitled to the adult's support; and
(c) The adult's identified needs cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternatives.
(3) The court shall grant a conservator only those powers necessitated by demonstrated limitations and needs of the respondent and issue orders that will encourage development of the respondent's maximum self-determination and independence. The court may not establish a full conservatorship if a limited conservatorship, protective arrangement instead of conservatorship, or other less restrictive alternative would meet the needs of the respondent.
(4) A determination by the court that a basis under subsection (2) of this section exists for the appointment of a conservator for an adult and on the issue of the rights that will be retained or restricted by the appointment of a conservator is a legal, not a medical decision. The determination must be based on demonstrated management insufficiencies over time in the area of property or financial affairs. Age, eccentricity, poverty, or medical diagnosis alone are not a sufficient basis under subsection (2) of this section to justify a determination that a conservator should be appointed for the respondent.
(5) For purposes of subsection (2) of this section, an adult who resides in a long-term care facility, resides in another care setting, or is the subject of an involuntary commitment order is not considered missing or detained.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Petition for appointment of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The following may petition for the appointment of a conservator:
(a) The individual for whom the order is sought;
(b) A person interested in the estate, financial affairs, or welfare of the individual, including a person that would be adversely affected by lack of effective management of property or financial affairs of the individual; or
(c) The guardian for the individual.
(2) A petition under subsection (1) of this section must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, current street address, if different, relationship to the respondent, interest in the appointment, the name and address of any attorney representing the petitioner, and, to the extent known, the following:
(a) The respondent's name, age, principal residence, current street address, if different, and, if different, address of the dwelling in which it is proposed the respondent will reside if the petition is granted;
(b) The name and address of the respondent's:
(i) Spouse or domestic partner or, if the respondent has none, an adult with whom the respondent has shared household responsibilities for more than six months in the twelve-month period before the filing of the petition;
(ii) Adult children or, if none, each parent and adult sibling of the respondent, or, if none, at least one adult nearest in kinship to the respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence; and
(iii) Adult stepchildren whom the respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom the respondent had an ongoing relationship during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition;
(c) The name and current address of each of the following, if applicable:
(i) A person responsible for the care or custody of the respondent;
(ii) Any attorney currently representing the respondent;
(iii) The representative payee appointed by the social security administration for the respondent;
(iv) A guardian or conservator acting for the respondent in this state or another jurisdiction;
(v) A trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which the respondent is a beneficiary;
(vi) The fiduciary appointed for the respondent by the department of veterans affairs;
(vii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(viii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(ix) A person known to have routinely assisted the respondent with decision making in the six-month period immediately before the filing of the petition;
(x) Any proposed conservator, including a person nominated by the respondent, if the respondent is twelve years of age or older; and
(xi) If the individual for whom a conservator is sought is a minor:
(A) An adult not otherwise listed with whom the minor resides; and
(B) Each person not otherwise listed that had primary care or custody of the minor for at least sixty days during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition or for at least seven hundred thirty days during the five years immediately before the filing of the petition;
(d) A general statement of the respondent's property with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of other anticipated income or receipts;
(e) The reason conservatorship is necessary, including a brief description of:
(i) The nature and extent of the respondent's alleged need;
(ii) If the petition alleges the respondent is missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States, the relevant circumstances, including the time and nature of the disappearance or detention and any search or inquiry concerning the respondent's whereabouts;
(iii) Any protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's alleged need which has been considered or implemented;
(iv) If no protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternatives have been considered or implemented, the reason it has not been considered or implemented; and
(v) The reason a protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternative is insufficient to meet the respondent's need;
(f) Whether the petitioner seeks a limited conservatorship or a full conservatorship;
(g) If the petitioner seeks a full conservatorship, the reason a limited conservatorship or protective arrangement instead of conservatorship is not appropriate;
(h) If the petition includes the name of a proposed conservator, the reason the proposed conservator should be appointed;
(i) If the petition is for a limited conservatorship, a description of the property to be placed under the conservator's control and any requested limitation on the authority of the conservator;
(j) Whether the respondent needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings; and
(k) The name and address of an attorney representing the petitioner, if any.



Notice and hearing for appointment of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) All petitions filed under RCW 11.130.365 for appointment of a conservator shall be heard within sixty days unless an extension of time is requested by a party or the court visitor within such sixty-day period and granted for good cause shown. If an extension is granted, the court shall set a new hearing date.
(2)(a) A copy of a petition under RCW 11.130.365 and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the respondent, the court visitor appointed under RCW 11.130.380, and the appointed or proposed guardian not more than five court days after the petition under RCW 11.130.365 has been filed. If the respondent's whereabouts are unknown or personal service cannot be made, service on the respondent must be made by publication.
(b) Notice under this subsection shall include a clear and easily readable statement of the legal rights of the respondent that could be restricted or transferred to a conservator by a conservatorship order as well as the right to counsel of choice and to a jury trial whether a basis exists under RCW 11.130.360(2) for the appointment of a conservator and the issue of the respondent's rights that will be retained or restricted if a conservator is appointed. Such notice must be in substantially the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.657 and must be double-spaced and in a type size not smaller than sixteen-point font. The court may not grant the petition if notice substantially complying with this subsection is not served on the respondent.
(3) In a proceeding on a petition under RCW 11.130.365, the notice required under subsection (2) of this section must be served upon the persons required to be listed in the petition under RCW 11.130.365(2) (a) through (c) and any other notice party. Failure to give notice under this subsection does not preclude the court from appointing a conservator.
(4) After the appointment of a conservator, notice of a hearing on a petition for an order under this article, together with a copy of the petition, must be given to:
(a) The individual subject to conservatorship, if the individual is twelve years of age or older and not missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States;
(b) The conservator; and
(c) Any other notice party or person the court determines pursuant to RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent court order.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Order to preserve or apply property while proceeding pending. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

While a petition under RCW 11.130.365 is pending, after preliminary hearing and without notice to others, the court may issue an order to preserve and apply property of the respondent as required for the support of the respondent or an individual who is in fact dependent on the respondent. The court may appoint a special agent to assist in implementing the order.



Appointment and role of court visitor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) If the respondent in a proceeding to appoint a conservator is a minor, the court may appoint a court visitor to investigate a matter related to the petition or inform the minor or a parent of the minor about the petition or a related matter.
(2) If the respondent in a proceeding to appoint a conservator is an adult, the court shall appoint a court visitor. The duties and reporting requirements of the court visitor are limited to the relief requested in the petition. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the type of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the petition.
(3) The court, in the order appointing court visitor, shall specify the hourly rate the court visitor may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the court visitor may charge without additional court review and approval. The fee shall be charged to the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding unless the court finds that such payment would result in substantial hardship upon such person, in which case the county shall be responsible for such costs: PROVIDED, That the court may charge such fee to the petitioner, the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding, or any person who has appeared in the action; or may allocate the fee, as it deems just. If the petition is found to be frivolous or not brought in good faith, the court visitor fee shall be charged to the petitioner. The court shall not be required to provide for the payment of a fee to any salaried employee of a public agency.
(4)(a) The court visitor appointed under subsection (1) or (2) of this section shall within five days of receipt of notice of appointment file with the court and serve, either personally or by certified mail with return receipt, the respondent or his or her legal counsel, the petitioner or his or her legal counsel, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.080 with a statement including: His or her training relating to the duties as a court visitor; his or her criminal history as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 for the period covering ten years prior to the appointment; his or her hourly rate, if compensated; whether the court visitor has had any contact with a party to the proceeding prior to his or her appointment; and whether he or she has an apparent conflict of interest. Within three days of the later of the actual service or filing of the court visitor's statement, any party may set a hearing and file and serve a motion for an order to show cause why the court visitor should not be removed for one of the following three reasons:
(i) Lack of expertise necessary for the proceeding;
(ii) An hourly rate higher than what is reasonable for the particular proceeding; or
(iii) A conflict of interest.
(b) Notice of the hearing shall be provided to the court visitor and all parties. If, after a hearing, the court enters an order replacing the court visitor, findings shall be included, expressly stating the reasons for the removal. If the court visitor is not removed, the court has the authority to assess to the moving party attorneys' fees and costs related to the motion. The court shall assess attorneys' fees and costs for frivolous motions.
(5) A court visitor appointed under subsection (2) of this section for an adult shall interview the respondent in person and in a manner the respondent is best able to understand:
(a) Explain to the respondent the substance of the petition, the nature, purpose, and effect of the proceeding, the respondent's rights at the hearing on the petition, and the general powers and duties of a conservator;
(b) Determine the respondent's views about the appointment sought by the petitioner, including views about a proposed conservator, the conservator's proposed powers and duties, and the scope and duration of the proposed conservatorship; and
(c) Inform the respondent that all costs and expenses of the proceeding, including respondent's attorneys' fees, may be paid from the respondent's assets.
(6) A court visitor appointed under subsection (2) of this section for an adult shall:
(a) Interview the petitioner and proposed conservator, if any;
(b) Review financial records of the respondent, if relevant to the court visitor's recommendation under subsection (7)(b) of this section;
(c) Investigate whether the respondent's needs could be met by a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative and, if so, identify the arrangement or other less restrictive alternative; and
(d) Investigate the allegations in the petition and any other matter relating to the petition the court directs.
(7) A court visitor appointed under subsection (2) of this section for an adult shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the respondent, petitioner, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.080 at least fifteen days prior to the hearing on the petition filed under RCW 11.130.365, which must include:
(a) A recommendation:
(i) Regarding the appropriateness of conservatorship, or whether a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available;
(ii) If a conservatorship is recommended, whether it should be full or limited;
(iii) If a limited conservatorship is recommended, the powers to be granted to the conservator, and the property that should be placed under the conservator's control; and
(iv) If a conservatorship is recommended, the amount of the bond or other verified receipt needed under RCW 11.130.445 and 11.130.500;
(b) A statement of the qualifications of the proposed conservator and whether the respondent approves or disapproves of the proposed conservator;
(c) A statement whether the respondent declined a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.390 and what other information is available to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation;
(d) A statement whether the respondent is able to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held;
(e) A statement whether the respondent is able to participate in a hearing and which identifies any technology or other form of support that would enhance the respondent's ability to participate; and
(f) Any other matter the court directs.
(8) The appointment of a court visitor has no effect on the determination of the adult respondent's legal capacity and does not overcome the presumption of legal capacity or full legal and civil rights of the adult respondent.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Appointment and role of attorney. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1)(a) The respondent shall have the right to be represented by a willing attorney of their choosing at any stage in conservatorship proceedings. Any attorney purporting to represent a respondent or person subject to conservatorship shall petition the court to be appointed to represent the respondent or person subject to conservatorship.
(b) Unless the respondent in a proceeding for appointment of a conservator is represented by an attorney, the court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent the respondent, regardless of the respondent's ability to pay, except as provided otherwise in (c) of this subsection.
(c)(i) The court must appoint an attorney to represent the respondent at public expense when either:
(A) The respondent is unable to afford an attorney;
(B) The expense of an attorney would result in substantial hardship to the respondent; or
(C) The respondent does not have practical access to funds with which to pay an attorney. If the respondent can afford an attorney but lacks practical access to funds, the court must provide an attorney and may impose a reimbursement requirement as part of a final order.
(ii) When, in the opinion of the court, the rights and interests of the respondent cannot otherwise be adequately protected and represented, the court on its own motion must appoint an attorney at any time to represent the respondent.
(iii) An attorney must be provided under this subsection (1)(c) as soon as practicable after a petition is filed and long enough before any final hearing to allow adequate time for consultation and preparation. Absent a convincing showing in the record to the contrary, a period of less than three weeks is presumed by a reviewing court to be inadequate time for consultation and preparation.
(2) An attorney representing the respondent in a proceeding for appointment of a conservator shall:
(a) Make reasonable efforts to ascertain the respondent's wishes;
(b) Advocate for the respondent's wishes to the extent reasonably ascertainable; and
(c) If the respondent's wishes are not reasonably ascertainable, advocate for the result that is the least restrictive in type, duration, and scope, consistent with the respondent's interests.
(3) The court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent a parent of a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under RCW 11.130.365 if:
(a) The parent objects to appointment of a conservator;
(b) The court determines that counsel is needed to ensure that consent to appointment of a conservator is informed; or
(c) The court otherwise determines the parent needs representation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Professional evaluation. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On receipt of a petition under RCW 11.130.360 and at the time the court appoints a court visitor under RCW 11.130.380, the court shall order a professional evaluation of the respondent.
(2) The respondent must be examined by a physician licensed to practice under chapter 18.71 or 18.57 RCW, psychologist licensed under chapter 18.83 RCW, advanced registered nurse practitioner licensed under chapter 18.79 RCW, or physician assistant licensed under chapter 18.71A RCW, selected by the court visitor who is qualified to evaluate the respondent's alleged cognitive and functional abilities and limitations and will not be advantaged or disadvantaged by a decision to grant the petition or otherwise have a conflict of interest. If the respondent opposes the professional selected by the court visitor, the court visitor shall obtain a professional evaluation from the professional selected by the respondent. The court visitor, after receiving a professional evaluation from the individual selected by the respondent, may obtain a supplemental evaluation from a different professional.
(3) The individual conducting the evaluation shall promptly provide the completed evaluation report to the court visitor who shall file the report in a sealed record with the court. Unless otherwise directed by the court, the report must contain:
(a) The professional's name, address, education, and experience;
(b) A description of the nature, type, and extent of the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities and limitations with regard to the management of the respondent's property and financial affairs;
(c) An evaluation of the respondent's mental and physical condition and, if appropriate, educational potential, adaptive behavior, and social skills;
(d) A prognosis for improvement with regard to the ability to manage the respondent's property and financial affairs;
(e) A description of the respondent's current medications, and the effect of the medications on the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities;
(f) Identification or persons with whom the professional has met or spoken with regarding the respondent; and
(g) The date of the examination on which the report is based.
(4) If the respondent declines to participate in an evaluation ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the court may proceed with the hearing under RCW 11.130.370 if the court finds that it has sufficient information to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation.
(5) A professional evaluation is not required if a petition for appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.360 is for a conservator for the property or financial affairs of a minor or for an adult missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Attendance and rights at hearing. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section, a hearing under RCW 11.130.370 may not proceed unless the respondent attends the hearing. If it is not reasonably feasible for the respondent to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held, the court shall make reasonable efforts to hold the hearing at an alternative location convenient to the respondent or allow the respondent to attend the hearing using real-time audio-visual technology.
(2) A hearing under RCW 11.130.370 may proceed without the respondent in attendance if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The respondent consistently and repeatedly has refused to attend the hearing after having been fully informed of the right to attend and the potential consequences of failing to do so;
(b) There is no practicable way for the respondent to attend and participate in the hearing even with appropriate supportive services or technological assistance; or
(c) The respondent is a minor who has received proper notice and attendance would be harmful to the minor.
(3) The respondent may be assisted in a hearing under RCW 11.130.370 by a person or persons of the respondent's choosing, assistive technology, or an interpreter or translator, or a combination of these supports. If assistance would facilitate the respondent's participation in the hearing, but is not otherwise available to the respondent, the court shall make reasonable efforts to provide it.
(4) The respondent has a right to choose an attorney to represent the respondent at a hearing under RCW 11.130.370.
(5) At a hearing under RCW 11.130.370, the respondent may:
(a) Present evidence and subpoena witnesses and documents;
(b) Examine witnesses, including any court-appointed evaluator and the visitor; and
(c) Otherwise participate in the hearing.
(6) Unless excused by the court for good cause, a proposed conservator shall attend a hearing under RCW 11.130.370.
(7) A hearing under RCW 11.130.370 must be closed on request of the respondent and a showing of good cause.
(8) Any person may request to participate in a hearing under RCW 11.130.370. The court may grant the request, with or without a hearing, on determining that the best interest of the respondent will be served. The court may impose appropriate conditions on the person's participation.



