
WAC 246221290

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Appendix A—Annual limits on intake (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) of radionuclides for occupational exposure; effluent concentrations; concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage.

For each radionuclide, Table I indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 µm (micron) and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance halftimes for D if less than ten days, for W from ten to one hundred days, and for Y greater than one hundred days. Table II provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.   Note:  The values in Tables I, II, and III are presented in the computer "E" notation. In this notation a value of 6E02 represents a value of 6 x 102 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6 x 102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6 x 100 or 6. 
Table I "Occupational Values" Note that the columns in Table I of this appendix captioned "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI," and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material. The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "Reference Man" which would result in either: A committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), stochastic ALI; or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to an organ or tissue, nonstochastic ALI. The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 0.05 Sv (5 rem). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, w T. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of w T are listed under the definition of weighting factor in WAC 246221005. The nonstochastic ALIs were derived to avoid nonstochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function. A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the GI tract — stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine — are to be treated as four separate organs. Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, elbows, arms below the elbows, feet and lower legs, knees, and legs below the knees, skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately. When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the nonstochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:    LLI wall  =  lower large intestine wall;  St. wall  =  stomach wall;  Blad wall  =  bladder wall; and  Bone surf  =  bone surface. 
The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and nonstochastic ALIs, will ensure that nonstochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the nonstochastic ALI is limiting, use of that nonstochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 0.5 Sv (50 rem) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, ∑ (intake (in µCi) of each radionuclide/ALIns) ≤ 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1  (Hd/50), instead of ≤ 1.0. The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:  DAC = ALI (in µCi)/(2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 2 x 104 ml per minute) = [ALI/2.4 x 109] µCi/ml,  where 2 x 104 ml per minute is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by Reference Man under working conditions of light work. 
The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: Either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semiinfinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately. The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any ingrowth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures. The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation. See WAC 246221015. When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as, Class D, Class W, or Class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides. It should be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological halflife of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very shortlived radionuclides. Table II "Effluent Concentrations" The columns in Table II of this appendix captioned "Effluents," "Air" and "Water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of WAC 246221070. The concentration values given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem). Consideration of nonstochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because nonstochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the nonstochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in Table II. