Beginning of Chapter  <<  82.45.010 >>   82.45.020

"Sale" defined.

(1) As used in this chapter, the term "sale" has its ordinary meaning and includes any conveyance, grant, assignment, quitclaim, or transfer of the ownership of or title to real property, including standing timber, or any estate or interest therein for a valuable consideration, and any contract for such conveyance, grant, assignment, quitclaim, or transfer, and any lease with an option to purchase real property, including standing timber, or any estate or interest therein or other contract under which possession of the property is given to the purchaser, or any other person at the purchaser's direction, and title to the property is retained by the vendor as security for the payment of the purchase price. The term also includes the grant, assignment, quitclaim, sale, or transfer of improvements constructed upon leased land.
(2)(a) The term "sale" also includes the transfer or acquisition within any twelve-month period of a controlling interest in any entity with an interest in real property located in this state for a valuable consideration.
(b) For the sole purpose of determining whether, pursuant to the exercise of an option, a controlling interest was transferred or acquired within a twelve-month period, the date that the option agreement was executed is the date on which the transfer or acquisition of the controlling interest is deemed to occur. For all other purposes under this chapter, the date upon which the option is exercised is the date of the transfer or acquisition of the controlling interest.
(c) For purposes of this subsection, all acquisitions of persons acting in concert must be aggregated for purposes of determining whether a transfer or acquisition of a controlling interest has taken place. The department must adopt standards by rule to determine when persons are acting in concert. In adopting a rule for this purpose, the department must consider the following:
(i) Persons must be treated as acting in concert when they have a relationship with each other such that one person influences or controls the actions of another through common ownership; and
(ii) When persons are not commonly owned or controlled, they must be treated as acting in concert only when the unity with which the purchasers have negotiated and will consummate the transfer of ownership interests supports a finding that they are acting as a single entity. If the acquisitions are completely independent, with each purchaser buying without regard to the identity of the other purchasers, then the acquisitions are considered separate acquisitions.
(3) The term "sale" does not include:
(a) A transfer by gift, devise, or inheritance.
(b) A transfer by transfer on death deed, to the extent that it is not in satisfaction of a contractual obligation of the decedent owed to the recipient of the property.
(c) A transfer of any leasehold interest other than of the type mentioned above.
(d) A cancellation or forfeiture of a vendee's interest in a contract for the sale of real property, whether or not such contract contains a forfeiture clause, or deed in lieu of foreclosure of a mortgage.
(e) The partition of property by tenants in common by agreement or as the result of a court decree.
(f) The assignment of property or interest in property from one spouse or one domestic partner to the other spouse or other domestic partner in accordance with the terms of a decree of dissolution of marriage or state registered domestic partnership or in fulfillment of a property settlement agreement.
(g) The assignment or other transfer of a vendor's interest in a contract for the sale of real property, even though accompanied by a conveyance of the vendor's interest in the real property involved.
(h) Transfers by appropriation or decree in condemnation proceedings brought by the United States, the state or any political subdivision thereof, or a municipal corporation.
(i) A mortgage or other transfer of an interest in real property merely to secure a debt, or the assignment thereof.
(j) Any transfer or conveyance made pursuant to a deed of trust or an order of sale by the court in any mortgage, deed of trust, or lien foreclosure proceeding or upon execution of a judgment, or deed in lieu of foreclosure to satisfy a mortgage or deed of trust.
(k) A conveyance to the federal housing administration or veterans administration by an authorized mortgagee made pursuant to a contract of insurance or guaranty with the federal housing administration or veterans administration.
(l) A transfer in compliance with the terms of any lease or contract upon which the tax as imposed by this chapter has been paid or where the lease or contract was entered into prior to the date this tax was first imposed.
(m) The sale of any grave or lot in an established cemetery.
(n) A sale by the United States, this state or any political subdivision thereof, or a municipal corporation of this state.
(o) A sale to a regional transit authority or public corporation under RCW 81.112.320 under a sale/leaseback agreement under RCW 81.112.300.
(p) A transfer of real property, however effected, if it consists of a mere change in identity or form of ownership of an entity where there is no change in the beneficial ownership. These include transfers to a corporation or partnership which is wholly owned by the transferor and/or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner or children of the transferor or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner. However, if thereafter such transferee corporation or partnership voluntarily transfers such real property, or such transferor, spouse or domestic partner, or children of the transferor or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner voluntarily transfer stock in the transferee corporation or interest in the transferee partnership capital, as the case may be, to other than (i) the transferor and/or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner or children of the transferor or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner, (ii) a trust having the transferor and/or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner or children of the transferor or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner as the only beneficiaries at the time of the transfer to the trust, or (iii) a corporation or partnership wholly owned by the original transferor and/or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner or children of the transferor or the transferor's spouse or domestic partner, within three years of the original transfer to which this exemption applies, and the tax on the subsequent transfer has not been paid within sixty days of becoming due, excise taxes become due and payable on the original transfer as otherwise provided by law.