Confidentiality of records. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The existence of a proceeding for or the existence of conservatorship is a matter of public record unless the court seals the record after:
(a) The respondent, the individual subject to conservatorship, or the parent of a minor subject to conservatorship requests the record be sealed; and
(b) Either:
(i) The petition for conservatorship is dismissed; or
(ii) The conservatorship is terminated.
(2) An individual subject to a proceeding for a conservatorship, whether or not a conservator is appointed, an attorney designated by the individual, and a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order may access court records of the proceeding and resulting conservatorship, including the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510 and the conservator's report under RCW 11.130.530. A person not otherwise entitled access to court records under this section for good cause may petition the court for access to court records of the conservatorship, including the conservator's plan and report. The court shall grant access if access is in the best interest of the respondent or individual subject to conservatorship or furthers the public interest and does not endanger the welfare or financial interests of the respondent or individual.
(3) A report under RCW 11.130.380 of a court visitor or professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.390 is confidential and must be sealed on filing, but is available to:
(a) The court;
(b) The individual who is the subject of the report or evaluation, without limitation as to use;
(c) The petitioner, court visitor, petitioner's and respondent's attorneys, and proposed guardians, for purposes of the proceeding;
(d) Unless the court directs otherwise, an agent appointed under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal; and
(e) Any other person if it is in the public interest or for a purpose the court orders for good cause.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Who may be conservatorOrder of priority. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3) of this section, the court in appointing a conservator shall consider persons qualified to be a conservator in the following order of priority:
(a) A conservator, other than a temporary or emergency conservator, currently acting for the respondent in another jurisdiction;
(b) A person nominated as conservator by the respondent, including the respondent's most recent nomination made in a power of attorney for finances;
(c) An agent appointed by the respondent to manage the respondent's property under a power of attorney for finances;
(d) A spouse or domestic partner of the respondent;
(e) A relative or other individual who has shown special care and concern for the respondent; and
(f) A certified professional guardian or conservator or other entity the court determines is suitable.
(2) If two or more persons have equal priority under subsection (1) of this section, the court shall select as conservator the person the court considers best qualified. In determining the best qualified person, the court shall consider the person's relationship with the respondent, the person's skills, the expressed wishes of the respondent, the extent to which the person and the respondent have similar values and preferences, and the likelihood the person will be able to perform the duties of a conservator successfully.
(3) The court, acting in the best interest of the respondent, may decline to appoint as conservator a person having priority under subsection (1) of this section and appoint a person having a lower priority or no priority.
(4) A person that provides paid services to the respondent, or an individual who is employed by a person that provides paid services to the respondent or is the spouse, domestic partner, parent, or child of an individual who provides or is employed to provide paid services to the respondent, may not be appointed as conservator unless:
(a) The individual is related to the respondent by blood or law; or
(b) The court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is the best qualified person available for appointment and the appointment is in the best interest of the respondent.
(5) An owner, operator, or employee of a long-term care facility at which the respondent is receiving care may not be appointed as conservator unless the owner, operator, or employee is related to the respondent by blood or law.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Order of appointment of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A court order appointing a conservator for a minor must include findings to support appointment of a conservator and, if a full conservatorship is granted, the reason a limited conservatorship would not meet the identified needs of the minor.
(2) A court order appointing a conservator for a minor may dispense with the requirement for the conservator to file reports with the court under RCW 11.130.530 if all the property of the minor subject to the conservatorship is protected by a verified receipt.
(3) A court order appointing a conservator for an adult must:
(a) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence has established that the identified needs of the respondent cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternatives, including use of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making; and
(b) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established the respondent was given proper notice of the hearing on the petition.
(4) A court order establishing a full conservatorship for an adult must state the basis for granting a full conservatorship and include specific findings to support the conclusion that a limited conservatorship would not meet the functional needs of the adult.
(5) A court order establishing a limited conservatorship must state the specific property placed under the control of the conservator and the powers granted to the conservator.
(6) The court, as part of an order establishing a conservatorship, shall identify any person that subsequently is entitled to:
(a) Notice of the rights of the individual subject to conservatorship under RCW 11.130.425(2);
(b) Notice of a sale of or surrender of a lease to the primary dwelling of the individual;
(c) Notice that the conservator has delegated a power that requires court approval under RCW 11.130.435 or substantially all powers of the conservator;
(d) Notice that the conservator will be unavailable to perform the conservator's duties for more than one month;
(e) A copy of the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510 and the conservator's report under RCW 11.130.530;
(f) Access to court records relating to the conservatorship;
(g) Notice of a transaction involving a substantial conflict between the conservator's fiduciary duties and personal interests;
(h) Notice of the death or significant change in the condition of the individual;
(i) Notice that the court has limited or modified the powers of the conservator; and
(j) Notice of the removal of the conservator.
(7) If an individual subject to conservatorship is an adult, the spouse, domestic partner, and adult children of the adult subject to conservatorship are entitled under subsection (6) of this section to notice unless the court orders otherwise based on good cause. Good cause includes the court's determination that notice would be contrary to the preferences or prior directions of the adult subject to conservatorship.
(8) If an individual subject to conservatorship is a minor, each parent and adult sibling of the minor is entitled under subsection (6) of this section to notice unless the court determines notice would not be in the best interest of the minor.
(9) All orders establishing a conservatorship for an adult must contain:
(a) A conservatorship summary placed directly below the case caption or on a separate cover page in the form or substantially the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.665;
(b) The date which the limited conservator or conservator must file the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510;
(c) The date which the limited conservator or conservator must file an inventory under RCW 11.130.515;
(d) The date by which the court will review the conservator's plan as required by RCW 11.130.510;
(e) The report interval which the conservator must file its report under RCW 11.130.530. The report interval may be annual, biennial, or triennial;
(f) The date the limited conservator or conservator must file its report under RCW 11.130.530. The due date of the filing of the report shall be within ninety days after the anniversary date of the appointment;
(g) The date for the court to review the report under RCW 11.130.530 and enter its order. The court shall conduct the review within one hundred twenty days after the anniversary date of the appointment.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Notice of order of appointmentRights. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservator appointed under RCW 11.130.420 shall give to the individual subject to conservatorship and to all other persons entitled to notice pursuant to an order under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order a copy of the order of appointment, together with notice of the right to request termination or modification. The order and notice must be given not later than fourteen days after the appointment.
(2) Not later than thirty days after appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.420, the conservator shall give to the individual subject to conservatorship and any other person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) a statement of the rights of the individual subject to conservatorship and procedures to seek relief if the individual is denied those rights. The statement must be in plain language, in at least sixteen-point font, and to the extent feasible, in a language in which the individual subject to conservatorship is proficient. The statement must notify the individual subject to conservatorship of the right to:
(a) Seek termination or modification of the conservatorship, or removal of the conservator, and choose an attorney to represent the individual in these matters;
(b) Participate in decision making to the extent reasonably feasible;
(c) Receive a copy of the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510, the conservator's inventory under RCW 11.130.515, and the conservator's report under RCW 11.130.530; and
(d) Object to the conservator's inventory, plan, or report.
(3) If a conservator is appointed for the reasons stated in RCW 11.130.360(2)(a)(ii) and the individual subject to conservatorship is missing, notice under this section to the individual is not required.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Emergency conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A person interested in an individual's welfare, including the individual for whom the order is sought, may petition for appointment of an emergency conservator for the individual.
(2) An emergency petition under subsection (1) of this section must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, and current street address, if different, and[,] to the extent known, the following:
(a) The respondent's name, age, principal residence[,] and current street address, if different;
(b) The name and address of the respondent's:
(i) Spouse or domestic partner or, if the respondent has none, an adult with whom the respondent has shared household responsibilities for more than six months in the twelve-month period immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(ii) Adult children or, if none, each parent and adult sibling of the respondent, or, if none, at least one adult nearest in kinship to the respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence; and
(iii) Adult stepchildren whom the respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom the respondent had an ongoing relationship in the two-year period immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(c) The name and current address of each of the following, if applicable:
(i) A person responsible for care of the respondent;
(ii) Any attorney currently representing the respondent;
(iii) Any representative payee appointed by the social security administration for the respondent;
(iv) A guardian or conservator acting for the respondent in this state or in another jurisdiction;
(v) A trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which the respondent is a beneficiary;
(vi) Any fiduciary for the respondent appointed by the department of veterans affairs;
(vii) Any representative payee or authorized representative or protective payee;
(viii) An agent designated under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(ix) An agent designated under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(x) A person nominated as conservator by the respondent;
(xi) A person nominated as conservator by the respondent's parent or spouse or domestic partner in a will or other signed record;
(xii) A proposed emergency conservator, and the reason the proposed emergency conservator should be selected; and
(xiii) A person known to have routinely assisted the respondent with decision making during the six months immediately before the filing of the emergency petition;
(d) The reason an emergency conservatorship is necessary, including a specific description of:
(i) The nature and extent of the emergency situation;
(ii) The nature and extent of the individual's alleged emergency need that arose because of the emergency situation;
(iii) The substantial and irreparable harm to the individual's property or financial interests that is likely to be prevented by the appointment of an emergency conservator;
(iv) All protective arrangements or other less restrictive alternatives that have been considered or implemented to meet the individual's alleged emergency needs instead of emergency conservatorship;
(v) If no protective arrangements or other less restrictive alternatives have been considered or implemented instead of emergency conservatorship, the reason they have not been considered or implemented; and
(vi) The reason a protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternative instead of emergency conservatorship is insufficient to meet the individual's alleged emergency need;
(e) The reason the petitioner believes that a basis for appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.360 exists;
(f) Whether the petitioner intends to also seek conservatorship for an individual under RCW 11.130.365;
(g) The reason the petitioner believes that no other person appears to have authority and willingness to act to address the individual's identified needs caused by the emergency circumstances;
(h) The specific powers to be granted to the proposed emergency conservator and a description of how those powers will be used to meet the individual's alleged emergency need;
(i) If the individual has property other than personal effects, a general statement of the individual's property, with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of other anticipated income or receipts; and
(j) Whether the individual needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings.
(3) The requirements of RCW 11.130.090 apply to an emergency conservator appointed for an individual with the following exceptions for any proposed emergency conservator required to complete the training under RCW 11.130.090:
(a) The proposed emergency conservator shall present evidence of the successful completion of the required training video or web cast to the court no later than the hearing on the petition for appointment of an emergency conservator for an individual; and
(b) The superior court may defer the completion of the training requirement to a date no later than fourteen days after appointment if the petitioner requests an extension of time to complete the training due to emergent circumstances beyond the control of [the] petitioner.
(4) On its own or on petition for appointment of an emergency conservator for an individual after a petition has been filed under RCW 11.130.365, the court may appoint an emergency conservator for the individual if the court makes specific findings based on clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) An emergency exists such that appointment of an emergency conservator is likely to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the individual's property or financial interests;
(b) The individual's identified needs caused by the emergency cannot be met by a protective arrangement or other less restrictive alternative instead of emergency conservatorship;
(c) No other person appears to have authority and willingness to act to address the individual's identified needs caused by the emergency circumstances; and
(d) There is reason to believe that a basis for appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.360 exists.
(5) If the court acts on its own to appoint an emergency conservator after a petition has been filed under RCW 11.130.365, all requirements of this section shall be met.
(6) A court order appointing an emergency conservator for an individual shall:
(a) Grant only the specific powers necessary to meet the individual's identified emergency need and to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the individual's property or financial interests;
(b) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established that an emergency exists such that appointment of an emergency conservator is likely to prevent substantial and irreparable harm to the individual's property or financial interests;
(c) Include a specific finding that the identified emergency need of the individual cannot be met by a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative, including any relief available under chapter 74.34 RCW or use of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making;
(d) Include a specific finding that clear and convincing evidence established the adult respondent was given proper notice of the hearing on the petition;
(e) State that the individual subject to emergency conservatorship retains all rights the individual enjoyed prior to the emergency conservatorship with the exception of the rights not retained during the period of emergency conservatorship;
(f) Require the emergency conservator to furnish a bond or other security under RCW 11.130.445;
(g) Include the date that the sixty-day period of emergency conservatorship ends, and the date the emergency conservator's report, required by this section, is due to the court; and
(h) Identify any person or notice party that subsequently is entitled to:
(i) Notice of the rights of the individual;
(ii) Notice of a change in the primary dwelling of the individual;
(iii) Notice of the removal of the conservator;
(iv) A copy of the emergency conservator's plan and the emergency conservator's report under this section;
(v) Access to court records relating to the emergency conservatorship;
(vi) Notice of the death or significant change in the condition of the individual;
(vii) Notice that the court has limited or modified the powers of the emergency conservator; and
(viii) Notice of the removal of the emergency conservator.
(7) A spouse, a domestic partner, and adult children of an adult subject to emergency conservatorship are entitled to notice under this section unless the court orders otherwise based on good cause. Good cause includes the court's determination that notice would be contrary to the preferences or prior directions of the individual subject to emergency conservatorship or in the best interest of the individual.
(8) The duration of authority of an emergency conservator may not exceed sixty days and the emergency conservator may exercise only the powers specified in the order of appointment. Upon a motion by the emergency conservator, with notice served upon all applicable notice parties, the emergency conservator's authority may be extended once for not more than sixty days if the court finds that the conditions for appointment of an emergency conservator under subsection (4) of this section continue.
(9) Immediately on filing of a petition for an emergency conservator for an adult, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the adult in the proceeding. An order appointing an emergency conservator for an adult may not be entered unless the adult respondent, the adult respondent's attorney, and the court visitor appointed under subsection (10) of this section have received a minimum of fourteen days' notice of the date, time, and place of a hearing on the petition. A copy of the emergency petition and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the adult respondent, the adult respondent's attorney, and the court visitor appointed under subsection (10) of this section not more than two court days after the petition has been filed. The notice must inform the respondent of the adult respondent's rights at the hearing, including the right to an attorney and to attend the hearing. The notice must include a description of the nature, purpose, and consequences of granting the emergency petition. The court shall not grant the emergency petition if notice substantially complying with this subsection is not served on the respondent.
(10)(a) On receipt of a petition for appointment of emergency conservator for an individual, the court:
(i) Shall appoint a court visitor if an emergency conservator is sought for an adult; or
(ii) May appoint a court visitor if an emergency conservator is sought for a minor.
(b) Notice of appointment of the court visitor must be served upon the court visitor within two days of appointment. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the type of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the emergency petition. The court, in the order appointing a court visitor, shall specify the hourly rate the [court] visitor may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the court visitor may charge without additional court review and approval.
(c) The court visitor shall within two days of service of notice of appointment file with the court and serve, either personally or by certified mail with return receipt, the respondent or the respondent's legal counsel, the petitioner or the petitioner's legal counsel, and any notice party with a statement including the court visitor's: Training relating to the duties as a court visitor; criminal history as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 for the period covering ten years prior to the appointment; hourly rate, if compensated; contact, if any, with a party to the proceeding prior to appointment; and apparent or actual conflicts of interest.
(d) A court visitor appointed under this section shall use due diligence to attempt to interview the adult respondent in person and, in a manner the individual is best able to understand:
(i) Explain to the adult respondent the substance of the emergency petition, the nature, purpose, and effect of the proceeding, the respondent's rights at the hearing on the petition, and the proposed specific powers and duties of the proposed conservator as stated in the emergency petition;
(ii) Determine the adult respondent's views about the emergency appointment sought by the petitioner, including views about a proposed emergency conservator, the emergency conservator's proposed powers and duties, and the scope and duration of the proposed emergency conservatorship; and
(iii) Inform the adult respondent that all costs and expenses of the proceeding, including but not limited to the adult respondent's attorneys' fees, the appointed conservator's fees, and the appointed conservator's attorneys' fees, will be paid from the individual's assets upon approval by the court.
(e) The court visitor appointed under this section shall:
(i) Interview the petitioner and proposed emergency conservator;
(ii) Use due diligence to attempt to visit the adult respondent's present dwelling;
(iii) Use due diligence to attempt to obtain information from any physician or other person known to have treated, advised, or assessed the adult respondent's relevant physical or mental condition; and
(iv) Investigate the allegations in the emergency petition and any other matter relating to the emergency petition the court directs.
(f) A court visitor appointed under this section shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the petitioner, the adult subject to the emergency conservatorship, and any notice party at least seven days prior to the hearing on the emergency petition, which must include:
(i) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of emergency conservatorship, including whether a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available, and if an emergency conservatorship is recommended;
(ii) A detailed summary of the alleged emergency and the substantial and irreparable harm to the individual's property or finances that is likely to be prevented by the appointment of an emergency conservator;
(iii) A statement as to whether the alleged emergency and the respondent's alleged needs are likely to require an extension of sixty days as authorized under this section;
(iv) The specific powers to be granted to the emergency conservator and how the specific powers will address the alleged emergency and the respondent's alleged need;
(v) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of an ongoing conservatorship for an individual, including whether a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available;
(vi) A statement of the qualifications of the proposed emergency conservator and whether the respondent approves or disapproves of the proposed emergency conservator, and the reasons for such approval or disapproval;
(vii) A recommendation whether a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.390 is necessary;
(viii) A statement whether the respondent is able to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held;
(ix) A statement whether the respondent is able to participate in a hearing which identifies any technology or other form of support that would enhance the respondent's ability to participate; and
(x) Any other matter the court directs.
(11) An emergency conservator shall:
(a) Comply with the requirements of RCW 11.130.505 and the requirements of this chapter that pertain to the rights of an individual subject to conservatorship;
(b) Not have authority to make decisions or take actions that a conservator for an individual is prohibited by law from having; and
(c) Be subject to the same special limitations on a conservator's power that apply to a conservator for an individual.
(12) Appointment of an emergency conservator under this section is not a determination that a basis exists for appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.360.
(13) The court may remove an emergency conservator appointed under this section at any time.
(14) The emergency conservator shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the individual subject to emergency conservatorship, and any notice party no later than forty-five days after appointment. The report shall include specific and updated information regarding the emergency alleged in the emergency petition, the individual's emergency needs, all actions and decisions by the emergency conservator, and a recommendation as to whether a conservator for an individual should be appointed. If the appointment of the emergency conservator is extended for an additional sixty days, the emergency conservator shall file a second report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the individual subject to emergency conservatorship, and any notice party no later than forty-five days after the emergency conservatorship is extended by the court, which shall include the same information required for the first report. The emergency conservator shall make any other report the court requires.
(15) The court shall issue letters of emergency conservatorship to the emergency conservator in compliance with RCW 11.130.040.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Powers of conservator requiring court approval. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise ordered by the court, a conservator must give notice to persons entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.370(4) and receive specific authorization by the court before the conservator may exercise with respect to the conservatorship the power to:
(a) Make a gift, except a gift of de minimis value;
(b) Sell, encumber an interest in, or surrender a lease to the primary dwelling of the individual subject to conservatorship;
(c) Sell, or encumber an interest in, any other real estate;
(d) Convey, release, or disclaim a contingent or expectant interest in property, including marital property and any right of survivorship incident to joint tenancy or tenancy by the entireties;
(e) Exercise or release a power of appointment;
(f) Create a revocable or irrevocable trust of property of the conservatorship estate, whether or not the trust extends beyond the duration of the conservatorship, or revoke or amend a trust revocable by the individual subject to conservatorship;
(g) Exercise a right to elect an option or change a beneficiary under an insurance policy or annuity or surrender the policy or annuity for its cash value;
(h) Exercise a right to a quasi-community property share under RCW 26.16.230 or a right to an elective share under other law in the estate of a deceased spouse or domestic partner of the individual subject to conservatorship or renounce or disclaim a property interest;
(i) Grant a creditor priority for payment over creditors of the same or higher class if the creditor is providing property or services used to meet the basic living and care needs of the individual subject to conservatorship and preferential treatment otherwise would be impermissible under RCW 11.130.555(5);
(j) Make, modify, amend, or revoke the will of the individual subject to conservatorship in compliance with chapter 11.12 RCW;
(k) Acquire or dispose of property, including real property in another state, for cash or on credit, at public or private sale, and manage, develop, improve, exchange, partition, change the character of, or abandon property;
(l) Make ordinary or extraordinary repairs or alterations in a building or other structure, demolish any improvement, or raze an existing or erect a new party wall or building;
(m) Subdivide or develop land, dedicate land to public use, make or obtain the vacation of a plat and adjust a boundary, adjust a difference in valuation of land, exchange or partition land by giving or receiving consideration, and dedicate an easement to public use without consideration;
(n) Enter for any purpose into a lease of property as lessor or lessee, with or without an option to purchase or renew, for a term within or extending beyond the term of the conservatorship; and
(o) Structure the finances of the individual subject to conservatorship to establish eligibility for a public benefit including by making gifts consistent with the individual's preferences, values, and prior directions, if the conservator's action does not jeopardize the individual's welfare and otherwise is consistent with the conservator's duties.
(2) In approving a conservator's exercise of a power listed in subsection (1) of this section, the court shall consider primarily the decision the individual subject to conservatorship would make if able, to the extent the decision can be ascertained.
(3) To determine under subsection (2) of this section the decision the individual subject to conservatorship would make if able, the court shall consider the individual's prior or current directions, preferences, opinions, values, and actions, to the extent actually known or reasonably ascertainable by the conservator. The court also shall consider:
(a) The financial needs of the individual subject to conservatorship and individuals who are in fact dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship for support, and the interests of creditors of the individual;
(b) Possible reduction of income, estate, inheritance, or other tax liabilities;
(c) Eligibility for governmental assistance;
(d) The previous pattern of giving or level of support provided by the individual;
(e) Any existing estate plan or lack of estate plan of the individual;
(f) The life expectancy of the individual and the probability the conservatorship will terminate before the individual's death; and
(g) Any other relevant factor.
(4) A conservator may not revoke or amend a power of attorney for finances executed by the individual subject to conservatorship. If a power of attorney for finances is in effect, a decision of the agent within the scope of the agent's authority takes precedence over that of the conservator, unless the court orders otherwise. The court has authority to revoke or amend any power of attorney executed by the adult.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Petition for order after appointment. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