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in the previous Appendix A of this chapter. The air concentration values listed in Table II, Column 1 were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 x 109, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of three hundred. The factor of three hundred includes the following components: A factor of fifty to relate the 0.05 Sv (5 rem) annual occupational dose limit to the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) limit for members of the public, a factor of three to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of two to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups. For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in Table I, Column 3 was divided by two hundred nineteen. The factor of two hundred nineteen is composed of a factor of fifty, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for two thousand hours per year to fulltime exposure (eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours per year). Note that an additional factor of two for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case. The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 107. The factor of 7.3 x 107 (ml) includes the following components: The factors of fifty and two described above and a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml) which is the annual water intake of Reference Man. Note 2 of this appendix provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements. Table III "Releases to Sewers" The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in WAC 246221190. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 10 6 (ml). The factor of 7.3 x 10 6 (ml) is composed of a factor of 7.3 x 10 5 (ml), the annual water intake by Reference Man, and a factor of ten, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by a Reference Man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).         LIST OF ELEMENTS    Name  Symbol  Atomic Number  Name  Symbol  Atomic Number  Actinium  Ac  89  Molybdenum  Mo  42  Aluminum  Al  13  Neodymium  Nd  60  Americium  Am  95  Neptunium  Np  93  Antimony  Sb  51  Nickel  Ni  28  Argon  Ar  18  Nitrogen  N  7  Arsenic  As  33  Niobium  Nb  41  Astatine  At  85  Osmium  Os  76  Barium  Ba  56  Oxygen  O  8  Berkelium  Bk  97  Palladium  Pd  46  Beryllium  Be  4  Phosphorus  P  15  Bismuth  Bi  83  Platinum  Pt  78  Bromine  Br  35  Plutonium  Pu  94  Cadmium  Cd  48  Polonium  Po  84  Calcium  Ca  20  Potassium  K  19  Californium  Cf  98  Praseodymium  Pr  59  Carbon  C  6  Promethium  Pm  61  Cerium  Ce  58  Protactinium  Pa  91  Cesium  Cs  55  Radium  Ra  88  Chlorine  Cl  17  Radon  Rn  86  Chromium  Cr  24  Rhenium  Re  75  Cobalt  Co  27  Rhodium  Rh  45  Copper  Cu  29  Rubidium  Rb  37  Curium  Cm  96  Ruthenium  Ru  44  Dysprosium  Dy  66  Samarium  Sm  62  Einsteinium  Es  99  Scandium  Sc  21  Erbium  Er  68  Selenium  Se  34  Europium  Eu  63  Silicon  Si  14  Fermium  Fm  100  Silver  Ag  47  Fluorine  F  9  Sodium  Na  11  Francium  Fr  87  Strontium  Sr  38  Gadolinium  Gd  64  Sulfur  S  16  Gallium  Ga  31  Tantalum  Ta  73  Germanium  Ge  32  Technetium  Tc  43  Gold  Au  79  Tellurium  Te  52  Hafnium  Hf  72  Terbium  Tb  65  Holmium  Ho  67  Thallium  Tl  81  Hydrogen  H  1  Thorium  Th  90  Indium  In  49  Thulium  Tm  69  Iodine  I  53  Tin  Sn  50  Iridium  Ir  77  Titanium  Ti  22  Iron  Fe  26  Tungsten  W  74  Krypton  Kr  36  Uranium  U  92  Lanthanum  La  57  Vanadium  V  23  Lead  Pb  82  Xenon  Xe  54  Lutetium  Lu  71  Ytterbium  Yb  70  Magnesium  Mg  12  Yttrium  Y  39  Manganese  Mn  25  Zinc  Zn  30  Mendelevium  Md  101  Zirconium  Zr  40  Mercury  Hg  80    