(q)(i) A transfer that for federal income tax purposes does not involve the recognition of gain or loss for entity formation, liquidation or dissolution, and reorganization, including but not limited to nonrecognition of gain or loss because of application of 26 U.S.C. Sec. 332, 337, 351, 368(a)(1), 721, or 731 of the internal revenue code of 1986, as amended.
(ii) However, the transfer described in (q)(i) of this subsection cannot be preceded or followed within a twelve-month period by another transfer or series of transfers, that, when combined with the otherwise exempt transfer or transfers described in (q)(i) of this subsection, results in the transfer of a controlling interest in the entity for valuable consideration, and in which one or more persons previously holding a controlling interest in the entity receive cash or property in exchange for any interest the person or persons acting in concert hold in the entity. This subsection (3)(q)(ii) does not apply to that part of the transfer involving property received that is the real property interest that the person or persons originally contributed to the entity or when one or more persons who did not contribute real property or belong to the entity at a time when real property was purchased receive cash or personal property in exchange for that person or persons' interest in the entity. The real estate excise tax under this subsection (3)(q)(ii) is imposed upon the person or persons who previously held a controlling interest in the entity.
(r) A qualified sale of a manufactured/mobile home community, as defined in RCW 59.20.030, that takes place on or after June 12, 2008, but before December 31, 2018.
(s)(i) A transfer of a qualified low-income housing development or controlling interest in a qualified low-income housing development, unless, due to noncompliance with federal statutory requirements, the seller is subject to recapture, in whole or in part, of its allocated federal low-income housing tax credits within the four years prior to the date of transfer.
(ii) For purposes of this subsection (3)(s), "qualified low-income housing development" means real property and improvements in respect to which the seller or, in the case of a transfer of a controlling interest, the owner or beneficial owner, was allocated federal low-income housing tax credits authorized under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 42 or successor statute, by the Washington state housing finance commission or successor state-authorized tax credit allocating agency.
(iii) This subsection (3)(s) does not apply to transfers of a qualified low-income housing development or controlling interest in a qualified low-income housing development occurring on or after July 1, 2035.
(iv) The Washington state housing finance commission, in consultation with the department, must gather data on: (A) The fiscal savings, if any, accruing to transferees as a result of the exemption provided in this subsection (3)(s); (B) the extent to which transferors of qualified low-income housing developments receive consideration, including any assumption of debt, as part of a transfer subject to the exemption provided in this subsection (3)(s); and (C) the continued use of the property for low-income housing. The Washington state housing finance commission must provide this information to the joint legislative audit and review committee. The committee must conduct a review of the tax preference created under this subsection (3)(s) in calendar year 2033, as required under chapter 43.136 RCW.
(t)(i) A qualified transfer of residential property by a legal representative of a person with developmental disabilities to a qualified entity subject to the following conditions:
(A) The adult child with developmental disabilities of the transferor of the residential property must be allowed to reside in the residence or successor property so long as the placement is safe and appropriate as determined by the department of social and health services;
(B) The title to the residential property is conveyed without the receipt of consideration by the legal representative of a person with developmental disabilities to a qualified entity;
(C) The residential property must have no more than four living units located on it; and
(D) The residential property transferred must remain in continued use for fifty years by the qualified entity as supported living for persons with developmental disabilities by the qualified entity or successor entity. If the qualified entity sells or otherwise conveys ownership of the residential property the proceeds of the sale or conveyance must be used to acquire similar residential property and such similar residential property must be considered the successor for continued use. The property will not be considered in continued use if the department of social and health services finds that the property has failed, after a reasonable time to remedy, to meet any health and safety statutory or regulatory requirements. If the department of social and health services determines that the property fails to meet the requirements for continued use, the department of social and health services must notify the department and the real estate excise tax based on the value of the property at the time of the transfer into use as residential property for persons with developmental disabilities becomes immediately due and payable by the qualified entity. The tax due is not subject to penalties, fees, or interest under this title.
(ii) For the purposes of this subsection (3)(t) the definitions in RCW 71A.10.020 apply.
(iii) A "qualified entity" is:
(A) A nonprofit organization under Title 26 U.S.C. Sec. 501(c)(3) of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, as amended, as of June 7, 2018, or a subsidiary under the same taxpayer identification number that provides residential supported living for persons with developmental disabilities; or
(B) A nonprofit adult family home, as defined in RCW 70.128.010, that exclusively serves persons with developmental disabilities.
(iv) In order to receive an exemption under this subsection (3)(t) an affidavit must be submitted by the transferor of the residential property and must include a copy of the transfer agreement and any other documentation as required by the department.