An individual subject to conservatorship or a person interested in the welfare of the individual may petition for an order:
(1) Requiring the conservator to furnish a bond or collateral or additional bond or collateral or allowing a reduction in a bond or collateral previously furnished;
(2) Requiring an accounting for the administration of the conservatorship estate;
(3) Directing distribution;
(4) Removing the conservator and appointing a temporary or successor conservator;
(5) Modifying the type of appointment or powers granted to the conservator, if the extent of protection or management previously granted is excessive or insufficient to meet the individual's needs, including because the individual's abilities or supports have changed;
(6) Rejecting or modifying the conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510, the conservator's inventory under RCW 11.130.515, or the conservator's report under RCW 11.130.530; or
(7) Granting other appropriate relief.



BondAlternative verified receipt. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (3) and (4) of this section, the court shall require a conservator to furnish a bond with a surety the court specifies, or require a verified receipt, conditioned on faithful discharge of all duties of the conservator. The court may waive the requirement only if the court finds that a bond or other verified receipt is not necessary to protect the interests of the individual subject to conservatorship. Except as otherwise provided in subsections (3) and (4) of this section, the court may not waive the requirement if the conservator is in the business of serving as a conservator and is being paid for the conservator's service.
(2) Unless the court directs otherwise, the bond required under this section must be in the amount of the aggregate capital value of the conservatorship estate, plus the estimated income for the accounting and report review interval, less the value of property deposited under a verified receipt requiring a court order for its removal and real property the conservator lacks power to sell or convey without specific court authorization. The court, in place of surety on a bond, may accept collateral for the performance of the bond, including a pledge of securities or a mortgage of real property.
(3) A regulated financial institution qualified to do trust business in this state is not required to give a bond under this section.
(4) In all conservatorships where the person subject to conservatorship has total assets of a value of less than three thousand dollars, the court may dispense with the requirement of a bond: PROVIDED, That the conservator swears to report to the court any changes in the total assets of the person subject to conservatorship increasing their value to over three thousand dollars: PROVIDED FURTHER, That the conservator files a yearly statement showing the monthly income of the person subject to conservatorship if such monthly income, excluding moneys from state or federal benefits, is over the sum of five hundred dollars per month for any three consecutive months.



Terms and requirements of bond. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The following rules apply to the bond required under RCW 11.130.445:
(a) Except as otherwise provided by the bond, the surety and the conservator are jointly and severally liable.
(b) By executing a bond provided by a conservator, the surety submits to the personal jurisdiction of the court that issued letters of office to the conservator in a proceeding relating to the duties of the conservator in which the surety is named as a party. Notice of the proceeding must be given to the surety at the address shown in the records of the court in which the bond is filed and any other address of the surety then known to the person required to provide the notice.
(c) On petition of a successor conservator or person affected by a breach of the obligation of the bond, a proceeding may be brought against the surety for breach of the obligation of the bond.
(d) A proceeding against the bond may be brought until liability under the bond is exhausted.
(2) A proceeding may not be brought under this section against a surety of a bond on a matter as to which a proceeding against the conservator is barred.
(3) If a bond under RCW 11.130.445 is not renewed by the conservator, the surety or sureties immediately shall give notice to the court and the individual subject to conservatorship.



Duties of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservator is a fiduciary and has duties of prudence and loyalty to the individual subject to conservatorship.
(2) A conservator shall promote the self-determination of the individual subject to conservatorship and, to the extent feasible, encourage the individual to participate in decisions, act on the individual's own behalf, and develop or regain the capacity to manage the individual's personal affairs.
(3) In making a decision for an individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator shall make the decision the conservator reasonably believes the individual would make if able, unless doing so would fail to preserve the resources needed to maintain the individual's well-being and lifestyle or otherwise unreasonably harm or endanger the welfare or personal or financial interests of the individual. To determine the decision the individual would make if able, the conservator shall consider the individual's prior or current directions, preferences, opinions, values, and actions, to the extent actually known or reasonably ascertainable by the conservator.
(4) If a conservator cannot make a decision under subsection (3) of this section because the conservator does not know and cannot reasonably determine the decision the individual subject to conservatorship probably would make if able, or the conservator reasonably believes the decision the individual would make would fail to preserve resources needed to maintain the individual's well-being and lifestyle or otherwise unreasonably harm or endanger the welfare or personal or financial interests of the individual, the conservator shall act in accordance with the best interests of the individual. In determining the best interests of the individual, the conservator shall consider:
(a) Information received from professionals and persons that demonstrate sufficient interest in the welfare of the individual;
(b) Other information the conservator believes the individual would have considered if the individual were able to act; and
(c) Other factors a reasonable person in the circumstances of the individual would consider, including consequences for others.
(5) Except when inconsistent with the conservator's duties under subsections (1) through (4) of this section, a conservator shall invest and manage the conservatorship estate as a prudent investor would, by considering:
(a) The circumstances of the individual subject to conservatorship and the conservatorship estate;
(b) General economic conditions;
(c) The possible effect of inflation or deflation;
(d) The expected tax consequences of an investment decision or strategy;
(e) The role of each investment or course of action in relation to the conservatorship estate as a whole;
(f) The expected total return from income and appreciation of capital;
(g) The need for liquidity, regularity of income, and preservation or appreciation of capital; and
(h) The special relationship or value, if any, of specific property to the individual subject to conservatorship.
(6) The propriety of a conservator's investment and management of the conservatorship estate is determined in light of the facts and circumstances existing when the conservator decides or acts and not by hindsight.
(7) A conservator shall make a reasonable effort to verify facts relevant to the investment and management of the conservatorship estate.
(8) A conservator that has special skills or expertise, or is named conservator in reliance on the conservator's representation of special skills or expertise, has a duty to use the special skills or expertise in carrying out the conservator's duties.
(9) In investing, selecting specific property for distribution, and invoking a power of revocation or withdrawal for the use or benefit of the individual subject to conservatorship, a conservator shall consider any estate plan of the individual known or reasonably ascertainable to the conservator and may examine the will or other donative, nominative, or appointive instrument of the individual.
(10) A conservator shall maintain insurance on the insurable real and personal property of the individual subject to conservatorship, unless the conservatorship estate lacks sufficient funds to pay for insurance or the court finds:
(a) The property lacks sufficient equity; or
(b) Insuring the property would unreasonably dissipate the conservatorship estate or otherwise not be in the best interest of the individual.
(11) If a power of attorney for finances is in effect, a conservator shall cooperate with the agent to the extent feasible.
(12) A conservator has access to and authority over a digital asset of the individual subject to conservatorship to the extent provided by the revised uniform fiduciary access to digital assets act (chapter 11.120 RCW) or court order.
(13) A conservator for an adult shall notify the court if the condition of the adult has changed so that the adult is capable of exercising rights previously removed. The notice must be given immediately on learning of the change.
(14) A conservator shall notify the court within thirty days of any substantial change in the value of the property of the person subject to conservatorship and shall provide a copy of the notice to the person subject to guardianship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent court order, and any other person the court has determined is entitled to notice and schedule a hearing for the court to review the adequacy of the bond or other verified receipt under RCW 11.130.445 and 11.130.500.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Conservator's plan. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservator, not later than ninety days after appointment, shall file with the court a plan for protecting, managing, expending, and distributing the assets of the conservatorship estate. The plan must be based on the needs of the individual subject to conservatorship and take into account the best interest of the individual as well as the individual's preferences, values, and prior directions, to the extent known to or reasonably ascertainable by the conservator. The conservator shall include in the plan:
(a) A budget containing projected expenses and resources, including an estimate of the total amount of fees the conservator anticipates charging per year and a statement or list of the amount the conservator proposes to charge for each service the conservator anticipates providing to the individual;
(b) How the conservator will involve the individual in decisions about management of the conservatorship estate;
(c) Any step the conservator plans to take to develop or restore the ability of the individual to manage the conservatorship estate; and
(d) An estimate of the duration of the conservatorship.
(2) A conservator shall give notice of the filing of the conservator's plan under subsection (1) of this section, together with a copy of the plan, to the individual subject to conservatorship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order, and any other person the court determines. The notice must include a statement of the right to object to the plan and be given not later than fourteen days after the filing.
(3) An individual subject to conservatorship and any person entitled under subsection (2) of this section to receive notice and a copy of the conservator's plan may object to the plan.
(4) The court shall review the conservator's plan filed under subsection (1) of this section and determine whether to approve the plan or require a new plan. In deciding whether to approve the plan, the court shall consider an objection under subsection (3) of this section and whether the plan is consistent with the conservator's duties and powers. The court may not approve the plan until thirty days after its filing.
(5) After a conservator's plan under this section is approved by the court, the conservator shall provide a copy of the plan to the individual subject to conservatorship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order, and any other person the court determines.