            Table 1 Occupational Values  Table II Effluent Concentration  Table III Releases to Sewers     Col. 1  Col. 2  Col. 3  Col. 1  Col. 2  Monthly Average Concen tration     Oral Ingestion  Inhalation    Atomic No.  Radionuclide  Class  ALI µCi  ALI µCi  DAC µCi/ml  Air µCi/ml  Water µCi/ml  µCi/ml  1  Hydrogen3  Water, DAC includes skin absorption  8E+4  8E+4  2E5  1E7  1E3  1E2   Gas (HT or T2) Submersion1: Use above values as HT and T2 oxidize in air and in the body to HTO.    4  Beryllium7  W, all compounds except those given for Y  4E+4  2E+4  9E6  3E8  6E4  6E3    Y, oxides, halides, and nitrates    2E+4  8E6  3E8      4  Beryllium10  W, see 7Be  1E+3  2E+2  6E8  2E10         LLI wall (1E+3)        2E5  2E4    Y, see 7Be    1E+1  6E9  2E11      6  Carbon112  Monoxide    1E+6  5E4  2E6        Dioxide    6E+5  3E4  9E7        Compounds  4E+5  4E+5  2E4  6E7  6E3  6E2  6  Carbon14  Monoxide    2E+6  7E4  2E6        Dioxide    2E+5  9E5  3E7        Compounds  2E+3  2E+3  1E6  3E9  3E5  3E4  7  Nitrogen132  Submersion1      4E6  2E8      8  Oxygen152  Submersion1      4E6  2E8      9  Fluorine182  D, fluorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr  5E+4  7E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (5E+4)        7E4  7E3    W, fluorides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re Y, lanthanum fluoride     9E+4 8E+4  4E5 3E5  1E7 1E7        11  Sodium22  D, all compounds  4E+2  6E+2  3E7  9E10  6E6  6E5  11  Sodium24  D, all compounds  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  7E9  5E5  5E4  12  Magnesium28  D, all compounds except those given for W  7E+2  2E+3  7E7  2E9  9E6  9E5    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates    1E+3  5E7  2E9      13  Aluminum26  D, all compounds except those given for W  4E+2  6E+1  3E8  9E11  6E6  6E5    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates    9E+1  4E8  1E10      14  Silicon31  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  9E+3  3E+4  1E5  4E8  1E4  1E3    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and nitrates Y, aluminosilicate glass     3E+4 3E+4  1E5 1E5  5E8 4E8        14  Silicon32  D, see 31Si  2E+3  2E+2  1E7  3E10         LLI wall (3E+3)        4E5  4E4    W, see 31Si    1E+2  5E8  2E10        Y, see 31Si    5E+0  2E9  7E12      15  Phosphorus32  D, all compounds except phosphates given for W  6E+2  9E+2  4E7  1E9  9E6  9E5    W, phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides    4E+2  2E7  5E10      15  Phosphorus33  D, see 32P  6E+3  8E+3  4E6  1E8  8E5  8E4    W, see 32P    3E+3  1E6  4E9      16  Sulfur35  Vapor    1E+4  6E6  2E8        D, sulfides and sulfates except those given for W  1E+4  2E+4  7E6  2E8         LLI wall (8E+3)        1E4  1E3    W, elemental sulfur, sulfides of Sr, Ba, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, W, and Mo. Sulfates of Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, As, Sb, and Bi  6E+3   2E+3  9E7  3E9      17  Chlorine36  D, chlorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr  2E+3  2E+3  1E6  3E9  2E5  2E4    W, chlorides of lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, and Re    2E+2  1E7  3E10      17  Chlorine382  D, see 36Cl  2E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8         St wall (3E+4)        3E4  3E3    W, see 36Cl    5E+4  2E5  6E8      17  Chlorine392  D, see 36Cl  2E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8         St wall (4E+4)        5E4  5E3    W, see 36Cl    6E+4  2E5  8E8      18  Argon37  Submersion1      1E+0  6E3      18  Argon39  Submersion1      2E4  8E7      18  Argon41  Submersion1      3E6  1E8      19  Potassium40  D, all compounds  3E+2  4E+2  2E7  6E10  4E6  4E5  19  Potassium42  D, all compounds  5E+3  5E+3  2E6  7E9  6E5  6E4  19  Potassium43  D, all compounds  6E+3  9E+3  4E6  1E8  9E5  9E4  19  Potassium442  D, all compounds  2E+4  7E+4  3E5  9E8         St wall (4E+4)        5E4  5E3  19  Potassium452  D, all compounds  3E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7         St wall (5E+4)        7E4  7E3  20  Calcium41  W, all compounds  3E+3  4E+3  2E6           Bone surf (4E+3)  Bone surf (4E+3)    5E9  6E5  6E4  20  Calcium45  W, all compounds  2E+3  8E+2  4E7  1E9  2E5  2E4  20  Calcium47  W, all compounds  8E+2  9E+2  4E7  1E9  1E5  1E4  21  