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PDFWAC 51-51-1505

Section M1505Mechanical ventilation.

M1505.4 Whole-house mechanical ventilation system. Each dwelling unit shall be equipped with a ventilation system. The whole-house mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed in accordance with Sections M1505.4.1 through M1505.4.4.
M1505.4.1 System design. The whole house ventilation system shall consist of one or more supply fans, one or more exhaust fans, or an ERV/HRV with integral fans, associated ducts and controls. Whole-house mechanical ventilation system with supply and exhaust fans per Sections M1505.4.1.2, M1505.4.1.3, M1505.4.1.4, and M1505.4.1.5. Local exhaust fans are permitted to serve as part of the whole house ventilation system when provided with the proper controls per Section M1505.4.2. The systems shall be designed and installed to exhaust and/or supply the minimum outdoor airflow rates per Section M1505.4.3 as modified by whole house ventilation system coefficients in Section M1505.4.3.1 where applicable. The whole house ventilation system shall operate continuously at the minimum ventilation rate determined per Section M1505.4.2 unless configured with intermittent off controls per Section M1505.4.3.2.
M1505.4.1.1 Whole house system component requirements. Whole house ventilation supply and exhaust fans specified in this section shall have a minimum efficacy as prescribed in the Washington State Energy Code. Design and installation of the system or equipment shall be carried out in accordance with manufacturers' installation instructions. Whole house ventilation fans shall be rated for sound at no less than the minimum airflow rate required by Section M1505.4.3.1. Ventilation fans shall be rated for sound at a maximum of 1.0 sone. This sound rating shall be at a minimum of 0.1 in. w.c. (25 Pa) static pressure in accordance with HVI procedures specified in Sections M1505.4.1.2 and M1505.4.1.3.
EXCEPTION:
HVAC air handlers, ERV/HRV units, and remote mounted fans need not meet the sound requirements. To be considered for this exception, a remote mounted fan must be mounted outside the habitable spaces, bathrooms, toilets, and hallways, and there must be at least 4 ft (1 m) of ductwork between the fan and the intake grille.
The whole house supply fan shall provide ducted outdoor ventilation air to each habitable space within the residential unit.
EXCEPTION:
Interior joining spaces provided with a 30 cfm whole house transfer fan or a permanent opening with an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior adjoining space but not less than 25 square feet do not require ducted outdoor ventilation air to be supplied directly to the space. Whole house transfer fans shall meet the sone rating of Section M1505.4.1.1 and shall have whole house ventilation controls that comply with Section M1505.4.2.
M1505.4.1.2 Exhaust fans. Exhaust fans required shall be ducted directly to the outside. Exhaust air outlets shall be designed to limit the pressure difference to the outside and equipped with backdraft dampers or motorized dampers in accordance with the Washington State Energy Code. Exhaust fans shall be tested and rated in accordance with the airflow and sound rating procedures of the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI 915, HVI Loudness Testing and Rating Procedure, HVI 916, HVI Airflow Test Procedure, and HVI 920, HVI Product Performance Certification Procedure, as applicable). Exhaust fans required in this section may be used to provide local ventilation. Bathroom exhaust fans that are designed for intermittent exhaust airflow rates higher than the continuous exhaust airflow rates in Table M1505.4.3(3) shall be provided with occupancy sensors or humidity sensors to automatically override the fan to the high speed airflow rate. The exhaust fans shall be tested and the testing results shall be submitted and posted in accordance with Section M1505.4.1.6.
M1505.4.1.3 Supply fans. Supply fans used in meeting the requirements of this section shall supply outdoor air from intake openings in accordance with IMC Sections 401.4 and 401.5. When designed for intermittent off operation, supply systems shall be equipped with motorized dampers in accordance with the Washington State Energy Code. Supply fans shall be tested and rated in accordance with the airflow and sound rating procedures of the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI 915, HVI Loudness Testing and Rating Procedure, HVI 916, HVI Airflow Test Procedure, and HVI 920, HVI Product Performance Certification Procedure, as applicable). Where outdoor air is provided by supply fan systems the outdoor air shall be filtered. The filter shall be accessible for regular maintenance and replacement. The filter shall have a Minimum Efficiency Rating Value (MERV) of at least 8.