InventoryRecords. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Not later than ninety days after appointment, a conservator shall prepare and file with the appointing court a detailed inventory of the conservatorship estate, together with an oath or affirmation that the inventory is believed to be complete and accurate as far as information permits.
(2) A conservator shall give notice of the filing of an inventory to the individual subject to conservatorship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order, and any other person the court determines. The notice must be given not later than fourteen days after the filing.
(3) A conservator shall keep records of the administration of the conservatorship estate and make them available for examination on reasonable request of the individual subject to conservatorship, a guardian for the individual, or any other person the conservator or the court determines.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Administrative powers of conservator not requiring court approval. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 11.130.435 or qualified or limited in the court's order of appointment and stated in the letters of office, a conservator has all powers granted in this section and any additional power granted to a trustee by law of this state other than this chapter.
(2) A conservator, acting reasonably and consistent with the fiduciary duties of the conservator to accomplish the purpose of the conservatorship, without specific court authorization or confirmation, may with respect to the conservatorship estate:
(a) Collect, hold, and retain property, including property in which the conservator has a personal interest and real property in another state, until the conservator determines disposition of the property should be made;
(b) Receive additions to the conservatorship estate;
(c) Continue or participate in the operation of a business or other enterprise;
(d) Acquire an undivided interest in property in which the conservator, in a fiduciary capacity, holds an undivided interest;
(e) Invest assets;
(f) Deposit funds or other property in a financial institution, including one operated by the conservator;
(g) Enter into a lease or arrangement for exploration and removal of minerals or other natural resources or a pooling or unitization agreement;
(h) Grant an option involving disposition of property or accept or exercise an option for the acquisition of property;
(i) Vote a security, in person or by general or limited proxy;
(j) Pay a call, assessment, or other sum chargeable or accruing against or on account of a security;
(k) Sell or exercise a stock subscription or conversion right;
(l) Consent, directly or through a committee or agent, to the reorganization, consolidation, merger, dissolution, or liquidation of a corporation or other business enterprise;
(m) Hold a security in the name of a nominee or in other form without disclosure of the conservatorship so that title to the security may pass by delivery;
(n) Insure:
(i) The conservatorship estate, in whole or in part, against damage or loss in accordance with RCW 11.130.505(10); and
(ii) The conservator against liability with respect to a third person;
(o) Borrow funds, with or without security, to be repaid from the conservatorship estate or otherwise;
(p) Advance funds for the protection of the conservatorship estate or the individual subject to conservatorship and all expenses, losses, and liability sustained in the administration of the conservatorship estate or because of holding any property for which the conservator has a lien on the conservatorship estate;
(q) Pay or contest a claim, settle a claim by or against the conservatorship estate or the individual subject to conservatorship by compromise, arbitration, or otherwise, or release, in whole or in part, a claim belonging to the conservatorship estate to the extent the claim is uncollectible;
(r) Pay a tax, assessment, compensation of the conservator or any guardian, and other expense incurred in the collection, care, administration, and protection of the conservatorship estate;
(s) Pay a sum distributable to the individual subject to conservatorship or an individual who is in fact dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship by paying the sum to the distributee or for the use of the distributee:
(i) To the guardian for the distributee;
(ii) To the custodian of the distributee under the uniform transfers to minors act (chapter 11.114 RCW); or
(iii) If there is no guardian, custodian, or custodial trustee, to a relative or other person having physical custody of the distributee;
(t) Bring or defend an action, claim, or proceeding in any jurisdiction for the protection of the conservatorship estate or the conservator in the performance of the conservator's duties; and
(u) Execute and deliver any instrument that will accomplish or facilitate the exercise of a power of the conservator.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Distribution from conservatorship estate. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

Except as otherwise provided in RCW 11.130.435 or qualified or limited in the court's order of appointment and stated in the letters of office, and unless contrary to a conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510, the conservator may expend or distribute income or principal of the conservatorship estate without specific court authorization or confirmation for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the individual subject to conservatorship or an individual who is in fact dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship, including the payment of child or spousal support, in accordance with the following rules:
(1) The conservator shall consider a recommendation relating to the appropriate standard of support, care, education, health, or welfare for the individual subject to conservatorship or individual who is dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship, made by a guardian for the individual subject to conservatorship, if any, and, if the individual subject to conservatorship is a minor, a recommendation made by a parent of the minor.
(2) The conservator acting in compliance with the conservator's duties under RCW 11.130.505 is not liable for an expenditure or distribution made based on a recommendation under subsection (1) of this section unless the conservator knows the expenditure or distribution is not in the best interest of the individual subject to conservatorship.
(3) In making an expenditure or distribution under this section, the conservator shall consider:
(a) The size of the conservatorship estate, the estimated duration of the conservatorship, and the likelihood the individual subject to conservatorship, at some future time, may be fully self-sufficient and able to manage the individual's financial affairs and the conservatorship estate;
(b) The accustomed standard of living of the individual subject to conservatorship and individual who is dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship;
(c) Other funds or source used for the support of the individual subject to conservatorship; and
(d) The preferences, values, and prior directions of the individual subject to conservatorship.
(4) Funds expended or distributed under this section may be paid by the conservator to any person, including the individual subject to conservatorship, as reimbursement for expenditures the conservator might have made, or in advance for services to be provided to the individual subject to conservatorship or individual who is dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship if it is reasonable to expect the services will be performed and advance payment is customary or reasonably necessary under the circumstances.



Conservator's report and accountingMonitoring. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservator shall file with the court by the date established by the court a report in a record regarding the administration of the conservatorship estate unless the court otherwise directs, on resignation or removal, on termination of the conservatorship, and at any other time the court directs.
(2) A report under subsection (1) of this section must state or contain:
(a) An accounting that lists property included in the conservatorship estate and the receipts, disbursements, liabilities, and distributions during the period for which the report is made;
(b) A list of the services provided to the individual subject to conservatorship;
(c) A copy of the conservator's most recently approved plan and a statement whether the conservator has deviated from the plan and, if so, how the conservator has deviated and why;
(d) A recommendation as to the need for continued conservatorship and any recommended change in the scope of the conservatorship;
(e) To the extent feasible, a copy of the most recent reasonably available financial statements evidencing the status of bank accounts, investment accounts, and mortgages or other debts of the individual subject to conservatorship with all but the last four digits of the account numbers and social security number redacted;
(f) Anything of more than de minimis value which the conservator, any individual who resides with the conservator, or the spouse, domestic partner, parent, child, or sibling of the conservator has received from a person providing goods or services to the individual subject to conservatorship;
(g) Any business relation the conservator has with a person the conservator has paid or that has benefited from the property of the individual subject to conservatorship; and
(h) Whether any co-conservator or successor conservator appointed to serve when a designated event occurs is alive and able to serve.
(3) The court may appoint a court visitor to review a report under this section or conservator's plan under RCW 11.130.510, interview the individual subject to conservatorship or conservator, or investigate any other matter involving the conservatorship. In connection with the report, the court may order the conservator to submit the conservatorship estate to appropriate examination in a manner the court directs.
(4) Notice of the filing under this section of a conservator's report, together with a copy of the report, must be provided to the individual subject to conservatorship, a person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order, and other persons the court determines. The notice and report must be given not later than fourteen days after filing.
(5) The court shall establish procedures for monitoring a report submitted under this section and review each report at least annually to determine whether:
(a) The reports provide sufficient information to establish the conservator has complied with the conservator's duties;
(b) The conservatorship should continue; and
(c) The conservator's requested fees, if any, should be approved.
(6) If the court determines there is reason to believe a conservator has not complied with the conservator's duties or the conservatorship should not continue, the court:
(a) Shall notify the individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator, and any other person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order;
(b) May require additional information from the conservator;
(c) May appoint a court visitor to interview the individual subject to conservatorship or conservator or investigate any matter involving the conservatorship; and
(d) Consistent with RCW 11.130.565 and 11.130.570, may hold a hearing to consider removal of the conservator, termination of the conservatorship, or a change in the powers granted to the conservator or terms of the conservatorship.
(7) If the court has reason to believe fees requested by a conservator are not reasonable, the court shall hold a hearing to determine whether to adjust the requested fees.
(8) A conservator must petition the court for approval of a report filed under this section. The court after review may approve the report. If the court approves the report, there is a rebuttable presumption the report is accurate as to a matter adequately disclosed in the report.
(9) An order, after notice and hearing, approving an interim report of a conservator filed under this section adjudicates liabilities concerning a matter adequately disclosed in the report, as to a person given notice of the report or accounting.
(10) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall set the due date for the filing of the next report to be filed under this section. The court may set the review at annual, biennial, or triennial intervals with the report due date to be within ninety days of the anniversary date of appointment. When determining the report interval, the court can consider: The length of time the conservator has been serving the person under conservatorship; whether the conservator has timely filed all required reports with the court; whether the conservator is monitored by other state or local agencies; the income of the person subject to conservatorship; the value of the property of the person subject to conservatorship; the adequacy of the bond and other verified receipt; and whether there have been any allegations of abuse, neglect, or a breach of fiduciary duty against the conservator.
(11) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall contain a conservatorship summary or accompanied by a conservatorship summary in the form or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.665.
(12) If the court approves a report filed under this section, the order approving the report shall direct the clerk of the court to reissue letters of office in the form or substantially in the same form as set forth in RCW 11.130.660 to the conservator containing an expiration date which will be within one hundred eighty days after the date the court directs the conservator file its next report.
(13) An order, after notice and hearing, approving a final report filed under this section discharges the conservator from all liabilities, claims, and causes of action by a person given notice of the report and the hearing as to a matter adequately disclosed in the report.
(14) Any requirement to establish a monitoring program under this section is subject to appropriation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Attempted transfer of property by individual subject to conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The interest of an individual subject to conservatorship in property included in the conservatorship estate is not transferable or assignable by the individual and is not subject to levy, garnishment, or similar process for claims against the individual unless allowed under RCW 11.130.555.
(2) If an individual subject to conservatorship enters into a contract after having the right to enter the contract removed by the court, the contract is void against the individual and the individual's property but is enforceable against the person that contracted with the individual.
(3) A person other than the conservator that deals with an individual subject to conservatorship with respect to property included in the conservatorship estate is entitled to protection provided by law of this state other than this chapter.



Transaction involving conflict of interest. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

A transaction involving a conservatorship estate which is affected by a substantial conflict between the conservator's fiduciary duties and personal interests is voidable unless the transaction is authorized by court order after notice to persons entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order. A transaction affected by a substantial conflict includes a sale, encumbrance, or other transaction involving the conservatorship estate entered into by the conservator, an individual with whom the conservator resides, the spouse, domestic partner, descendant, sibling, agent, or attorney of the conservator, or a corporation or other enterprise in which the conservator has a substantial beneficial interest.



Protection of person dealing with conservator.(Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A person that assists or deals with a conservator in good faith and for value in any transaction, other than a transaction requiring a court order under RCW 11.130.435, is protected as though the conservator properly exercised any power in question. Knowledge by a person that the person is dealing with a conservator alone does not require the person to inquire into the existence of authority of the conservator or the propriety of the conservator's exercise of authority, but restrictions on authority stated in letters of office, or otherwise provided by law, are effective as to the person. A person that pays or delivers property to a conservator is not responsible for proper application of the property.
(2) Protection under subsection (1) of this section extends to a procedural irregularity or jurisdictional defect in the proceeding leading to the issuance of letters of office and does not substitute for protection for a person that assists or deals with a conservator provided by comparable provisions in law of this state other than this chapter relating to a commercial transaction or simplifying a transfer of securities by a fiduciary.