Scandium43  Y, all compounds  7E+3  2E+4  9E6  3E8  1E4  1E3  21  Scandium44m  Y, all compounds  5E+2  7E+2  3E7  1E9  7E6  7E5  21  Scandium44  Y, all compounds  4E+3  1E+4  5E6  2E8  5E5  5E4  21  Scandium46  Y, all compounds  9E+2  2E+2  1E7  3E10  1E5  1E4  21  Scandium47  Y, all compounds  2E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9         LLI wall (3E+3)        4E5  4E4  21  Scandium48  Y, all compounds  8E+2  1E+3  6E7  2E9  1E5  1E4  21  Scandium492  Y, all compounds  2E+4  5E+4  2E5  8E8  3E4  3E3  22  Titanium44  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  3E+2  1E+1  5E9  2E11  4E6  4E5    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates    3E+1  1E8  4E11        Y, SrTi0    6E+0  2E9  8E12      22  Titanium45  D, see 44Ti  9E+3  3E+4  1E5  3E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 44Ti    4E+4  1E5  5E8        Y, see 44Ti    3E+4  1E5  4E8      23  Vanadium472  D, all compounds except those given for W  3E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and halides    1E+5  4E5  1E7      23  Vanadium48  D, see 47V  6E+2  1E+3  5E7  2E9  9E6  9E5    W, see 47V    6E+2  3E7  9E10      23  Vanadium49  D, see 47V  7E+4  3E+4  1E5           LLI wall (9E+4)  Bone surf (3E+4)    5E8  1E3  1E2    W, see 47V    2E+4  8E6  2E8      24  Chromium48  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  6E+3  1E+4  5E6  2E8  8E5  8E4    W, halides and nitrates    7E+3  3E6  1E8        Y, oxides and hydroxides    7E+3  3E6  1E8      24  Chromium492  D, see 48Cr  3E+4  8E+4  4E5  1E7  4E4  4E3    W, see 48Cr    1E+5  4E5  1E7        Y, see 48Cr    9E+4  4E5  1E7      24  Chromium51  D, see 48Cr  4E+4  5E+4  2E5  6E8  5E4  5E3    W, see 48Cr    2E+4  1E5  3E8        Y, see 48Cr    2E+4  8E6  3E8      25  Manganese512  D, all compounds except those given for W  2E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8  3E4  3E3    W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates    6E+4  3E5  8E8      25  Manganese52m2  D, see 51Mn  3E+4  9E+4  4E5  1E7         St wall (4E+4)        5E4  5E3    W, see 51Mn    1E+5  4E5  1E7      25  Manganese52  D, see 51Mn  7E+2  1E+3  5E7  2E9  1E5  1E4    W, see 51Mn    9E+2  4E7  1E9      25  Manganese53  D, see 51Mn  5E+4  1E+4  5E6    7E4  7E3       Bone surf (2E+4)    3E8        W, see 51Mn    1E+4  5E6  2E8      25  Manganese54  D, see 51Mn  2E+3  9E+2  4E7  1E9  3E5  3E4    W, see 51Mn    8E+2  3E7  1E9      25  Manganese56  D, see 51Mn  5E+3  2E+4  6E6  2E8  7E5  7E4    W, see 51Mn    2E+4  9E6  3E8      26  Iron52  D, all compounds except those given for W  9E+2  3E+3  1E6  4E9  1E5  1E4    W, oxides, hydroxides, and halides    2E+3  1E6  3E9      26  Iron55  D, see 52Fe  9E+3  2E+3  8E7  3E9  1E4  1E3    W, see 52Fe    4E+3  2E6  6E9      26  Iron59  D, see 52Fe  8E+2  3E+2  1E7  5E10  1E5  1E4    W, see 52Fe    5E+2  2E7  7E10      26  Iron60  D, see 52Fe  3E+1  6E+0  3E9  9E12  4E7  4E6    W, see 52Fe    2E+1  8E9  3E11      27  Cobalt55  W, all compounds except those given for Y  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  2E5  2E4    Y, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates    3E+3  1E6  4E9      27  Cobalt56  W, see 55Co  5E+2  3E+2  1E7  4E10  6E6  6E5    Y, see 55Co  4E+2  2E+2  8E8  3E10      27  Cobalt57  W, see 55Co  8E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  6E5  6E4    Y, see 55Co  4E+3  7E+2  3E7  9E10      27  Cobalt58m  W, see 55Co  6E+4  9E+4  4E5  1E7  8E4  8E3    Y, see 55Co    6E+4  3E5  9E8      27  Cobalt58  W, see 55Co  2E+3  1E+3  5E7  2E9  2E5  2E4    Y, see 55Co  1E+3  7E+2  3E7  1E9      27  Cobalt60m2  W, see 55Co  1E+6  4E+6  2E3  6E6         St wall (1E+6)        2E2  2E1    Y, see 55Co    3E+6  1E3  4E6      27  Cobalt60  W, see 55Co  5E+2  2E+2  7E8  2E10  3E6  3E5    Y, see 55Co  2E+2  3E+1  1E8  5E11      27  Cobalt612  W, see 55Co  2E+4  6E+4  3E5  9E8  3E4  3E3    Y, see 55Co  2E+4  6E+4  2E5  8E8      27  Cobalt62m2  W, see 55Co  4E+4  2E+5  7E5  2E7         St wall (5E+4)        7E4  7E3    Y, see 55Co    2E+5  6E5  2E7      28  Nickel56  D, all compounds except those given for W  1E+3  2E+3  8E7  3E9  2E5  