NOTES:

Reviser's note: This section was amended by 2018 c 221 § 1 and by 2018 c 223 § 3, each without reference to the other. Both amendments are incorporated in the publication of this section under RCW 1.12.025(2). For rule of construction, see RCW 1.12.025(1).
Tax preference performance statement2018 c 223 § 3: "(1) This section is the tax preference performance statement for the tax preference contained in section 3, chapter 223, Laws of 2018. This performance statement is only intended to be used for subsequent evaluation of the tax preference. It is not intended to create a private right of action by any party or to be used to determine eligibility for preferential tax treatment.
(2) The legislature categorizes this tax preference as one intended to induce certain designated behavior by taxpayers, as indicated in RCW 82.32.808(2)(a).
(3) It is the legislature's specific public policy objective to reduce the tax burden on individuals and businesses imposed by the existing real estate excise tax rates.
(4) If a review finds that there is an increase of residential property transfers by parents of a person with developmental disabilities to a qualified entity as a result of the relief from this tax preference, then the legislature intends to extend the expiration date of this tax preference.
(5) In order to obtain the data necessary to perform the review in subsection (4) of this section, the joint legislative audit and review committee may refer to any data collected by the state." [ 2018 c 223 § 2.]
Findings2018 c 223: "The legislature finds that there is need to expand housing opportunities for persons with developmental disabilities. The legislature finds it is often preferable for persons with developmental disabilities to remain residing in their home, when it is safe and appropriate, to foster ongoing stability. The legislature recognizes that securing a child's future housing and services provides the parents of persons with developmental disabilities peace of mind. The legislature further finds that providing a new mechanism for the transfer of residential property into housing for persons with developmental disabilities expands the state's housing capacity and helps meet demand. The legislature further finds that utilizing existing residential property will reduce the demands on the housing trust fund. The legislature finds that there is an opportunity and need, for advocates and the supporters of the developmental disabilities community to work together, to develop model transfer agreements that will provide peace of mind and assist parents of children with developmental disabilities [to] more readily access this program." [ 2018 c 223 § 1.]
Application2018 c 221: "This act applies with respect to transfers occurring before, on, or after July 1, 2018. However, this act may not be construed by the department of revenue, state board of tax appeals, or any court as authorizing the refund of any tax liability imposed or authorized under chapter 82.45 or 82.46 RCW and properly paid before July 1, 2018, with respect to a transfer of qualified low-income housing as defined in RCW 82.45.010(3)(s)." [ 2018 c 221 § 2.]
Effective date2018 c 221: "This act takes effect July 1, 2018." [ 2018 c 221 § 3.]
Uniformity of application and constructionRelation to electronic signatures in global and national commerce act2014 c 58: See RCW 64.80.903 and 64.80.904.
Effective date2010 1st sp.s. c 23: See note following RCW 82.32.655.
FindingsIntent2010 1st sp.s. c 23: See notes following RCW 82.04.220.
FindingsIntentSeverability2008 c 116: See notes following RCW 59.20.300.
Part headings not lawSeverability2008 c 6: See RCW 26.60.900 and 26.60.901.
FindingsConstruction2000 2nd sp.s. c 4 §§ 18-30: See notes following RCW 81.112.300.
Intent1999 c 209: "In chapter 25, Laws of 1993 sp. sess., the legislature found that transfer of ownership of entities can be equivalent to the sale of real property held by the entity. The legislature further found that all transfers of possession or use of real property should be subject to the same excise tax burdens.
The legislature intended to apply the real estate excise tax of chapter 82.45 RCW to transfers of entity ownership when the transfer of entity ownership is comparable to the sale of real property. The legislature intends to equate the excise tax burdens on all sales of real property and transfers of entity ownership essentially equivalent to a sale of real property under chapter 82.45 RCW." [ 1999 c 209 § 1.]
FindingsIntent1993 sp.s. c 25: "(1) The legislature finds that transfers of ownership of entities may be essentially equivalent to the sale of real property held by the entity. The legislature further finds that all transfers of possession or use of real property should be subject to the same excise tax burdens.
(2) The legislature intends to apply the real estate excise tax of chapter 82.45 RCW to transfers of entity ownership when the transfer of entity ownership is comparable to the sale of real property. The legislature intends to equate the excise tax burdens on all sales of real property and transfers of entity ownership essentially equivalent to a sale of real property under chapter 82.45 RCW." [ 1993 sp.s. c 25 § 501.]
SeverabilityEffective datesPart headings, captions not law1993 sp.s. c 25: See notes following RCW 82.04.230.
Effective date1981 c 93 § 2: "Section 2 of this act shall take effect September 1, 1981." [ 1981 c 93 § 3.]
Effective dateSeverability1970 ex.s. c 65: See notes following RCW 82.03.050.
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