Access of conservator to certain assets. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) For purposes of this section, "institution" means all financial institutions as defined in RCW 30A.22.041, all insurance companies holding a certificate of authority under chapter 48.05 RCW, or any agent who constitutes a salesperson or broker-dealer of securities under the definitions of RCW 21.20.005, individually and collectively.
(2) Institutions shall provide the conservator access and control over the assets described in (a)(vii) of this subsection, including but not limited to delivery of the asset to the conservator, upon receipt of the following:
(a) An affidavit containing as an attachment a true and correct copy of the conservator's letters of conservatorship and stating:
(i) That as of the date of the affidavit, the affiant is a duly appointed conservator with authority over assets held by the institution but owned or subject to withdrawal or delivery to a client or depositor of the institution;
(ii) The cause number of the conservatorship;
(iii) The name of the person under conservatorship and the name of the client or depositor, which names must be the same;
(iv) The account or the safety deposit box number or numbers;
(v) The address of the client or depositor;
(vi) The name and address of the affiant-conservator being provided assets or access to assets;
(vii) A description of and the value of the asset or assets, or, where the value cannot be readily ascertained, a reasonable estimate thereof, and a statement that the conservator receives delivery or control of each asset solely in its capacity as conservator;
(viii) The date the conservator assumed control over the assets; and
(ix) That a true and correct copy of the letters of conservatorship duly issued by a court to the conservator is attached to the affidavit; and
(b) An envelope, with postage prepaid, addressed to the clerk of the court issuing the letters of conservatorship. The affidavit must be sent in the envelope by the institution to the clerk of the court together with a statement signed by an agent of the institution that the description of the asset set forth in the affidavit appears to be accurate, and confirming in the case of cash assets, the value of the asset.
(3) Any conservator provided with access to a safe deposit box pursuant to subsection (1) of this section shall make an inventory of the contents of the box and attach this inventory to the affidavit before the affidavit is sent to the clerk of the court and before the contents of the box are released to the conservator. Any inventory must be prepared in the presence of an employee of the institution and the statement of the institution required under subsection (1) of this section must include a statement executed by the employee that the inventory appears to be accurate. The institution may require payment by the conservator of any fees or charges then due in connection with the asset or account and of a reasonable fee for witnessing preparation of the inventory and preparing the statement required by this subsection or subsection (1) of this section.
(4) Any institution to which an affidavit complying with subsection (1) of this section is submitted may rely on the affidavit without inquiry and is not subject to any liability of any nature whatsoever to any person whatsoever, including but not limited to the institution's client or depositor or any other person with an ownership or other interest in or right to the asset, for the reliance or for providing the conservator access and control over the asset, including but not limited to delivery of the asset to the conservator.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Death of individual subject to conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Upon the death of an individual subject to conservatorship, a conservator shall:
(a) Have authority to disburse or commit those funds under the control of the conservator as are prudent and within the means of the estate for the disposition of the deceased individual subject to conservatorship's remains. Consent for such arrangement must be secured according to RCW 68.50.160. If no person authorized by RCW 68.50.160 accepts responsibility for giving consent, the conservator may consent, subject to the provisions of this section and to the known directives of the deceased individual subject to conservatorship. Reasonable financial commitments made by a conservator pursuant to this section are binding against the estate of the deceased individual subject to conservatorship;
(b) Deliver to the court for safekeeping any will of the individual in the conservator's possession and inform the personal representative named in the will if feasible, or if not feasible, a beneficiary named in the will, of the delivery.
(2) If forty days after the death of an individual subject to conservatorship no personal representative has been appointed and no application or petition for appointment is before the court, the conservator may apply to exercise the powers and duties of a personal representative to administer and distribute the decedent's estate. The conservator shall give notice of his or her appointment and the pendency of any probate proceedings as provided in RCW 11.28.237 and shall also give notice to a person nominated as personal representative by a will of the decedent of which the conservator is aware. The court may grant the application if there is no objection and endorse the letters of office to note that the individual formerly subject to conservatorship is deceased and the conservator has acquired the powers and duties of a personal representative.
(3) On the death of an individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator shall conclude the administration of the conservatorship estate as provided in RCW 11.130.570.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Presentation and allowance of claim. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservator may pay, or secure by encumbering property included in the conservatorship estate, a claim against the conservatorship estate or the individual subject to conservatorship arising before or during the conservatorship, on presentation and allowance in accordance with the priorities under subsection (4) of this section. A claimant may present a claim by:
(a) Sending or delivering to the conservator a statement in a record of the claim, indicating its basis, the name and address of the claimant, and the amount claimed; or
(b) Filing the claim with the court, in a form acceptable to the court, and sending or delivering a copy of the claim to the conservator.
(2) A claim under subsection (1) of this section is presented on receipt by the conservator of the statement of the claim or the filing with the court of the claim, whichever first occurs. A presented claim is allowed if it is not disallowed in whole or in part by the conservator in a record sent or delivered to the claimant not later than sixty days after its presentation. Before payment, the conservator may change an allowance of the claim to a disallowance in whole or in part, but not after allowance under a court order or order directing payment of the claim. Presentation of a claim tolls until thirty days after disallowance of the claim the running of a statute of limitations that has not expired relating to the claim.
(3) A claimant whose claim under subsection (1) of this section has not been paid may petition the court to determine the claim at any time before it is barred by a statute of limitations, and the court may order its allowance, payment, or security by encumbering property included in the conservatorship estate. If a proceeding is pending against the individual subject to conservatorship at the time of appointment of the conservator or is initiated thereafter, the moving party shall give the conservator notice of the proceeding if it could result in creating a claim against the conservatorship estate.
(4) If a conservatorship estate is likely to be exhausted before all existing claims are paid, the conservator shall distribute the estate in money or in kind in payment of claims in the following order:
(a) Costs and expenses of administration;
(b) A claim of the federal or state government having priority under law other than this chapter;
(c) A claim incurred by the conservator for support, care, education, health, or welfare previously provided to the individual subject to conservatorship or an individual who is in fact dependent on the individual subject to conservatorship;
(d) A claim arising before the conservatorship; and
(e) All other claims.
(5) Preference may not be given in the payment of a claim under subsection (4) of this section over another claim of the same class. A claim due and payable may not be preferred over a claim not due unless:
(a) Doing so would leave the conservatorship estate without sufficient funds to pay the basic living and health care expenses of the individual subject to conservatorship; and
(b) The court authorizes the preference under *RCW 11.130.435(1)(h).
(6) If assets of a conservatorship estate are adequate to meet all existing claims, the court, acting in the best interest of the individual subject to conservatorship, may order the conservator to grant a security interest in the conservatorship estate for payment of a claim at a future date.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: RCW 11.130.435 was amended by 2020 c 312 § 218, changing subsection (1)(h) to subsection (1)(i), effective January 1, 2022.



Personal liability of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise agreed by a conservator, the conservator is not personally liable on a contract properly entered into in a fiduciary capacity in the course of administration of the conservatorship estate unless the conservator fails to reveal the conservator's representative capacity in the contract or before entering into the contract.
(2) A conservator is personally liable for an obligation arising from control of property of the conservatorship estate or an act or omission occurring in the course of administration of the conservatorship estate only if the conservator is personally at fault.
(3) A claim based on a contract entered into by a conservator in a fiduciary capacity, an obligation arising from control of property included in the conservatorship estate, or a tort committed in the course of administration of the conservatorship estate may be asserted against the conservatorship estate in a proceeding against the conservator in a fiduciary capacity, whether or not the conservator is personally liable for the claim.
(4) A question of liability between a conservatorship estate and the conservator personally may be determined in a proceeding for accounting, surcharge, or indemnification or another appropriate proceeding or action.



Removal of conservatorAppointment of successor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The court may remove a conservator for failure to perform the conservator's duties or other good cause and appoint a successor conservator to assume the duties of the conservator.
(2) The court shall hold a hearing to determine whether to remove a conservator and appoint a successor on:
(a) Petition of the individual subject to conservatorship, conservator, or person interested in the welfare of the individual which contains allegations that, if true, would support a reasonable belief that removal of the conservator and appointment of a successor may be appropriate, but the court may decline to hold a hearing if a petition based on the same or substantially similar facts was filed during the preceding six months;
(b) Communication from the individual subject to conservatorship, conservator, or person interested in the welfare of the individual which supports a reasonable belief that removal of the conservator and appointment of a successor may be appropriate; or
(c) Determination by the court that a hearing would be in the best interest of the individual subject to conservatorship.
(3) Notice of a hearing under subsection (2)(a) of this section and notice of the individual's right to be represented at the hearing by counsel of the individual's choosing must be given to the individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator, and any other person the court determines.
(4) An individual subject to conservatorship who seeks to remove the conservator and have a successor appointed has the right to choose an attorney to represent the individual in this matter. The court shall award reasonable attorneys' fees to the attorney as provided in RCW 11.130.100.
(5) In selecting a successor conservator, the court shall follow the priorities under RCW 11.130.415.
(6) Not later than fourteen days after appointing a successor conservator, the successor conservator shall give notice of the appointment to the individual subject to conservatorship and any person entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.420(6) or a subsequent order.



Termination or modification of conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A conservatorship for a minor terminates on the earliest of:
(a) A court order terminating the conservatorship;
(b) The minor becoming an adult or, if the minor consents or the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that substantial harm to the minor's interests is otherwise likely, attaining twenty-one years of age;
(c) Emancipation of the minor; or
(d) Death of the minor.
(2) A conservatorship for an adult terminates on order of the court or when the adult dies.
(3) An individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator, or a person interested in the welfare of the individual may petition for:
(a) Termination of the conservatorship on the ground that a basis for appointment under RCW 11.130.360 does not exist or termination would be in the best interest of the individual or for other good cause; or
(b) Modification of the conservatorship on the ground that the extent of protection or assistance granted is not appropriate or for other good cause.
(4) The court shall hold a hearing to determine whether termination or modification of a conservatorship is appropriate on:
(a) Petition under subsection (3) of this section that contains allegations that, if true, would support a reasonable belief that termination or modification of the conservatorship may be appropriate, but the court may decline to hold a hearing if a petition based on the same or substantially similar facts was filed within the preceding six months;
(b) A communication from the individual subject to conservatorship, conservator, or person interested in the welfare of the individual which supports a reasonable belief that termination or modification of the conservatorship may be appropriate, including because the functional needs of the individual or supports or services available to the individual have changed;
(c) A report from a guardian or conservator which indicates that termination or modification may be appropriate because the functional needs or supports or services available to the individual have changed or a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship or other less restrictive alternative is available; or
(d) A determination by the court that a hearing would be in the best interest of the individual.
(5) Notice of a petition under subsection (3) of this section must be given to the individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator, and any such other person the court determines.
(6) On presentation of prima facie evidence for termination of a conservatorship, the court shall order termination unless it is proven that a basis for appointment of a conservator under RCW 11.130.360 exists.
(7) The court shall modify the powers granted to a conservator if the powers are excessive or inadequate due to a change in the abilities or limitations of the individual subject to conservatorship, the individual's supports, or other circumstances.
(8) Unless the court otherwise orders for good cause, before terminating a conservatorship, the court shall follow the same procedures to safeguard the rights of the individual subject to conservatorship which apply to a petition for conservatorship.
(9) An individual subject to conservatorship who seeks to terminate or modify the terms of the conservatorship has the right to choose an attorney to represent the individual in this matter. The court shall award reasonable attorneys' fees to the attorney as provided in RCW 11.130.100.
(10) On termination of a conservatorship other than by reason of the death of the individual subject to conservatorship, property of the conservatorship estate passes to the individual. The order of termination must direct the conservator to file a final report and petition for discharge on approval by the court of the final report.
(11) On termination of a conservatorship by reason of the death of the individual subject to conservatorship, the conservator shall file a final report and petition for discharge on approval by the court of the final report within ninety days of death of the person subject to conservatorship. On approval of the final report, the conservator shall proceed expeditiously to distribute the conservatorship estate to the individual's estate or as otherwise ordered by the court. The conservator may take reasonable measures necessary to preserve the conservatorship estate until distribution can be made.
(12) The court shall issue a final order of discharge on the approval by the court of the final report and satisfaction by the conservator of any other condition the court imposed on the conservator's discharge.



Transfer for benefit of minor without appointment of conservator. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Unless a person required to transfer funds or other property to a minor knows that a conservator for the minor has been appointed or a proceeding is pending for conservatorship, the person may transfer an amount or value not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars in a twelve-month period to:
(a) A person that has care or custody of the minor and with whom the minor resides;
(b) A guardian for the minor;
(c) A custodian under the uniform transfers to minors act (chapter 11.114 RCW); or
(d) A financial institution as a deposit in an interest-bearing account or certificate solely in the name of the minor and shall give notice to the minor of the deposit.
(2) A person that transfers funds or other property under this section is not responsible for its proper application.
(3) A person that receives funds or other property for a minor under subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section may apply it only to the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor, and may not derive a personal financial benefit from it, except for reimbursement for necessary expenses. Funds not applied for these purposes must be preserved for the future support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor, and the balance, if any, transferred to the minor when the minor becomes an adult or otherwise is emancipated.



Authority for protective arrangement. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Under this article, a court:
(a) On receiving a petition for a guardianship for an adult may order a protective arrangement instead of guardianship as a less restrictive alternative to guardianship; and
(b) On receiving a petition for a conservatorship for an individual may order a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship as a less restrictive alternative to conservatorship.
(2) A person interested in an adult's welfare, including the adult or a conservator for the adult, may petition under this article for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship.
(3) The following persons may petition under this article for a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship:
(a) The individual for whom the protective arrangement is sought;
(b) A person interested in the property, financial affairs, or welfare of the individual, including a person that would be affected adversely by lack of effective management of property or financial affairs of the individual; and
(c) The guardian for the individual.



Basis for protective arrangement instead of guardianship for adult. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) After the hearing on a petition under RCW 11.130.270 for a guardianship or under RCW 11.130.580(2) for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship, the court may issue an order under subsection (2) of this section for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The respondent lacks the ability to meet essential requirements for physical health, safety, or self-care because the respondent is unable to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions, even with appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making; and
(b) The respondent's identified needs cannot be met by a less restrictive alternative.
(2) If the court makes the findings under subsection (1) of this section, the court, instead of appointing a guardian, may:
(a) Authorize or direct a transaction necessary to meet the respondent's need for health, safety, or care, including:
(i) A particular medical treatment or refusal of a particular medical treatment; or
(ii) Visitation or supervised visitation between the respondent and another person;
(b) Restrict access to the respondent by a specified person whose access places the respondent at serious risk of physical, psychological, or financial harm; and
(c) Reorder other arrangements on a limited basis that are appropriate.
(3) In deciding whether to issue an order under this section, the court shall consider the factors under RCW 11.130.330 and 11.130.335 that a guardian must consider when making a decision on behalf of an adult subject to guardianship.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Basis for protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for adult or minor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) After the hearing on a petition under RCW 11.130.365 for conservatorship for an adult or under RCW 11.130.580(3) for a protective arrangement instead of a conservatorship for an adult, the court may issue an order under subsection (3) of this section for a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for the adult if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The adult is unable to manage property or financial affairs because:
(i) Of a limitation in the ability to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions, even with appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making; or
(ii) The adult is missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States;
(b) An order under subsection (3) of this section is necessary to:
(i) Avoid harm to the adult or significant dissipation of the property of the adult; or
(ii) Obtain or provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the adult or an individual entitled to the adult's support; and
(c) The respondent's identified needs cannot be met by a less restrictive alternative.
(2) After the hearing on a petition under RCW 11.130.365 for conservatorship for a minor or under RCW 11.130.580(3) for a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for a minor, the court may issue an order under subsection (3) of this section for a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for the respondent if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the arrangement is in the minor's best interest, and:
(a) If the minor has a parent, the court gives weight to any recommendation of the parent whether an arrangement is in the minor's best interest;
(b) Either:
(i) The minor owns money or property requiring management or protection that otherwise cannot be provided;
(ii) The minor has or may have financial affairs that may be put at unreasonable risk or hindered because of the minor's age; or
(iii) The arrangement is necessary or desirable to obtain or provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor; and
(iv) The order under subsection (3) of this section is necessary or desirable to obtain or provide money needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor.
(3) If the court makes the findings under subsection (1) or (2) of this section, the court, instead of appointing a conservator, may:
(a) Authorize or direct a transaction necessary to protect the financial interest or property of the respondent, including:
(i) An action to establish eligibility for benefits;
(ii) Payment, delivery, deposit, or retention of funds or property;
(iii) Sale, mortgage, lease, or other transfer of property;
(iv) Purchase of an annuity;
(v) Entry into a contractual relationship, including a contract to provide for personal care, supportive services, education, training, or employment;
(vi) Addition to or establishment of a trust;
(vii) Ratification or invalidation of a contract, trust, will, or other transaction, including a transaction related to the property or business affairs of the respondent; or
(viii) Settlement of a claim; or
(b) Restrict access to the respondent's property by a specified person whose access to the property places the respondent at serious risk of financial harm.
(4) After the hearing on a petition under RCW 11.130.580(1)(b), whether or not the court makes the findings under subsection (1) or (2) of this section, the court may issue an order to restrict access to the respondent or the respondent's property by a specified person that the court finds by clear and convincing evidence:
(a) Through fraud, coercion, duress, or the use of deception and control caused or attempted to cause an action that would have resulted in financial harm to the respondent or the respondent's property; and
(b) Poses a serious risk of substantial financial harm to the respondent or the respondent's property.
(5) Before issuing an order under subsection (3) or (4) of this section, the court shall consider the factors under RCW 11.130.505 a conservator must consider when making a decision on behalf of an individual subject to conservatorship.
(6) Before issuing an order under subsection (3) or (4) of this section for a respondent who is a minor, the court also shall consider the best interest of the minor, the preference of the parents of the minor, and the preference of the minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older.