2E4    W, oxides, hydroxides, and carbides    1E+3  5E7  2E9        Vapor    1E+3  5E7  2E9      28  Nickel57  D, see 56Ni  2E+3  5E+3  2E6  7E9  2E5  2E4    W, see 56Ni    3E+3  1E6  4E9        Vapor    6E+3  3E6  9E9      28  Nickel59  D, see 56Ni  2E+4  4E+3  2E6  5E9  3E4  3E3    W, see 56Ni    7E+3  3E6  1E8        Vapor    2E+3  8E7  3E9      28  Nickel63  D, see 56Ni  9E+3  2E+3  7E7  2E9  1E4  1E3    W, see 56Ni    3E+3  1E6  4E9        Vapor    8E+2  3E7  1E9      28  Nickel65  D, see 56Ni  8E+3  2E+4  1E5  3E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 56Ni    3E+4  1E5  4E8        Vapor    2E+4  7E6  2E8      28  Nickel66  D, see 56Ni  4E+2  2E+3  7E7  2E9         LLI wall (5E+2)        6E6  6E5    W, see 56Ni    6E+2  3E7  9E10        Vapor    3E+3  1E6  4E9      29  Copper602  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  3E+4  9E+4  4E5  1E7         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3    W, sulfides, halides, and nitrates    1E+5  5E5  2E7        Y, oxides and hydroxides    1E+5  4E5  1E7      29  Copper61  D, see 60Cu  1E+4  3E+4  1E5  4E8  2E4  2E3    W, see 60Cu    4E+4  2E5  6E8        Y, see 60Cu    4E+4  1E5  5E8      29  Copper64  D, see 60Cu  1E+4  3E+4  1E5  4E8  2E4  2E3    W, see 60Cu    2E+4  1E5  3E8        Y, see 60Cu    2E+4  9E6  3E8      29  Copper67  D, see 60Cu  5E+3  8E+3  3E6  1E8  6E5  6E4    W, see 60Cu    5E+3  2E6  7E9        Y, see 60Cu    5E+3  2E6  6E9      30  Zinc62  Y, all compounds  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  2E5  2E4  30  Zinc632  Y, all compounds  2E+4  7E+4  3E5  9E8         St wall (3E+4)        3E4  3E3  30  Zinc65  Y, all compounds  4E+2  3E+2  1E7  4E10  5E6  5E5  30  Zinc69m  Y, all compounds  4E+3  7E+3  3E6  1E8  6E5  6E4  30  Zinc692  Y, all compounds  6E+4  1E+5  6E5  2E7  8E4  8E3  30  Zinc71m  Y, all compounds  6E+3  2E+4  7E6  2E8  8E5  8E4  30  Zinc72  Y, all compounds  1E+3  1E+3  5E7  2E9  1E5  1E4  31  Gallium652  D, all compounds excep [except] those given for W  5E+4  2E+5  7E5  2E7         St wall (6E+4)        9E4  9E3    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates    2E+5  8E5  3E7      31  Gallium66  D, see 65Ga  1E+3  4E+3  1E6  5E9  1E5  1E4    W, see 65Ga    3E+3  1E6  4E9      31  Gallium67  D, see 65Ga  7E+3  1E+4  6E6  2E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 65Ga    1E+4  4E6  1E8      31  Gallium682  D, see 65Ga  2E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8  2E4  2E3    W, see 65Ga    5E+4  2E5  7E8      31  Gallium702  D, see 65Ga  5E+4  2E+5  7E5  2E7         St wall (7E+4)        1E3  1E2    W, see 65Ga    2E+5  8E5  3E7      31  Gallium72  D, see 65Ga  1E+3  4E+3  1E6  5E9  2E5  2E4    W, see 65Ga    3E+3  1E6  4E9      31  Gallium73  D, see 65Ga  5E+3  2E+4  6E6  2E8  7E5  7E4    W, see 65Ga    2E+4  6E6  2E8      32  Germanium66  D, all compounds except those given for W  2E+4  3E+4  1E5  4E8  3E4  3E3    W, oxides, sulfides, and halides    2E+4  8E6  3E8      32  Germanium672  D, see 66Ge  3E+4  9E+4  4E5  1E7         St wall (4E+4)        6E4  6E3    W, see 66Ge    1E+5  4E5  1E7      32  Germanium68  D, see 66Ge  5E+3  4E+3  2E6  5E9  6E5  6E4    W, see 66Ge    1E+2  4E8  1E10      32  Germanium69  D, see 66Ge  1E+4  2E+4  6E6  2E8  2E4  2E3    W, see 66Ge    8E+3  3E6  1E8      32  Germanium71  D, see 66Ge  5E+5  4E+5  2E4  6E7  7E3  7E2    W, see 66Ge    4E+4  2E5  6E8      32  Germanium752  D, see 66Ge  4E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (7E+4)        9E4  9E3    W, see 66Ge    8E+4  4E5  1E7      32  Germanium77  D, see 66Ge  9E+3  1E+4  4E6  1E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 66Ge    6E+3  2E6  8E9      32  Germanium782  D, see 66Ge  2E+4  2E+4  9E6  3E8         St wall (2E+4)        3E4  3E3    W, see 66Ge    2E+4  9E6  3E8      33  Arsenic692  W, all compounds  3E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7         St wall (4E+4)        6E4  6E3  33  Arsenic702  W, all compounds  1E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8  2E4  2E3  33  Arsenic71  W, all compounds  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  