M1505.4.1.4 Balanced whole house ventilation system. A balanced whole house ventilation system shall include both supply and exhaust fans. The supply and exhaust fans shall have airflow that is within 10 percent of each other. The tested and balanced total mechanical exhaust airflow rate is within 10 percent or 5 cfm, whichever is greater, of the total mechanical supply airflow rate. The flow rate test results shall be submitted and posted in accordance with Section M1505.4.1.7. The exhaust fan shall meet the requirements of Section M1505.4.1.2. The supply fan shall meet the requirements of Section M1505.4.1.3. Balanced ventilation systems with both supply and exhaust fans in a packaged product, such as an ERV/HRV shall meet the requirements of HVI 920, as applicable. Intermittent dryer exhaust, intermittent range hood exhaust, and intermittent toilet room exhaust airflow rates above the residential dwelling or sleeping unit minimum ventilation rate are exempt from the balanced airflow calculation.
M1505.4.1.5 Furnace integrated supply. Systems using space heating and/or cooling air handler fans for outdoor air supply distribution are not permitted.
EXCEPTION:
Air handler fans shall have multispeed or variable speed supply airflow control capability with a low speed operation not greater than 25 percent of the rated supply airflow capacity during ventilation only operation. Outdoor air intake openings must meet the provisions of Sections R303.5 and R303.6 and must include a motorized damper that is activated by the whole house ventilation system controller. The motorized damper must be controlled to maintain the outdoor airflow intake airflow within 10 percent of the whole house mechanical exhaust airflow rate. The flow rate for the outdoor air intake must be tested and verified at the minimum ventilation fan speed and the maximum heating or cooling fan speed. The results of the test shall be submitted and posted in accordance with Section M1505.4.1.7.
M1505.4.1.6 Testing. Whole-house mechanical ventilation systems shall be tested, balanced and verified to provide a flow rate not less than the minimum required by Sections M1505.4.3 and M1505.4.4. Testing shall be performed according to the ventilation equipment manufacturer's instructions, or by using a flow hood, flow grid, or other airflow measuring device at the mechanical ventilation fan's inlet terminals, outlet terminals or grilles or in the connected ventilation ducts. Where required by the building official, testing shall be conducted by an approved third party. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the building official and be posted in the dwelling unit per Section M1505.4.1.7.
M1505.4.1.7 Certificate. A permanent certificate shall be completed by the mechanical contractor, test and balance contractor or other approved party and posted on a wall in the space where the furnace is located, a utility room, or an approved location inside the building. When located on an electrical panel, the certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label, or other required labels. The certificate shall list the flow rate determined from the delivered airflow of the whole-house mechanical ventilation system as installed and the type of mechanical whole house ventilation system used to comply with Section M1505.4.3.1.
M1505.4.2 System controls. The whole-house mechanical ventilation system shall be provided with controls that comply with the following:
1. The whole house ventilation system shall be controlled with manual switches, timers or other means that provide for automatic operation of the ventilation system that are readily accessible by the occupant;
2. Whole-house mechanical ventilation system shall be provided with controls that enable manual override off of the system by the occupant during periods of poor outdoor air quality. Controls shall include permanent text or a symbol indicating their function. Recommended control permanent labeling to include text similar to the following: "Leave on unless outdoor air quality is very poor." Manual controls shall be readily accessible by the occupant;
3. Whole house ventilation systems shall be configured to operate continuously except where intermittent off controls and sizing are provided per Section M1505.4.3.2.
M1505.4.3 Mechanical ventilation rate. The whole-house mechanical ventilation system shall provide outdoor air at a continuous rate as determined in accordance with Table M1505.4.3(1) or Equation 15-1.
Equation 15-1
Ventilation rate in cubic feet per minute = (0.01 × total square foot area of house) + [7.5 × (number of bedrooms + 1)] but not less than 30 cfm for each dwelling unit
Table M1505.4.3(1)
Whole-House Mechanical Ventilation Airflow Rate
 
