Chapter 10.31 RCW

WARRANTS AND ARRESTS

Sections

10.31.030ServiceHowWarrant not in possession, procedureBail.
10.31.040Officer may break and enter.
10.31.060Arrest by telegraph or teletype.
10.31.100Arrest without warrant.
10.31.110Alternatives to arrestIndividuals with mental disorders or substance use disorders.
10.31.115Drug possessionReferral to assessment and services.

NOTES:

Rules of court: Warrant upon indictment or informationCrR 2.2.
Search and seizure: Chapter 10.79 RCW.


ServiceHowWarrant not in possession, procedureBail.

The officer making an arrest must inform the defendant that he or she acts under authority of a warrant, and must also show the warrant: PROVIDED, That if the officer does not have the warrant in his or her possession at the time of arrest he or she shall declare that the warrant does presently exist and will be shown to the defendant as soon as possible on arrival at the place of intended confinement: PROVIDED, FURTHER, That any officer making an arrest under this section shall, if the person arrested wishes to deposit bail, take such person directly and without delay before a judge or before an officer authorized to take the recognizance and justify and approve the bail, including the deposit of a sum of money equal to bail. Bail shall be the amount fixed by the warrant. Such judge or authorized officer shall hold bail for the legal authority within this state which issued such warrant if other than such arresting authority.

NOTES:

Severability1970 ex.s. c 49: See note following RCW 9.69.100.
Bail: Chapter 10.19 RCW.



Officer may break and enter.

(1) To make an arrest in criminal actions, the officer may break open any outer or inner door, or windows of a dwelling house or other building, or any other enclosure, if, after notice of his or her office and purpose, he or she be refused admittance.
(2) An officer may not seek and a court may not issue a search or arrest warrant granting an express exception to the requirement for the officer to provide notice of his or her office and purpose when executing the warrant.
[ 2021 c 320 § 8; 2010 c 8 § 1030; Code 1881 § 1170; 1854 p 129 § 179; RRS § 2082.]



Arrest by telegraph or teletype.

Whenever any person or persons shall have been indicted or accused on oath of any public offense, or thereof convicted, and a warrant of arrest shall have been issued, the magistrate issuing such warrant, or any justice of the supreme court, or any judge of either the court of appeals or superior court may indorse thereon an order signed by him or her and authorizing the service thereof by telegraph or teletype, and thereupon such warrant and order may be sent by telegraph or teletype to any marshal, sheriff, constable or police officer, and on the receipt of the telegraphic or teletype copy thereof by any such officer, he or she shall have the same authority and be under the same obligations to arrest, take into custody and detain the said person or persons, as if the said original warrant of arrest, with the proper direction for the service thereof, duly indorsed thereon, had been placed in his or her hands, and the said telegraphic or teletype copy shall be entitled to full faith and credit, and have the same force and effect in all courts and places as the original; but prior to indictment and conviction, no such order shall be made by any officer, unless in his or her judgment there is probable cause to believe the said accused person or persons guilty of the offense charged: PROVIDED, That the making of such order by any officer aforesaid, shall be prima facie evidence of the regularity thereof, and of all the proceedings prior thereto. The original warrant and order, or a copy thereof, certified by the officer making the order, shall be preserved in the telegraph office or police agency from which the same is sent, and in telegraphing or teletyping the same, the original or the said certified copy may be used.
[ 2010 c 8 § 1032; 1971 c 81 § 48; 1967 c 91 § 1; Code 1881 § 2357; 1865 p 75 § 16; RRS § 2081. Formerly RCW 10.31.060 through 10.31.090.]



Arrest without warrant. (Effective until July 1, 2022.)