6E9  5E5  5E4  33  Arsenic72  W, all compounds  9E+2  1E+3  6E7  2E9  1E5  1E4  33  Arsenic73  W, all compounds  8E+3  2E+3  7E7  2E9  1E4  1E3  33  Arsenic74  W, all compounds  1E+3  8E+2  3E7  1E9  2E5  2E4  33  Arsenic76  W, all compounds  1E+3  1E+3  6E7  2E9  1E5  1E4  33  Arsenic77  W, all compounds  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  7E9         LLI wall (5E+3)        6E5  6E4  33  Arsenic782  W, all compounds  8E+3  2E+4  9E6  3E8  1E4  1E3  34  Selenium702  D, all compounds except those given for W  2E+4  4E+4  2E5  5E8  1E4  1E3    W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and elemental Se  1E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8      34  Selenium73m2  D, see 70Se  6E+4  2E+5  6E5  2E7  4E4  4E3    W, see 70Se  3E+4  1E+5  6E5  2E7      34  Selenium73  D, see 70Se  3E+3  1E+4  5E6  2E8  4E5  4E4    W, see 70Se    2E+4  7E6  2E8      34  Selenium75  D, see 70Se  5E+2  7E+2  3E7  1E9  7E6  7E5    W, see 70Se    6E+2  3E7  8E10      34  Selenium79  D, see 70Se  6E+2  8E+2  3E7  1E9  8E6  8E5    W, see 70Se    6E+2  2E7  8E10      34  Selenium81m2  D, see 70Se  4E+4  7E+4  3E5  9E8  3E4  3E3    W, see 70Se  2E+4  7E+4  3E5  1E7      34  Selenium812  D, see 70Se  6E+4  2E+5  9E5  3E7         St wall (8E+4)        1E3  1E2    W, see 70Se    2E+5  1E4  3E7      34  Selenium832  D, see 70Se  4E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7  4E4  4E3    W, see 70Se  3E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7      35  Bromine74m2  D, bromides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr  1E+4  4E+4  2E5  5E8         St wall (2E+4)        3E4  3E3    W, bromides of lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re    4E+4  2E5  6E8      35  Bromine742  D, see 74mBr  2E+4  7E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (4E+4)        5E45E3      W, see 74mBr    8E+4  4E5  1E7      35  Bromine752  D, see 74mBr  3E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8         St wall (4E+4)        5E4  5E3    W, see 74mBr    5E+4  2E5  7E8      35  Bromine76  D, see 74mBr  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  7E9  5E5  5E4    W, see 74mBr    4E+3  2E6  6E9      35  Bromine77  D, see 74mBr  2E+4  2E+4  1E5  3E8  2E4  2E3    W, see 74mBr    2E+4  8E6  3E8      35  Bromine80m  D, see 74mBr  2E+4  2E+4  7E6  2E8  3E4  3E3    W, see 74mBr    1E+4  6E6  2E8      35  Bromine802  D, see 74mBr  5E+4  2E+5  8E5  3E7         St wall (9E+4)        1E3  1E2    W, see 74mBr    2E+5  9E5  3E7      35  Bromine82  D, see 74mBr  3E+3  4E+3  2E6  6E9  4E5  4E4    W, see 74mBr    4E+3  2E6  5E9      35  Bromine83  D, see 74mBr  5E+4  6E+4  3E5  9E8         St wall (7E+4)        9E4  9E3    W, see 74mBr    6E+4  3E5  9E8      35  Bromine842  D, see 74mBr  2E+4  6E+4  2E5  8E8         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3    W, see 74mBr    6E+4  3E5  9E8      36  Krypton742  Submersion1      3E6  1E8      36  Krypton76  Submersion1      9E6  4E8      36  Krypton772  Submersion1      4E6  2E8      36  Krypton79  Submersion1      2E5  7E8      36  Krypton81  Submersion1      7E4  3E6      36  Krypton83m2  Submersion1      1E2  5E5      36  Krypton85m  Submersion1      2E5  1E7      36  Krypton85  Submersion1      1E4  7E7      36  Krypton872  Submersion1      5E6  2E8      36  Krypton88  Submersion1      2E6  9E9      37  Rubidium792  D, all compounds  4E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7         St wall (6E+4)        8E4  8E3  37  Rubidium81m2  D, all compounds  2E+5  3E+5  1E4  5E7         St wall (3E+5)        4E3  4E2  37  Rubidium81  D, all compounds  4E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8  5E4  5E3  37  Rubidium82m  D, all compounds  1E+4  2E+4  7E6  2E8  2E4  2E3  37  Rubidium83  D, all compounds  6E+2  1E+3  4E7  1E9  9E6  9E5  37  Rubidium84  D, all compounds  5E+2  8E+2  3E7  1E9  7E6  7E5  37  Rubidium86  D, all compounds  5E+2  8E+2  3E7  1E9  7E6  7E5  37  Rubidium87  D, all compounds  1E+3  2E+3  6E7  2E9  1E5  1E4  37  Rubidium882  D, all compounds  2E+4  6E+4  3E5  9E8         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3  