Petition for protective arrangement. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

A petition for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship must state the petitioner's name, principal residence, current street address, if different, relationship to the respondent, interest in the protective arrangement, the name and address of any attorney representing the petitioner, and, to the extent known, the following:
(1) The respondent's name, age, principal residence, current street address, if different, and, if different, address of the dwelling in which it is proposed the respondent will reside if the petition is granted;
(2) The name and address of the respondent's:
(a) Spouse or domestic partner or, if the respondent has none, an adult with whom the respondent has shared household responsibilities for more than six months in the twelve-month period before the filing of the petition;
(b) Adult children or, if none, each parent and adult sibling of the respondent, or, if none, at least one adult nearest in kinship to the respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence; and
(c) Adult stepchildren whom the respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom the respondent had an ongoing relationship in the two-year period immediately before the filing of the petition;
(3) The name and current address of each of the following, if applicable:
(a) A person responsible for the care or custody of the respondent;
(b) Any attorney currently representing the respondent;
(c) The representative payee appointed by the social security administration for the respondent;
(d) A guardian or conservator acting for the respondent in this state or another jurisdiction;
(e) A trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which the respondent is a beneficiary;
(f) The fiduciary appointed for the respondent by the department of veterans affairs;
(g) An agent designated under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(h) An agent designated under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is identified as the principal;
(i) A person nominated as guardian or conservator by the respondent if the respondent is twelve years of age or older;
(j) A person nominated as guardian by the respondent's parent, spouse, or domestic partner in a will or other signed record;
(k) A person known to have routinely assisted the respondent with decision making in the six-month period immediately before the filing of the petition; and
(l) If the respondent is a minor:
(i) An adult not otherwise listed with whom the respondent resides; and
(ii) Each person not otherwise listed that had primary care or custody of the respondent for at least sixty days during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition or for at least seven hundred thirty days during the five years immediately before the filing of the petition;
(4) The nature of the protective arrangement sought;
(5) The reason the protective arrangement sought is necessary, including a brief description of:
(a) The nature and extent of the respondent's alleged need;
(b) Any less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's alleged need which has been considered or implemented;
(c) If no less restrictive alternative has been considered or implemented, the reason less restrictive alternatives have not been considered or implemented; and
(d) The reason other less restrictive alternatives are insufficient to meet the respondent's alleged need;
(6) The name and current address, if known, of any person with whom the petitioner seeks to limit the respondent's contact;
(7) Whether the respondent needs an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate effectively with the court or understand court proceedings;
(8) If a protective arrangement instead of guardianship is sought and the respondent has property other than personal effects, a general statement of the respondent's property with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of any other anticipated income or receipts; and
(9) If a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship is sought, a general statement of the respondent's property with an estimate of its value, including any insurance or pension, and the source and amount of other anticipated income or receipts.



Notice and hearing. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) All petitions filed under RCW 11.130.595 for the establishment of a protective arrangement shall be heard within sixty days unless an extension of time is requested by a party or the court visitor within such sixty-day period and granted for good cause shown.
(2)(a) A copy of a petition under RCW 11.130.580 and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the respondent and the court visitor appointed under RCW 11.130.605 not more than five court days after the petition under RCW 11.130.595 has been filed.
(b) A copy of a petition under RCW 11.130.580 and notice of a hearing on the petition must be served personally on the respondent and the court visitor appointed under RCW 11.130.605 not more than five court days after the petition under RCW 11.130.595 has been filed. The notice must inform the respondent of the respondent's rights at the hearing, including the right to an attorney and to attend the hearing. The notice must include a description of the nature, purpose, and consequences of granting the petition for a protective arrangement. The court may not grant the petition if notice substantially complying with this subsection is not served on the respondent.
(3) In a proceeding on a petition under RCW 11.130.580, the notice required under subsection (2) of this section must be given to the persons required to be listed in the petition under RCW 11.130.595 (1) through (3) and any other person interested in the respondent's welfare the court determines. Failure to give notice under this subsection does not preclude the court from granting the petition.
(4) After the court has ordered a protective arrangement under this article, notice of a hearing on a petition filed under this chapter, together with a copy of the petition, must be given to the respondent and any other person the court determines.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Appointment and role of court visitor. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On filing of a petition under RCW 11.130.580 for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship, the court shall appoint a court visitor. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the type of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the petition.
(2) On filing of a petition under RCW 11.130.580 for a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for a minor, the court may appoint a court visitor to investigate a matter related to the petition or inform the minor or a parent of the minor about the petition or a related matter.
(3) On filing of a petition under RCW 11.130.580 or a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for an adult, the court shall appoint a court visitor unless the respondent is represented by an attorney appointed by the court. The court visitor must be an individual with training or experience in the types of abilities, limitations, and needs alleged in the petition.
(4) The court, in the order appointing a court visitor, shall specify the hourly rate the court visitor may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the court visitor may charge without additional court review and approval. The fee shall be charged to the person subject to a guardianship, conservatorship, or other protective arrangement proceeding unless the court finds that such payment would result in substantial hardship upon such person, in which case the county shall be responsible for such costs: PROVIDED, That the court may charge such fee to the petitioner, the person subject to a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding, or any person who has appeared in the action; or may allocate the fee, as it deems just. If the petition is found to be frivolous or not brought in good faith, the court visitor fee shall be charged to the petitioner. The court shall not be required to provide for the payment of a fee to any salaried employee of a public agency.
(5)(a) The court visitor appointed under subsection (1) or (3) of this section shall within five days of receipt of notice of appointment file with the court and serve, either personally or by certified mail with return receipt, the respondent or his or her legal counsel, the petitioner or his or her legal counsel, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.080 with a statement including: His or her training relating to the duties as a court visitor; his or her criminal history as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 for the period covering ten years prior to the appointment; his or her hourly rate, if compensated; whether the court visitor has had any contact with a party to the proceeding prior to his or her appointment; and whether he or she has an apparent conflict of interest. Within three days of the later of the actual service or filing of the court visitor's statement, any party may set a hearing and file and serve a motion for an order to show cause why the court visitor should not be removed for one of the following three reasons:
(i) Lack of expertise necessary for the proceeding;
(ii) An hourly rate higher than what is reasonable for the particular proceeding; or
(iii) A conflict of interest.
(b) Notice of the hearing shall be provided to the court visitor and all parties. If, after a hearing, the court enters an order replacing the court visitor, findings shall be included, expressly stating the reasons for the removal. If the court visitor is not removed, the court has the authority to assess to the moving party attorneys' fees and costs related to the motion. The court shall assess attorneys' fees and costs for frivolous motions.
(6) A court visitor appointed under subsection (1) or (3) of this section shall interview the respondent in person and in a manner the respondent is best able to understand:
(a) Explain to the respondent the substance of the petition, the nature, purpose, and effect of the proceeding, and the respondent's rights at the hearing on the petition;
(b) Determine the respondent's views with respect to the order sought;
(c) Inform the respondent that all costs and expenses of the proceeding, including respondent's attorneys' fees, may be paid from the respondent's assets;
(d) If the petitioner seeks an order related to the dwelling of the respondent, visit the respondent's present dwelling and any dwelling in which it is reasonably believed the respondent will live if the order is granted;
(e) If a protective arrangement instead of guardianship is sought, obtain information from any physician or other person known to have treated, advised, or assessed the respondent's relevant physical or mental condition;
(f) If a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship is sought, review financial records of the respondent, if relevant to the court visitor's recommendation under subsection (7)(b) of this section; and
(g) Investigate the allegations in the petition and any other matter relating to the petition the court directs.
(7) A court visitor under subsection (1), (2), or (3) of this section promptly shall file a report in a record with the court and provide a copy of the report to the respondent, petitioner, and any interested party entitled to notice under RCW 11.130.580 (1) through (3), at least fifteen days prior to the hearing on the petition filed under RCW 11.130.585, 11.130.590, or 11.130.595, which must include:
(a) To the extent relevant to the order sought, a summary of self-care, independent living tasks, and financial management tasks the respondent:
(i) Can manage without assistance or with existing supports;
(ii) Could manage with the assistance of appropriate supportive services, technological assistance, or supported decision making; and
(iii) Cannot manage;
(b) A recommendation regarding the appropriateness of the protective arrangement sought and whether a less restrictive alternative for meeting the respondent's needs is available;
(c) If the petition seeks to change the physical location of the dwelling of the respondent, a statement whether the proposed dwelling meets the respondent's needs and whether the respondent has expressed a preference as to the respondent's dwelling;
(d) A statement whether the respondent declined a professional evaluation under RCW 11.130.615 and what other information is available to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation;
(e) A statement whether the respondent is able to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held;
(f) A statement whether the respondent is able to participate in a hearing and which identifies any technology or other form of support that would enhance the respondent's ability to participate; and
(g) Any other matter the court directs.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Appointment and role of attorney. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1)(a) The respondent shall have the right to be represented by a willing attorney of their choosing at any stage in protective arrangement proceedings. Any attorney purporting to represent a respondent or person subject to a protective arrangement shall petition the court to be appointed to represent the respondent or person subject to a protective arrangement.
(b) Unless the respondent in a proceeding under this article is represented by an attorney, the court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent the respondent, regardless of the respondent's ability to pay, except as provided otherwise in (c) of this subsection.
(c)(i) The court must appoint an attorney to represent the respondent at public expense when either:
(A) The respondent is unable to afford an attorney;
(B) The expense of an attorney would result in substantial hardship to the respondent; or
(C) The respondent does not have practical access to funds with which to pay an attorney. If the respondent can afford an attorney but lacks practical access to funds, the court must provide an attorney and may impose a reimbursement requirement as part of a final order.
(ii) When, in the opinion of the court, the rights and interests of the respondent cannot otherwise be adequately protected and represented, the court on its own motion must appoint an attorney at any time to represent the respondent.
(iii) An attorney must be provided under this subsection (1)(c) as soon as practicable after a petition is filed and long enough before any final hearing to allow adequate time for consultation and preparation. Absent a convincing showing in the record to the contrary, a period of less than three weeks is presumed by a reviewing court to be inadequate time for consultation and preparation.
(2) An attorney representing the respondent in a proceeding under this article shall:
(a) Make reasonable efforts to ascertain the respondent's wishes;
(b) Advocate for the respondent's wishes to the extent reasonably ascertainable; and
(c) If the respondent's wishes are not reasonably ascertainable, advocate for the result that is the least restrictive alternative in type, duration, and scope, consistent with the respondent's interests.
(3) The court is not required, but may appoint an attorney to represent a parent of a minor who is the subject of a proceeding under this article if:
(a) The parent objects to the entry of an order for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship;
(b) The court determines that counsel is needed to ensure that consent to the entry of an order for a protective arrangement is informed; or
(c) The court otherwise determines the parent needs representation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Professional evaluation. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) On receipt of a petition under RCW 11.130.595 and at the time the court appoints a court visitor under RCW 11.130.605, the court shall order a professional evaluation of the respondent.
(2) The respondent must be examined by a physician licensed to practice under chapter 18.71 or 18.57 RCW, psychologist licensed under chapter 18.83 RCW, advanced registered nurse practitioner licensed under chapter 18.79 RCW, or physician assistant licensed under chapter 18.71A RCW selected by the court visitor who is qualified to evaluate the respondent's alleged cognitive and functional abilities and limitations and will not be advantaged or disadvantaged by a decision to grant the petition or otherwise have a conflict of interest. If the respondent opposes the professional selected by the court visitor, the court visitor shall obtain a professional evaluation from the professional selected by the respondent. The court visitor, after receiving a professional evaluation from the individual selected by the respondent, may obtain a supplemental evaluation from a different professional.
(3) The individual conducting the evaluation shall provide the completed evaluation report to the court visitor within thirty days of the examination of the respondent. The court visitor shall file the report in a sealed record with the court. Unless otherwise directed by the court, the report must contain:
(a) The professional's name, address, education, and experience;
(b) A description of the nature, type, and extent of the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities and limitations;
(c) An evaluation of the respondent's mental and physical condition and, if appropriate, education potential, adaptive behavior, and social skills;
(d) A prognosis for improvement and recommendation for the appropriate treatment, support, or habilitation plan;
(e) A description of the respondent's current medications, and the effect of the medications on the respondent's cognitive and functional abilities;
(f) Identification or persons with whom the professional has met or spoken with regarding the respondent; and
(g) The date of the examination on which the report is based.
(4) If the respondent declines to participate in an evaluation ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the court may proceed with the hearing under RCW 11.130.600 if the court finds that it has sufficient information to determine the respondent's needs and abilities without the professional evaluation.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Attendance and rights at hearing. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) of this section, a hearing under this article may not proceed unless the respondent attends the hearing. If it is not reasonably feasible for the respondent to attend a hearing at the location court proceedings typically are held, the court shall make reasonable efforts to hold the hearing at an alternative location convenient to the respondent or allow the respondent to attend the hearing using real-time audio-visual technology.
(2) A hearing under this article may proceed without the respondent in attendance if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The respondent consistently and repeatedly has refused to attend the hearing after having been fully informed of the right to attend and the potential consequences of failing to do so;
(b) There is no practicable way for the respondent to attend and participate in the hearing even with appropriate supportive services and technological assistance; or
(c) The respondent is a minor who has received proper notice and attendance would be harmful to the minor.
(3) The respondent may be assisted in a hearing under this article by a person or persons of the respondent's choosing, assistive technology, or an interpreter or translator, or a combination of these supports. If assistance would facilitate the respondent's participation in the hearing, but is not otherwise available to the respondent, the court shall make reasonable efforts to provide it.
(4) The respondent has a right to choose an attorney to represent the respondent at a hearing under this article.
(5) At a hearing under this article, the respondent may:
(a) Present evidence and subpoena witnesses and documents;
(b) Examine witnesses, including any court-appointed evaluator and the visitor; and
(c) Otherwise participate in the hearing.
(6) A hearing under this article must be closed on request of the respondent and a showing of good cause.
(7) Any person may request to participate in a hearing under this article. The court may grant the request, with or without a hearing, on determining that the best interests of the respondent will be served. The court may impose appropriate conditions on the person's participation.



Notice of order. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The petitioner shall give notice of an order under this article to the individual who is subject to the protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship, a person whose access to the individual is restricted by the order, and any other person the court determines.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Confidentiality of records. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The existence of a proceeding for or the existence of a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship is a matter of public record unless the court seals the record after:
(a) The respondent, the individual subject to the protective arrangement, or the parent of a minor subject to the protective arrangement requests the record be sealed; and
(b) Either:
(i) The proceeding is dismissed;
(ii) The protective arrangement is no longer in effect; or
(iii) An act authorized by the order granting the protective arrangement has been completed.
(2) A respondent, an individual subject to a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship, an attorney designated by the respondent or individual, a parent of a minor subject to a protective arrangement, and any other person the court determines are entitled to access court records of the proceeding and resulting protective arrangement. A person not otherwise entitled access to court records under this subsection for good cause may petition the court for access. The court shall grant access if access is in the best interest of the respondent or individual subject to the protective arrangement or furthers the public interest and does not endanger the welfare or financial interests of the respondent or individual.
(3) A report of a visitor or professional evaluation generated in the course of a proceeding under this article must be sealed on filing but is available to:
(a) The court;
(b) The individual who is the subject of the report or evaluation, without limitation as to use;
(c) The petitioner, visitor, and petitioner's and respondent's attorneys, for purposes of the proceeding;
(d) Unless the court orders otherwise, an agent appointed under a power of attorney for finances in which the respondent is the principal;
(e) If the order is for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship and unless the court orders otherwise, an agent appointed under a power of attorney for health care in which the respondent is identified as the principal; and
(f) Any other person if it is in the public interest or for a purpose the court orders for good cause.



Appointment of special agent. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The court may appoint a special agent, to assist in implementing a protective arrangement under this article. The special agent has the authority conferred by the order of appointment and serves until discharged by court order.



Use of forms. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

Unless otherwise provided in this chapter, use of the forms contained in this article is optional. Failure to use these forms does not prejudice any party.