A police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a felony shall have the authority to arrest the person without a warrant. A police officer may arrest a person without a warrant for committing a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor only when the offense is committed in the presence of an officer, except as provided in subsections (1) through (11) of this section.
(1) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor, involving physical harm or threats of harm to any person or property or the unlawful taking of property or involving the use or possession of cannabis, or involving the acquisition, possession, or consumption of alcohol by a person under the age of twenty-one years under RCW 66.44.270, or involving criminal trespass under RCW 9A.52.070 or 9A.52.080, shall have the authority to arrest the person.
(2) A police officer shall arrest and take into custody, pending release on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that:
(a) An order has been issued of which the person has knowledge under RCW 26.44.063, or chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 10.99, 26.09, *26.10, 26.26A, 26.26B, 26.50, or 74.34 RCW restraining the person and the person has violated the terms of the order restraining the person from acts or threats of violence, or restraining the person from going onto the grounds of, or entering, a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location or, in the case of an order issued under RCW 26.44.063, imposing any other restrictions or conditions upon the person;
(b) An extreme risk protection order has been issued against the person under RCW 7.94.040, the person has knowledge of the order, and the person has violated the terms of the order prohibiting the person from having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, accessing, or receiving a firearm or concealed pistol license;
(c) A foreign protection order, as defined in RCW 26.52.010, or a Canadian domestic violence protection order, as defined in RCW 26.55.010, has been issued of which the person under restraint has knowledge and the person under restraint has violated a provision of the foreign protection order or the Canadian domestic violence protection order prohibiting the person under restraint from contacting or communicating with another person, or excluding the person under restraint from a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, or a violation of any provision for which the foreign protection order or the Canadian domestic violence protection order specifically indicates that a violation will be a crime; or
(d) The person is eighteen years or older and within the preceding four hours has assaulted a family or household member or intimate partner as defined in RCW 26.50.010 and the officer believes: (i) A felonious assault has occurred; (ii) an assault has occurred which has resulted in bodily injury to the victim, whether the injury is observable by the responding officer or not; or (iii) that any physical action has occurred which was intended to cause another person reasonably to fear imminent serious bodily injury or death. Bodily injury means physical pain, illness, or an impairment of physical condition. When the officer has probable cause to believe that family or household members or intimate partners have assaulted each other, the officer is not required to arrest both persons. The officer shall arrest the person whom the officer believes to be the primary physical aggressor. In making this determination, the officer shall make every reasonable effort to consider: (A) The intent to protect victims of domestic violence under RCW 10.99.010; (B) the comparative extent of injuries inflicted or serious threats creating fear of physical injury; and (C) the history of domestic violence of each person involved, including whether the conduct was part of an ongoing pattern of abuse.
(3) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a violation of any of the following traffic laws shall have the authority to arrest the person:
(a) RCW 46.52.010, relating to duty on striking an unattended car or other property;
(b) RCW 46.52.020, relating to duty in case of injury to, or death of, a person or damage to an attended vehicle;
(c) RCW 46.61.500 or 46.61.530, relating to reckless driving or racing of vehicles;
(d) RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, relating to persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs;
(e) RCW 46.61.503 or 46.25.110, relating to persons having alcohol or THC in their system;
(f) RCW 46.20.342, relating to driving a motor vehicle while operator's license is suspended or revoked;
(g) RCW 46.61.5249, relating to operating a motor vehicle in a negligent manner.
(4) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vehicle accident may arrest the driver of a motor vehicle involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has committed, in connection with the accident, a violation of any traffic law or regulation.
(5)(a) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vessel accident may arrest the operator of a motor vessel involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the operator has committed, in connection with the accident, a criminal violation of chapter 79A.60 RCW.
(b) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vessel accident may issue a citation for an infraction to the operator of a motor vessel involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the operator has committed, in connection with the accident, a violation of any boating safety law of chapter 79A.60 RCW.
(6) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a violation of RCW 79A.60.040 shall have the authority to arrest the person.
(7) An officer may act upon the request of a law enforcement officer, in whose presence a traffic infraction was committed, to stop, detain, arrest, or issue a notice of traffic infraction to the driver who is believed to have committed the infraction. The request by the witnessing officer shall give an officer the authority to take appropriate action under the laws of the state of Washington.
(8) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing any act of indecent exposure, as defined in RCW 9A.88.010, may arrest the person.
(9) A police officer may arrest and take into custody, pending release on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that an order has been issued of which the person has knowledge under chapter 10.14 RCW and the person has violated the terms of that order.
(10) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has, within twenty-four hours of the alleged violation, committed a violation of RCW 9A.50.020 may arrest such person.
(11) A police officer having probable cause to believe that a person illegally possesses or illegally has possessed a firearm or other dangerous weapon on private or public elementary or secondary school premises shall have the authority to arrest the person.
For purposes of this subsection, the term "firearm" has the meaning defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the term "dangerous weapon" has the meaning defined in RCW 9.41.250 and 9.41.280(1) (c) through (e).
(12) A law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed a violation under RCW 77.15.160(5) may issue a citation for an infraction to the person in connection with the violation.
(13) A law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed a criminal violation under RCW 77.15.809 or 77.15.811 may arrest the person in connection with the violation.
(14) Except as specifically provided in subsections (2), (3), (4), and (7) of this section, nothing in this section extends or otherwise affects the powers of arrest prescribed in Title 46 RCW.
(15) No police officer may be held criminally or civilly liable for making an arrest pursuant to subsection (2) or (9) of this section if the police officer acts in good faith and without malice.
(16)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a police officer shall arrest and keep in custody, until release by a judicial officer on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that the person has violated RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance and the police officer: (i) Has knowledge that the person has a prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055 within ten years; or (ii) has knowledge, based on a review of the information available to the officer at the time of arrest, that the person is charged with or is awaiting arraignment for an offense that would qualify as a prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055 if it were a conviction.
(b) A police officer is not required to keep in custody a person under (a) of this subsection if the person requires immediate medical attention and is admitted to a hospital.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note:Chapter 26.10 RCW, with the exception of RCW 26.10.115, was repealed by 2020 c 312 § 905, effective January 1, 2021.
Effective date2020 c 29: See note following RCW 7.77.060.
Effective date2019 c 263 §§ 901-915, 1001, and 1002: See RCW 26.55.903.
Finding2017 c 336: See note following RCW 9.96.060.
Findings2014 c 202: See note following RCW 77.135.010.
Intent2010 c 274: "The legislature intends to improve the lives of persons who suffer from the adverse effects of domestic violence and to require reasonable, coordinated measures to prevent domestic violence from occurring. The legislature intends to give law enforcement and the courts better tools to identify violent perpetrators of domestic violence and hold them accountable. The legislature intends to: Increase the safety afforded to individuals who seek protection of public and private agencies involved in domestic violence prevention; improve the ability of agencies to address the needs of victims and their children and the delivery of services; upgrade the quality of treatment programs; and enhance the ability of the justice system to respond quickly and fairly to domestic violence. In order to improve the lives of persons who have, or may suffer, the effects of domestic violence the legislature intends to achieve more uniformity in the decision-making processes at public and private agencies that address domestic violence by reducing inconsistencies and duplications allowing domestic violence victims to achieve safety and stability in their lives." [ 2010 c 274 § 101.]
Short title2006 c 138: See RCW 7.90.900.
Application2000 c 119: See note following RCW 26.50.021.
Short title1999 c 184: See RCW 26.52.900.
Severability1995 c 246: See note following RCW 26.50.010.
Effective date1995 c 184: "This act shall take effect January 1, 1996. Prior to that date, law enforcement agencies, prosecuting authorities, and local governments are encouraged to develop and adopt arrest and charging guidelines regarding criminal trespass." [ 1995 c 184 § 2.]
Effective date1993 c 128: See RCW 9A.50.902.
Effective date1984 c 263: See RCW 26.50.901.
Arrest procedure involving traffic violations: Chapter 46.64 RCW.
Domestic violence, peace officersImmunity: RCW 26.50.140.
Uniform Controlled Substances Act: Chapter 69.50 RCW.