Number of Bedrooms
Dwelling Unit
Floor Area (square feet)
0 - 1
2
3
4
5 or more
 
Airflow in cfm
< 500
30
30
35
45
50
501 - 1,000
30
35
40
50
55
1,001 - 1,500
30
40
45
55
60
1,501 - 2,000
35
45
50
60
65
2,001 - 2,500
40
50
55
65
70
2,501 - 3,000
45
55
60
70
75
3,001 - 3,500
50
60
65
75
80
3,501 - 4,000
55
65
70
80
85
4,001 - 4,500
60
70
75
85
90
4,501 - 5,000
65
75
80
90
95
M1505.4.3.1 Ventilation quality adjustment. The minimum whole house ventilation rate from Section 1505.4.3 shall be adjusted by the system coefficient in Table M1505.4.3(2) based on the system type not meeting the definition of a balanced whole house ventilation system and/or not meeting the definition of a distributed whole house ventilation system.
Qv = Qr * Csystem
(Equation 15-2)
Where:
 
 
Qv
=
Quality-adjusted ventilation airflow rate in cubic feet per minute (cfm).
Qr
=
Ventilation airflow rate, cubic feet per minute (cfm) from 15-1 or Table M1505.4.3(1).
Csystem
=
System coefficient from Table 1505.4.3(2).
Table M1505.4.3(2)
System Coefficient (Csystem)
System Type
Distributed
Not Distributed
Balanced
1.0
1.25
Not balanced
1.25
1.5
M1505.4.3.2 Intermittent off operation. Whole-house mechanical ventilation systems shall be provided with advanced controls that are configured to operate the system with intermittent off operation shall operate for a least two hours in each four-hour segment. The whole house ventilation airflow rate determined in accordance with Section M1505.4.3 as corrected by Section M1505.4.3.1 is multiplied by the factor determined in accordance with Table M1505.4.3(3).
Table M1505.4.3(3)
Intermittent Off Whole House-Mechanical Ventilation Rate Factorsa,b
Run-time % in Each 4-hour Segment
50%
66%
75%
100%
Factora
2
1.5
1.3
1.0
a. For ventilation system run-time values between those given, the factors are permitted to be determined by interpolation.
b. Extrapolation beyond the table is prohibited.
M1505.4.4 Local exhaust rates. Local exhaust systems shall be designed to have the capacity to exhaust the minimum airflow rate determined in accordance with Table M1505.4.4(1). If the local exhaust fan is included in the whole house ventilation system, in accordance with Section 1505.4.1, then the exhaust fan shall be controlled to operate as specified in Section M1505.4.2.
M1505.4.4.1 Local exhaust. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, and kitchens shall include a local exhaust system. Such local exhaust systems shall have the capacity to exhaust the minimum airflow rate in accordance with Table M1505.4.4(1). Fans required by this section shall be provided with controls that enable manual override or automatic occupancy sensor, humidity sensor or pollutant sensor controls. An "on/off" switch shall meet this requirement for manual controls. Manual fan controls shall be readily accessible in the room served by the fan.
Table M1505.4.4(1)
Minimum Local Exhaust Rates
Area to Be Exhausted
Exhaust Rates
Intermittent
Continuous
Kitchens
100 cfm
30 cfm
Bathrooms - Toilet rooms
50 cfm
20 cfm
M1505.4.4.2 Local exhaust fans. Exhaust fans shall meet the following criteria:
1. Exhaust fans shall be tested and rated in accordance with the airflow and sound rating procedures of the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI 915, HVI Loudness Testing and Rating Procedure, HVI 916, HVI Airflow Test Procedure, and HVI 920, HVI Product Performance Certification Procedure).
EXCEPTION:
Where a range hood or down draft exhaust fan is used for local exhaust for a kitchen, the device is not required to be rated per these standards.
2. Fan airflow rating and duct system shall be designed and installed to deliver at least the exhaust airflow required by Table M1505.4.4(1). The airflows required refer to the delivered airflow of the system as installed and tested using a flow hood, flow grid, or other airflow measurement device. Local exhaust systems shall be tested, balanced, and verified to provide a flow rate not less than the minimum required by this section.
3. Design and installation of the system or equipment shall be carried out in accordance with manufacturers' installation instructions.
4. Fan airflow rating and duct system shall be designed and installed to deliver at least the exhaust airflow required by Table M1505.4.4(1).
EXCEPTIONS:
1. An exhaust airflow rating at a pressure of 0.25 in. w.g. may be used, provided the duct sizing meets the prescriptive requirements of Table M1505.4.4(2).
 
2. Where a range hood or down draft exhaust fan is used to satisfy the local ventilation requirements for kitchens, the range hood or down draft exhaust shall not be less than 100 cfm at 0.10 in. w.g.
Table M1505.4.4(2)
Prescriptive Exhaust Duct Sizing
Fan Tested cfm at
0.25 inches w.g.
Minimum
Flex Diameter
Maximum
Length in Feet
Minimum
Smooth Diameter
Maximum
Length in Feet
Maximum Elbowsa
50
4 inches
25
4 inches
70
3
50
5 inches
90
5 inches
100
3
50
6 inches
No Limit
6 inches
No Limit
3
80
4 inchesb
NA
4 inches
20
3
80
5 inches
15
5 inches
100
3
80
6 inches
90
6 inches
No Limit
3
100
5 inchesb
NA
5 inches
50
3
100
6 inches
45
6 inches
No Limit
3
125
6 inches
15
6 inches
No Limit
3
125
7 inches
70
7 inches
No Limit
3
a. For each additional elbow, subtract 10 feet from length.
b. Flex ducts of this diameter are not permitted with fans of this size.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. WSR 20-12-027, § 51-51-1505, filed 5/27/20, effective 7/1/20. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. WSR 16-03-025, § 51-51-1505, filed 1/11/16, effective 7/1/16.]
Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency.
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