Petition for guardianship for minor. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

This form may be used to petition for guardianship for a minor.
Petition for Guardianship for Minor
State of:. . . .
County of:. . . .
Name and address of attorney representing petitioner, if applicable:. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
Note to petitioner: This form can be used to petition for a guardian for a minor. A court may appoint a guardian for a minor who does not have a guardian if the court finds the appointment is in the minor's best interest, and: The parents, after being fully informed of the nature and consequences of guardianship, consent; all parental rights have been terminated; or the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parents are unwilling or unable to exercise their parental rights.
(1) Information about the person filing this petition (the petitioner.)
(a) Name:. . . .
(b) Principal residence:. . . .
(c) Current street address (if different):. . . .
(d) Relationship to minor:. . . .
(e) Interest in this petition:. . . .
(f) Telephone number (optional):. . . .
(g) Email address (optional):. . . .
(2) Information about the minor alleged to need a guardian. Provide the following information to the extent known.
(a) Name:. . . .
(b) Age:. . . .
(c) Principal residence:. . . .
(d) Current street address (if different):. . . .
(e) If petitioner anticipates the minor moving, or seeks to move the minor, proposed new address:. . . .
(f) Does the minor need an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate with the court or understand court proceedings? If so, please explain:. . . .
(g) Telephone number (optional):. . . .
(h) Email address (optional):. . . .
(3) Information about the minor's parent(s).
(a) Name(s) of living parent(s):. . . .
(b) Current street address(es) of living parent(s):. . . .
(c) Does any parent need an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate with the court or understand court proceedings? If so, please explain:. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
(4) People who are required to be notified of this petition. State the name and current address of the people listed in Appendix A.
. . . .
. . . .
(5) Appointment requested. State the name and address of any proposed guardian and the reason the proposed guardian should be selected.
. . . .
. . . .
(6) State why petitioner seeks the appointment. Include a description of the nature and extent of the minor's alleged need.
. . . .
. . . .
(7) Property. If the minor has property other than personal effects, state the minor's property with an estimate of its value.
. . . .
. . . .
(8) Other proceedings. If there are any other proceedings concerning the care or custody of the minor currently pending in any court in this state or another jurisdiction, please describe them.
. . . .
. . . .
(9) Attorney(s). If the minor or the minor's parent is represented by an attorney in this matter, state the name, telephone number, email address, and address of the attorney(s).
. . . .
. . . .
SIGNATURE
. . . . . . . . . .
Signature of Petitioner Date
. . . . . . . . . .
Signature of Petitioner's Attorney if Date
Petitioner is Represented by Counsel
APPENDIX A:
People whose name and address must be listed in subsection (4) of this petition if they are not the petitioner:
The minor, if the minor is twelve years of age or older;
Each parent of the minor or, if there are none, the adult nearest in kinship that can be found;
An adult with whom the minor resides;
Each person that had primary care or custody of the minor for at least sixty days during the two years immediately before the filing of the petition or for at least seven hundred thirty days during the five years immediately before the filing of the petition;
If the minor is twelve years of age or older, any person nominated as guardian by the minor;
Any person nominated as guardian by a parent of the minor;
The grandparents of the minor;
Adult siblings of the minor; and
Any current guardian or conservator for the minor appointed in this state or another jurisdiction.



Petition for guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

This form may be used to petition for:
Guardianship for an adult;
Conservatorship for an adult or minor;
A protective arrangement instead of guardianship for an adult; or
A protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for an adult or minor.
Petition for Guardianship, Conservatorship, or Protective Arrangement
State of:. . . .
County of:. . . .
Name and address of attorney representing petitioner, if applicable:. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
Note to petitioner: This form can be used to petition for a guardian, conservator, or both, or for a protective arrangement instead of either a guardianship or conservatorship. This form should not be used to petition for guardianship for a minor.
The court may appoint a guardian or order a protective arrangement instead of guardianship for an adult if the adult lacks the ability to meet essential requirements for physical health, safety, or self-care because (1) the adult is unable to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions even with the use of supportive services, technological assistance, and supported decision making, and (2) the adult's identified needs cannot be met by a less restrictive alternative.
The court may appoint a conservator or order a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for an adult if (1) the adult is unable to manage property and financial affairs because of a limitation in the ability to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions even with the use of supportive services, technological assistance, and supported decision making or the adult is missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States, and (2) appointment is necessary to avoid harm to the adult or significant dissipation of the property of the adult, or to obtain or provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the adult, or of an individual who is entitled to the adult's support, and protection is necessary or desirable to provide funds or other property for that purpose.
The court may appoint a conservator or order a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship for a minor if: (1) The minor owns funds or other property requiring management or protection that cannot otherwise be provided; or (2) it would be in the minor's best interests, and the minor has or may have financial affairs that may be put at unreasonable risk or hindered because of the minor's age, or appointment is necessary or desirable to provide funds or other property needed for the support, care, education, health, or welfare of the minor.
The court may also order a protective arrangement instead of conservatorship that restricts access to an individual or an individual's property by a person that the court finds: (1) Through fraud, coercion, duress, or the use of deception and control, caused, or attempted to cause, an action that would have resulted in financial harm to the individual or the individual's property; and (2) poses a serious risk of substantial financial harm to the individual or the individual's property.
(1) Information about the person filing this petition (the petitioner.)
(a) Name:. . . .
(b) Principal residence:. . . .
(c) Current street address (if different):. . . .
(d) Relationship to respondent:. . . .
(e) Interest in this petition:. . . .
(f) Telephone number (optional):. . . .
(g) Email address (optional):. . . .
(2) Information about the individual alleged to need protection (the "respondent"). Provide the following information to the extent known.
(a) Name:. . . .
(b) Age:. . . .
(c) Principal residence:. . . .
(d) Current street address (if different):. . . .
(e) If petitioner anticipates respondent moving, or seeks to move respondent, proposed new address:. . . .
(f) Does respondent need an interpreter, translator, or other form of support to communicate with the court or understand court proceedings? If so, please explain:. . . .
. . . .
(g) Telephone number (optional):. . . .
(h) Email address (optional):. . . .
(3) People who are required to be notified of this petition. State the name and address of the people listed in Appendix A.
. . . .
. . . .
(4) Existing agents. State the name and address of any person appointed as an agent under a power of attorney for finances or power of attorney for health care, or who has been appointed as the individual's representative for payment of benefits.
. . . .
. . . .
(5) Action requested. State whether petitioner is seeking appointment of a guardian, a conservator, or a protective arrangement instead of an appointment.
. . . .
. . . .
(6) Order requested or appointment requested. If seeking a protective arrangement instead of a guardianship or conservatorship, state the transaction or other action you want the court to order. If seeking appointment of a guardian or conservator, state the powers petitioner requests the court grant to a guardian or conservator.
. . . .
. . . .
(7) State why the appointment or protective arrangement sought is necessary. Include a description of the nature and extent of respondent's alleged need.
. . . .
. . . .
(8) State all less restrictive alternatives to meeting respondent's alleged need that have been considered or implemented. Less restrictive alternatives could include supported decision making, technological assistance, or the appointment of an agent by respondent including appointment under a power of attorney for health care or power of attorney for finances. If no alternative has been considered or implemented, state the reason why not.
. . . .
. . . .
(9) Explain why less restrictive alternatives will not meet respondent's alleged need.
. . . .
. . . .
(10) Provide a general statement of respondent's property and an estimate of its value. Include any real property such as a house or land, insurance or pension, and the source and amount of any other anticipated income or receipts. As part of this statement, indicate, if known, how the property is titled (for example, is it jointly owned?).
. . . .
. . . .
(11) For a petition seeking appointment of a conservator. (Skip this section if not asking for appointment of a conservator.)
(a) If seeking appointment of a conservator with all powers permissible under this state's law, explain why appointment of a conservator with fewer powers (i.e., a "limited conservatorship") or other protective arrangement instead of conservatorship will not meet the individual's alleged needs.
. . . .
. . . .
(b) If seeking a limited conservatorship, state the property petitioner requests be placed under the conservator's control and any proposed limitation on the conservator's powers and duties.
. . . .
. . . .
(c) State the name and address of any proposed conservator and the reason the proposed conservator should be selected.
. . . .
. . . .
(d) If respondent is twelve years of age or older, state the name and address of any person respondent nominates as conservator.
. . . .
. . . .
(e) If alleging a limitation in respondent's ability to receive and evaluate information, provide a brief description of the nature and extent of respondent's alleged limitation.
. . . .
. . . .
(f) If alleging that respondent is missing, detained, or unable to return to the United States, state the relevant circumstances, including the time and nature of the disappearance or detention and a description of any search or inquiry concerning respondent's whereabouts.
. . . .
. . . .
(12) For a petition seeking appointment of a guardian. (Skip this section if not asking for appointment of a guardian.)
(a) If seeking appointment of a guardian with all powers permissible under this state's law, explain why appointment of a guardian with fewer powers (i.e., a "limited guardianship") or other protective arrangement instead of guardianship will not meet the individual's alleged needs.
. . . .
. . . .
(b) If seeking a limited guardianship, state the powers petitioner requests be granted to the guardian.
. . . .
. . . .
(c) State the name and address of any proposed guardian and the reason the proposed guardian should be selected.
. . . .
. . . .
(d) State the name and address of any person nominated as guardian by respondent, or, in a will or other signed writing or other record, by respondent's parent or spouse or domestic partner.
. . . .
. . . .
(13) Attorney. If petitioner, respondent, or, if respondent is a minor, respondent's parent is represented by an attorney in this matter, state the name, telephone number, email address, and address of the attorney(s).
. . . .
. . . .
SIGNATURE
. . . . . . . . . .
Signature of Petitioner Date
. . . . . . . . . .
Signature of Petitioner's Attorney if Date
Petitioner is Represented by Counsel
APPENDIX A:
People whose name and address must be listed in subsection (3) of this petition, if they are not the petitioner.
Respondent's spouse or domestic partner, or if respondent has none, any adult with whom respondent has shared household responsibilities in the past six months;
Respondent's adult children, or, if respondent has none, respondent's parents and adult siblings, or if respondent has none, one or more adults nearest in kinship to respondent who can be found with reasonable diligence;
Respondent's adult stepchildren whom respondent actively parented during the stepchildren's minor years and with whom respondent had an ongoing relationship within two years of this petition;
Any person responsible for the care or custody of respondent;
Any attorney currently representing respondent;
Any representative payee for respondent appointed by the social security administration;
Any current guardian or conservator for respondent appointed in this state or another jurisdiction;
Any trustee or custodian of a trust or custodianship of which respondent is a beneficiary;
Any veterans administration fiduciary for respondent;
Any person respondent has designated as agent under a power of attorney for finances;
Any person respondent has designated as agent under a power of attorney for health care;
Any person known to have routinely assisted the individual with decision making in the previous six months;
Any person respondent nominates as guardian or conservator; and
Any person nominated as guardian by respondent's parent or spouse or domestic partner in a will or other signed writing or other record.



Notification of rights for adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

This form may be used to notify an adult subject to guardianship or conservatorship of the adult's rights under RCW 11.130.315 and 11.130.425.
Notification of Rights
You are getting this notice because a guardian, conservator, or both have been appointed for you. It tells you about some important rights you have. It does not tell you about all your rights. If you have questions about your rights, you can ask an attorney or another person, including your guardian or conservator, to help you understand your rights.
General rights:
You have the right to exercise any right the court has not given to your guardian or conservator.
You also have the right to ask the court to:
End your guardianship, conservatorship, or both;
Increase or decrease the powers granted to your guardian, conservator, or both;
Make other changes that affect what your guardian or conservator can do or how they do it; and
Replace the person that was appointed with someone else.
You also have a right to hire an attorney to help you do any of these things.
Additional rights for persons for whom a guardian has been appointed:
As an adult subject to guardianship, you have a right to:
(1) Be involved in decisions affecting you, including decisions about your care, where you live, your activities, and your social interactions, to the extent reasonably feasible;
(2) Be involved in decisions about your health care to the extent reasonably feasible, and to have other people help you understand the risks and benefits of health care options;
(3) Be notified at least fourteen days in advance of a change in where you live or a permanent move to a nursing home, mental health facility, or other facility that places restrictions on your ability to leave or have visitors, unless the guardian has proposed this change in the guardian's plan or the court has expressly authorized it;
(4) Ask the court to prevent your guardian from changing where you live or selling or surrendering your primary dwelling by following the appropriate process for objecting to such a move in compliance with RCW 11.130.330(5);
(5) Vote and get married unless the court order appointing your guardian states that you cannot do so;
(6) Receive a copy of your guardian's report and your guardian's plan; and
(7) Communicate, visit, or interact with other people (this includes the right to have visitors, to make and receive telephone calls, personal mail, or electronic communications) unless:
(a) Your guardian has been authorized by the court by specific order to restrict these communications, visits, or interactions;
(b) A protective order is in effect that limits contact between you and other people; or
(c) Your guardian has good cause to believe the restriction is needed to protect you from significant physical, psychological, or financial harm and the restriction is for not more than seven business days if the person has a relative or preexisting social relationship with you or not more than sixty days if the person does not have that kind of relationship with you.
Additional rights for persons for whom a conservator has been appointed:
As an adult subject to conservatorship, you have a right to:
Participate in decisions about how your property is managed to the extent feasible; and
Receive a copy of your conservator's inventory, report, and plan.



Notification of petition for guardianship or conservatorship. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

This form must be used to notify an adult respondent of the respondent's rights that could be restricted if a guardianship petition under RCW 11.130.270 or a conservatorship petition under RCW 11.130.365 is granted.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
PLEASE READ CAREFULLY
A petition to have a guardian or conservator appointed for you has been filed in the . . . county superior court by . . .. If a guardian or conservator is appointed, you could lose one or more of the following rights:
(1) To marry, divorce, or enter into or end a state registered domestic partnership;
(2) To vote or hold an elected office;
(3) To enter into a contract or make or revoke a will;
(4) To appoint someone to act on your behalf;
(5) To sue and be sued other than through a guardian;
(6) To possess a license to drive;
(7) To buy, sell, own, mortgage, or lease property;
(8) To consent to or refuse medical treatment;
(9) To decide who shall provide care and assistance;
(10) To make decisions regarding social aspects of your life.
Under the law, you have certain rights.
You have the right to be represented by a lawyer of your own choosing. The court will appoint a lawyer to represent you if you are unable to pay or payment would result in a substantial hardship to you.
You have the right to ask for a jury trial on the issue of capacity.
You have the right to be present in court and testify when the hearing is held to decide whether or not you need a guardian or conservator. If a court visitor is appointed, you have the right to request the court to replace that person.
You have the right to ask the court to establish a protective arrangement instead of a guardianship or conservatorship.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Letters of office. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

All letters of guardianship/conservatorship must be in the following form or a substantially similar form:
IN THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE
STATE OF WASHINGTON IN AND FOR THE
COUNTY OF  . . . . . . . . .
IN THE MATTER OF THE
GUARDIANSHIP/
CONSERVATORSHIP OF
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cause No.  . . . . . . . .
LETTERS OF
GUARDIANSHIP/CONSERVATORSHIP
Date letters expire
. . . .
THESE LETTERS OF GUARDIANSHIP/CONSERVATORSHIP PROVIDE OFFICIAL VERIFICATION OF THE FOLLOWING:
On the . . . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . . ., (year) . . . . the Court appointed . . . . . . . . . . .to serve as:
□ Guardian of the Person □ Full □ Limited
□ Conservator of the Estate □ Full □ Limited
for . . . . . . . . . . . ., in the above referenced matter.
The Guardian/Conservator has fulfilled all legal requirements to serve including, but not limited to: Taking and filing the oath; filing any bond consistent with the court's order; filing any blocked account agreement consistent with the court's order; and appointing a resident agent for a nonresident guardian.
The Court, having found the Guardian/Conservator duly qualified, now makes it known . . . . . . . . . is authorized as the Guardian for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . designated in the Court's order as referenced above.
The next filing and reporting deadline in this matter is on the . . . day of . . . . . . ., . . . . . ..
THESE LETTERS ARE NO LONGER VALID ON . . . . . . . . . .
These letters can only be renewed by a new court order. If the court grants an extension, new letters will be issued.
This matter is before the Honorable . . . . . . . . of Superior Court, the seal of the Court being affixed
this . . . . day of . . . . . . . ..
State of Washington )
 
) ss.
 