37  Rubidium892  D, all compounds  4E+4  1E+5  6E5  2E7         St wall (6E+4)        9E4  9E3  38  Strontium802  D, all soluble compound except SrTiO  4E+3  1E+4  5E6  2E8  6E5  6E4    Y, all insoluble compounds and SrTi0    1E+4  5E6  2E8      38  Strontium812  D, see 80Sr  3E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7  3E4  3E3    Y, see 80Sr  2E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7      38  Strontium82  D, see 80Sr  3E+2  4E+2  2E7  6E10         LLI wall (2E+2)        3E6  3E5    Y, see 80Sr  2E+2  9E+1  4E8  1E10      38  Strontium83  D, see 80Sr  3E+3  7E+3  3E6  1E8  3E5  3E4    Y, see 80Sr  2E+3  4E+3  1E6  5E9      38  Strontium85m2  D, see 80Sr  2E+5  6E+5  3E4  9E7  3E3  3E2    Y, see 80Sr    8E+5  4E4  1E6      38  Strontium85  D, see 80Sr  3E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  4E5  4E4    Y, see 80Sr    2E+3  6E7  2E9      38  Strontium87m  D, see 80Sr  5E+4  1E+5  5E5  2E7  6E4  6E3    Y, see 80Sr  4E+4  2E+5  6E5  2E7      38  Strontium89  D, see 80Sr  6E+2  8E+2  4E7  1E9         LLI wall (6E+2)        8E6  8E5    Y, see 80Sr  5E+2  1E+2  6E8  2E10      38  Strontium90  D, see 80Sr  3E+1  2E+1  8E9           Bone surf (4E+1)  Bone surf (2E+1)    3E11  5E7  5E6    Y, see 80Sr    4E+0  2E9  6E12      38  Strontium91  D, see 80Sr  2E+3  6E+3  2E6  8E9  2E5  2E4    Y, see 80Sr    4E+3  1E6  5E9      38  Strontium92  D, see 80Sr  3E+3  9E+3  4E6  1E8  4E5  4E4    Y, see 80Sr    7E+3  3E6  9E9      39  Yttrium86m2  W, all compounds except those given for Y  2E+4  6E+4  2E5  8E8  3E4  3E3    Y, oxides and hydroxides    5E+4  2E5  8E8      39  Yttrium86  W, see 86mY  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  5E9  2E5  2E4    Y, see 86mY    3E+3  1E6  5E9      39  Yttrium87  W, see 86mY  2E+3  3E+3  1E6  5E9  3E5  3E4    Y, see 86mY    3E+3  1E6  5E9      39  Yttrium88  W, see 86mY  1E+3  3E+2  1E7  3E10  1E5  1E4    Y, see 86mY    2E+2  1E7  3E10      39  Yttrium90m  W, see 86mY  8E+3  1E+4  5E6  2E8  1E4  1E3    Y, see 86mY    1E+4  5E6  2E8      39  Yttrium90  W, see 86mY  4E+2  7E+2  3E7  9E10         LLI wall (5E+2)        7E6  7E5    Y, see 86mY    6E+2  3E7  9E10      39  Yttrium91m2  W, see 86mY  1E+5  2E+5  1E4  3E7  2E3  2E2    Y, see 86mY    2E+5  7E5  2E7      39  Yttrium91  W, see 86mY  5E+2  2E+2  7E8  2E10         LLI wall (6E+2)        8E6  8E5    Y, see 86mY    1E+2  5E8  2E10      39  Yttrium92  W, see 86mY  3E+3  9E+3  4E6  1E8  4E5  4E4    Y, see 86mY    8E+3  3E6  1E8      39  Yttrium93  W, see 86mY  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  2E5  2E4    Y, see 86mY    2E+3  1E6  3E9      39  Yttrium942  W, see 86mY  2E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3    Y, see 86mY    8E+4  3E5  1E7      39  Yttrium952  W, see 86mY  4E+4  2E+5  6E5  2E7         St wall (5E+4)        7E4  7E3    Y, see 86mY    1E+5  6E5  2E7      40  Zirconium86  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  1E+3  4E+3  2E6  6E9  2E5  2E4    W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates    3E+3  1E6  4E9        Y, carbide    2E+3  1E6  3E9      40  Zirconium88  D, see 86Zr  4E+3  2E+2  9E8  3E10  5E5  5E4    W, see 86Zr    5E+2  2E7  7E10        Y, see 86Zr    3E+2  1E7  4E10      40  Zirconium89  D, see 86Zr  2E+3  4E+3  1E6  5E9  2E5  2E4    W, see 86Zr    2E+3  1E6  3E9        Y, see 86Zr    2E+3  1E6  3E9      40  Zirconium93  D, see 86Zr  1E+3  6E+0  3E9           Bone surf (3E+3)  Bone surf (2E+1)    2E11  4E5  4E4    W, see 86Zr    2E+1  1E8             Bone surf (6E+1)    9E11        Y, see 86Zr    6E+1  2E8             Bone surf (7E+1)    9E11      40  Zirconium95  D, see 86Zr  1E+3  1E+2  5E8    2E5  2E4       Bone surf (3E+2)    4E10        W, see 86Zr    4E+2  2E7  5E10        Y, see 86Zr    3E+2  1E7  4E10      40  Zirconium97  D, see 86Zr  6E+2  2E+3  8E7  3E9  9E6  9E5    W, see 86Zr    1E+3  6E7  2E9        Y, see 86Zr    1E+3  5E7  2E9      41  Niobium882  W, all compounds except those given for Y  5E+4  2E+5  9E5  3E7         St wall (7E+4)        1E3  1E2    Y, oxides and hydroxides    2E+5  9E5  3E7      41  Niobium892 (66 min)  W, see 88Nb  