 
County of . . . . . . . . .)
I, . . . . . . . ., Clerk of the Superior Court of said County and State, certify that this document represents true and correct Letters of Guardianship/Conservatorship in the above entitled case, entered upon the record on this . . . . . . . day of . . . . . ., . . . ..
These letters remain in full force and effect until the date of expiration set forth above.
The seal of Superior Court has been affixed and witnessed by my hand this . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . . . ., . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . ., Clerk of Superior Court
By . . . . . . . ., Deputy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Signature of Deputy)



Guardianship/conservatorship summary. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The guardianship/conservatorship summary shall be in or substantially similar form:
GUARDIANSHIP/CONSERVATORSHIP SUMMARY
Date Guardian/Conservator Appointed:
. . . .
Due Date for Report and Accounting:
. . . .
Date of Next Review:
. . . .
Letters Expire On:
. . . .
Bond Amount:
$. . . .
Restricted Account Agreements Required:
. . . .
Due Date for Inventory, if applicable:
. . . .
Due Date for Guardian's Plan, if applicable:
. . . .
Person subject to guardianship/conservatorship
Guardian/Conservator
Name:
Name:
Address:
Address:
Phone:
Phone:
Facsimile:
Facsimile:
Interested Parties
Address
Relation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Certified professional guardianship boardGrievances. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) The certified professional guardianship board must resolve grievances against professional guardians and/or conservators within a reasonable time for alleged violations of the certified professional guardianship board's standards of practice, statutes, regulations, or rules, that relate to the conduct of a certified professional guardian or conservator.
(a) All grievances must initially be reviewed within thirty days by certified professional guardianship board members, or a subset thereof, to determine if the grievance is complete, states facts that describe a violation of the standards of practice, statutes, regulations, or rules, and relates to the conduct of a professional guardian and/or conservator, before investigating, requesting a response from the professional guardian or conservator, or forwarding to the superior courts. To be complete, grievances must provide sufficient details of the alleged conduct to demonstrate that a violation of the statute, regulation, standard of practice, or rule, relating to the conduct of a certified professional guardian or conservator could have occurred, the dates the alleged conduct occurred, and must be signed and dated by the person filing the grievance. Grievance investigations by the board are limited to the allegations contained in the grievance unless, after review by a majority of the members of the certified professional guardianship board, further investigation is justified.
(b) If the certified professional guardianship board determines the grievance is complete, states facts that allege a violation of the certified professional guardianship board's standards of practice, and relates to the conduct of a professional guardian and/or conservator, the certified professional guardianship board must forward that grievance within ten days to the superior court for that guardianship or conservatorship and to the professional guardian and/or conservator. The court must review the matter as set forth in RCW 11.130.140, and must direct the clerk of the court to send a copy of the order entered under this section to the certified professional guardianship board. The certified professional guardianship board must accept as facts any finding of fact contained in the order. The certified professional guardianship board must act consistently with any finding of fact issued in that order.
(2) Grievances received by the certified professional guardianship board must be investigated and the resolution determined and in process within one hundred eighty days of receipt. The one hundred eighty days is tolled during any period of time when:
(a) The certified professional guardianship board has provided a certified professional guardian or conservator an opportunity to respond to a grievance against the certified professional guardian or conservator and the certified professional guardianship board is awaiting the certified professional guardian or conservator's response;
(b) The certified professional guardianship board has forwarded a grievance to the superior court for review under subsection (1)(b) of this section and is awaiting receipt of the court's entered order with findings; or
(c) A certified professional guardianship board disciplinary hearing has been requested or is in process and during the time of posthearing board review of the hearing officer's recommendations through issuance of a final certified professional guardianship board's order on the matter.
(3) If the grievance cannot be resolved within one hundred eighty days, the certified professional guardianship board must notify the professional guardian and/or conservator. The professional guardian or conservator may propose a resolution of the grievance with facts and/or arguments. The certified professional guardianship board may accept the proposed resolution or determine that an additional ninety days are needed to review the grievance. If the certified professional guardianship board has not resolved the grievance within the additional ninety days the professional guardian or conservator may:
(a) File a motion for a court order to compel the certified professional guardianship board to resolve the grievance within a reasonable time; or
(b) Move for the superior court to resolve the grievance instead of being resolved by the certified professional guardianship board.
(4) The superior court has authority to enforce the certified professional guardianship board's standards of practice in this article to the extent those standards are related to statutory or fiduciary duties of guardians and conservators.
(5) Any unresolved grievances filed with the certified professional guardianship board one year or more before January 1, 2021, must be forwarded to the superior court for that guardianship or conservatorship for review by the superior court as set forth in RCW 11.130.140 if the grievance is not in process of a hearing or final resolution.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Definitions. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The definitions in this section apply throughout this section and RCW 11.130.705 through 11.130.755 unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(1) "Disability" means, with respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
(2) "Supported decision-making agreement" is an agreement between an adult with a disability and one or more supporters entered into under this chapter.
(3) "Supporter" means an adult who has entered into a supported decision-making agreement with an adult with a disability.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Purpose. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The purpose of RCW 11.130.700 through 11.130.755 is to recognize a less restrictive alternative to guardianship for adults with disabilities who need assistance with decisions regarding daily living.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Presumption of capacity. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) All adults are presumed to be capable of managing their affairs.
(2) The manner in which an adult communicates with others is not grounds for deciding that the adult is incapable of managing the adult's affairs.
(3) Execution of a supported decision-making agreement may not be used as evidence for the petition or appointment of a guardianship or conservatorship under this chapter, and does not preclude the ability of the adult who has entered into such an agreement to act independently of the agreement.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Scope. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

An adult with a disability may voluntarily, without undue influence or coercion, enter into a supported decision-making agreement with a supporter under which the adult with a disability authorizes the supporter to do any or all of the following:
(1) Provide supported decision making, including assistance in understanding the options, responsibilities, and consequences of the adult's life decisions, without making those decisions on behalf of the adult with a disability;
(2) Assist the adult in accessing, collecting, and obtaining information that is relevant to a given life decision, including medical, psychological, financial, educational, or treatment records, from any person;
(3) Assist the adult with a disability in understanding the information described in subsection (2) of this section; and
(4) Assist the adult in communicating the adult's decisions to appropriate persons.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Authority of supporter. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

A supporter may exercise the authority granted to the supporter in the supported decision-making agreement.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Term. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Except as provided by subsection (2) of this section, the supported decision-making agreement extends until terminated by either party or by the terms of the agreement.
(2) The supported decision-making agreement is terminated if:
(a) The department of social and health services finds that the adult with a disability has been abused, neglected, or exploited by the supporter;
(b) The supporter is found criminally liable for conduct described in (a) of this subsection;
(c) The person with a disability gives notice to the supporter orally, in writing, through an assistive technology device, or by any other means or act showing a specific intent to terminate the agreement; or
(d) The supporter provides written notice of the supporter's resignation to the person with a disability. If a supported decision-making agreement includes more than one supporter, each supporter can terminate the agreement only as to that supporter.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Disqualification of supporter. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

The following are disqualified from acting as a supporter:
(1) A person who is an employer or employee of the adult with a disability, unless the person is an immediate family member of the adult with a disability;
(2) A person directly providing paid support services to the adult with a disability, unless the person is an immediate family member of the adult with a disability; and
(3) An individual against whom the person with a disability has obtained an order of protection from abuse, or an individual who is the subject of a civil or criminal order prohibiting contact with the adult with a disability.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Access of supporter to personal information. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A supporter is only authorized to assist the adult with a disability in accessing, collecting, or obtaining information that is relevant to a decision authorized under the supported decision-making agreement.
(2) If a supporter assists an adult with a disability in accessing, collecting, or obtaining personal information, including protected health information under the federal health insurance portability and accountability act of 1996, P.L. 104-191, or educational records under the federal family educational rights and privacy act of 1974, 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g, the supporter shall ensure the information is kept privileged and confidential, as applicable, and is not subject to unauthorized access, use, or disclosure.
(3) The existence of a supported decision-making agreement does not preclude an adult with a disability from seeking personal information without the assistance of a supporter.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Execution of agreement. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A supported decision-making agreement must be in writing, dated, and signed voluntarily, without coercion or undue influence, by the adult with a disability and the supporter in the presence of two or more subscribing witnesses or a notary public.
(2) If signed before two witnesses, the attesting witnesses must be at least eighteen years of age.
(3) The witnesses required by subsection (1) of this section may not be any of the following:
(a) A supporter for the person with a disability;
(b) An employee or agent of a supporter named in the supported decision-making agreement;
(c) A paid provider of services to the person with a disability; or
(d) Any person who does not understand the type of communication the person with a disability uses, unless an individual who understands the person with a disability's means of communication is present to assist during the execution of the supported decision-making agreement.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Form. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) Subject to subsection (2) of this section, a supported decision-making agreement is valid only if it is in substantially the following form:
SUPPORTED DECISION-MAKING AGREEMENT
Appointment of Supporter
I, ..... (name of supported adult), make this agreement of my own free will.
I agree and designate that:
Name: ..... (name of supporter)
Address: ..... (address of supporter)
Phone Number: ..... (phone number of supporter)
Email Address: ..... (email address of supporter)
is my supporter.
My supporter may help me with making everyday life decisions relating to the following:
(Y/N) Obtaining food, clothing, and shelter.
(Y/N) Taking care of my health.
(Y/N) Managing my financial affairs.
(Y/N) Other matters: ..... (specify).
My supporter is not allowed to make decisions for me. To help me with my decisions, my supporter may:
1. Help me access, collect, or obtain information that is relevant to a decision, including medical, psychological, financial, educational, or treatment records;
2. Help me understand my options so I can make an informed decision; and
3. Help me communicate my decision to appropriate persons.
(Y/N) A release allowing my supporter to see protected health information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, P.L. 104-191, is attached.
(Y/N) A release allowing my supporter to see educational records under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g, is attached.
Effective Date of Supported Decision-Making Agreement
This supported decision-making agreement is effective immediately and will continue until ..... (insert date) or until the agreement is terminated by my supporter or me or by operation of law.
Signed this ..... (day) day of ..... (month), ..... (year)
Consent of Supporter
I, ..... (name of supporter), acknowledge my responsibilities and consent to act as a supporter under this agreement.
(Signature of supporter)
(Printed name of supporter)
Supporter
(Signature of supported adult)
(Printed name of supported adult)
Supported Adult
(Signature of witness 1)
(Printed name of witness 1)
Witness 1
(Signature of witness 2)
(Printed name of witness 2)
Witness 2
State of .....
County of .....
This record was acknowledged before me on ..... (date) by ..... (name(s) of individuals).
 
. . . .
 
(Signature of notary public)
(Stamp)
 
 
. . . .
 
(Title of office)
 
My commission expires:
 
 
. . . .
 
 
(Date)
WARNING: PROTECTION FOR VULNERABLE ADULTS AS DEFINED UNDER CHAPTER 74.34 RCW.
IF A PERSON WHO RECEIVES A COPY OF THIS AGREEMENT OR IS AWARE OF THE EXISTENCE OF THIS AGREEMENT HAS CAUSE TO BELIEVE THAT A VULNERABLE ADULT IS BEING ABUSED, ABANDONED, NEGLECTED (INCLUDING SELF-NEGLECT), OR PERSONALLY OR FINANCIALLY EXPLOITED BY THE SUPPORTER, THE PERSON SHALL REPORT THE ALLEGED ABUSE, ABANDONMENT, NEGLECT, SELF-NEGLECT, OR PERSONAL OR FINANCIAL EXPLOITATION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES BY CALLING THE ABUSE HOTLINE AT 1-800-END-HARM.
(2) A supported decision-making agreement may be in any form not inconsistent with subsection (1) of this section and the other requirements of this chapter.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Reliance on agreementLimitation of liability. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

(1) A person who receives the original or a copy of a supported decision-making agreement shall rely on the agreement.
(2) A person is not subject to criminal or civil liability and has not engaged in professional misconduct for an act or omission if the act or omission is done in good faith and in reliance on a supported decision-making agreement.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Reporting of suspected abuse, abandonment, neglect, exploitation. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

If a person who receives a copy of a supported decision-making agreement or is aware of the existence of a supported decision-making agreement has cause to believe that a vulnerable adult as defined in RCW 74.34.020 is being abused, abandoned, neglected (including self-neglect), or personally or financially exploited by the supporter, the person shall make a report to the department of social and health services, except where the person is exempted from the requirements to report abuse due to a confidential relationship recognized in statute, regulation, or professional standards.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Uniformity of application and construction. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.



Relation to electronic signatures in global and national commerce act. (Effective January 1, 2021.)

Chapter 437, Laws of 2019 modifies, limits, or supersedes the electronic signatures in global and national commerce act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 7001 et seq., but does not modify, limit, or supersede section 101(c) of that act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 7001(c), or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in section 103(b) of that act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 7003(b).



Applicability. (Effective January 1, 2022.)

This chapter applies to:
(1) A proceeding for appointment of a guardian or conservator or for a protective arrangement instead of guardianship or conservatorship commenced after January 1, 2021; and
(2) A guardianship, conservatorship, or protective arrangement instead of a guardianship or conservatorship in existence on January 1, 2021, unless the court finds application of a particular provision of chapter 437, Laws of 2019 would substantially interfere with the effective conduct of the proceeding or prejudice the rights of a party, in which case the particular provision of chapter 437, Laws of 2019 does not apply and the superseded law applies.



ConstructionChapters 11.88 and 11.92 RCW prevail. (Effective January 1, 2021, until January 1, 2022.)

(1) To the extent of a conflict between this chapter and chapter 11.88 or 11.92 RCW, chapter 11.88 or 11.92 RCW prevails.
(2) This section expires January 1, 2022.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: See note following RCW 11.130.915.



Effective date2020 c 312; 2019 c 437.

This act takes effect January 1, 2022, except that:
(1) Section 129, chapter 437, Laws of 2019 takes effect on June 11, 2020; and
(2) With respect to minors, sections 101 through 128, 130 through 136, 201 through 216, 602, 802, 803, and 805, chapter 437, Laws of 2019 take effect January 1, 2021.

NOTES:

Effective dates2020 c 312: "(1) Except for sections 101 through 122, 301 through 307, 312, 313, 725, 801, 902, 903, 905, and 906 of this act, this act takes effect January 1, 2022.
(2) Sections 101 through 122, 301 through 307, 312, 313, 725, 801, 905, and 906 of this act take effect January 1, 2021." [ 2020 c 312 § 907.]