1E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8  1E4  1E3    Y, see 88Nb    4E+4  2E5  5E8      41  Niobium89 (122 min)  W, see 88Nb  5E+3  2E+4  8E6  3E8  7E5  7E4    Y, see 88Nb    2E+4  6E6  2E8      41  Niobium90  W, see 88Nb  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  1E5  1E4    Y, see 88Nb    2E+3  1E6  3E9      41  Niobium93m  W, see 88Nb  9E+3  2E+3  8E7  3E9         LLI wall (1E+4)        2E4  2E3    Y, see 88Nb    2E+2  7E8  2E10      41  Niobium94  W, see 88Nb  9E+2  2E+2  8E8  3E10  1E5  1E4    Y, see 88Nb    2E+1  6E9  2E11      41  Niobium95m  W, see 88Nb  2E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9         LLI wall (2E+3)        3E5  3E4    Y, see 88Nb    2E+3  9E7  3E9      41  Niobium95  W, see 88Nb  2E+3  1E+3  5E7  2E9  3E5  3E4    Y, see 88Nb    1E+3  5E7  2E9      41  Niobium96  W, see 88Nb  1E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9  2E5  2E4    Y, see 88Nb    2E+3  1E6  3E9      41  Niobium972  W, see 88Nb  2E+4  8E+4  3E5  1E7  3E4  3E3    Y, see 88Nb    7E+4  3E5  1E7      41  Niobium982  W, see 88Nb  1E+4  5E+4  2E5  8E8  2E4  2E3    Y, see 88Nb    5E+4  2E5  7E8      42  Molybdenum90  D, all compounds except those given for Y  4E+3  7E+3  3E6  1E8  3E5  3E4    Y, oxides, hydroxides, and MoS  2E+3  5E+3  2E6  6E9      42  Molybdenum93m  D, see 90Mo  9E+3  2E+4  7E6  2E8  6E5  6E4    Y, see 90Mo  4E+3  1E+4  6E6  2E8      42  Molybdenum93  D, see 90Mo  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  8E9  5E5  5E4    Y, see 90Mo  2E+4  2E+2  8E8  2E10      42  Molybdenum99  D, see 90Mo  2E+3  3E+3  1E6  4E9         LLI wall (1E+3)        2E5  2E4    Y, see 90Mo  1E+3  1E+3  6E7  2E9      42  Molybdenum1012  D, see 90Mo  4E+4  1E+5  6E5  2E7         St wall (5E+4)        7E4  7E3    Y, see 90Mo    1E+5  6E5  2E7      43  Technetium93m2  D, all compounds except those given for W  7E+4  2E+5  6E5  2E7  1E3  1E2    W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates    3E+5  1E4  4E7      43  Technetium93  D, see 93mTc  3E+4  7E+4  3E5  1E7  4E4  4E3    W, see 93mTc    1E+5  4E5  1E7      43  Technetium94m2  D, see 93mTc  2E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8  3E4  3E3    W, see 93mTc    6E+4  2E5  8E8      43  Technetium94  D, see 93mTc  9E+3  2E+4  8E6  3E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 93mTc    2E+4  1E5  3E8      43  Technetium95m  D, see 93mTc  4E+3  5E+3  2E6  8E9  5E5  5E4    W, see 93mTc    2E+3  8E7  3E9      43  Technetium95  D, see 93mTc  1E+4  2E+4  9E6  3E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 93mTc    2E+4  8E6  3E8      43  Technetium96m2  D, see 93mTc  2E+5  3E+5  1E4  4E7  2E3  2E2    W, see 93mTc    2E+5  1E4  3E7      43  Technetium96  D, see 93mTc  2E+3  3E+3  1E6  5E9  3E5  3E4    W, see 93mTc    2E+3  9E7  3E9      43  Technetium97m  D, see 93mTc  5E+3  7E+3  3E6    6E5  6E4       St wall (7E+3)    1E8        W, see 93mTc    1E+3  5E7  2E9      43  Technetium97  D, see 93mTc  4E+4  5E+4  2E5  7E8  5E4  5E3    W, see 93mTc    6E+3  2E6  8E9      43  Technetium98  D, see 93mTc  1E+3  2E+3  7E7  2E9  1E5  1E4    W, see 93mTc    3E+2  1E7  4E10      43  Technetium99m  D, see 93mTc  8E+4  2E+5  6E5  2E7  1E3  1E2    W, see 93mTc    2E+5  1E4  3E7      43  Technetium99  D, see 93mTc  4E+3  5E+3  2E6    6E5  6E4       St wall (6E+3)    8E9        W, see 93mTc    7E+2  3E7  9E10      43  Technetium1012  D, see 93mTc  9E+4  3E+5  1E4  5E7         St wall (1E+5)        2E3  2E2    W, see 93mTc    4E+5  2E4  5E7      43  Technetium1042  D, see 93mTc  2E+4  7E+4  3E5  1E7         St wall (3E+4)        4E4  4E3    W, see 93mTc    9E+4  4E5  1E7      44  Ruthenium942  D, all compounds except those given for W and Y  2E+4  4E+4  2E5  6E8  2E4  2E3    W, halides    6E+4  3E5  9E8        Y, oxides and hydroxides    6E+4  2E5  8E8      44  Ruthenium97  D, see 94Ru  8E+3  2E+4  8E6  3E8  1E4  1E3    W, see 94Ru    1E+4  5E6  2E8        Y, see 94Ru    1E+4  5E6  2E8      44  Ruthenium103  D, see 94Ru  2E+3  2E+3  7E7  2E9  3E5  3E4    W, see 94Ru    1E+3  4E7  1E9        Y, see 94Ru    6E+2  3E7  9E10      44  Ruthenium105  D, see 94Ru  5E+3  1E+4  6E6 