Arrest without warrant. (Effective July 1, 2022.)

A police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a felony shall have the authority to arrest the person without a warrant. A police officer may arrest a person without a warrant for committing a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor only when the offense is committed in the presence of an officer, except as provided in subsections (1) through (11) of this section.
(1) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor, involving physical harm or threats of harm to any person or property or the unlawful taking of property or involving the use or possession of cannabis, or involving the acquisition, possession, or consumption of alcohol by a person under the age of twenty-one years under RCW 66.44.270, or involving criminal trespass under RCW 9A.52.070 or 9A.52.080, shall have the authority to arrest the person.
(2) A police officer shall arrest and take into custody, pending release on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that:
(a) A domestic violence protection order, a sexual assault protection order, a stalking protection order, or a vulnerable adult protection order has been issued, of which the person has knowledge, under chapter 7.105 RCW, or an order has been issued, of which the person has knowledge, under RCW 26.44.063, or chapter 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 10.99, 26.09, *26.10, 26.26A, 26.26B, or 74.34 RCW, or any of the former chapters 7.90, 7.92, and 26.50 RCW, restraining the person and the person has violated the terms of the order restraining the person from acts or threats of violence, or restraining the person from going onto the grounds of, or entering, a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, a protected party's person, or a protected party's vehicle, or, in the case of an order issued under RCW 26.44.063, imposing any other restrictions or conditions upon the person;
(b) An extreme risk protection order has been issued against the person under chapter 7.105 RCW or former RCW 7.94.040, the person has knowledge of the order, and the person has violated the terms of the order prohibiting the person from having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, accessing, or receiving a firearm or concealed pistol license;
(c) A foreign protection order, as defined in RCW 26.52.010, or a Canadian domestic violence protection order, as defined in RCW 26.55.010, has been issued of which the person under restraint has knowledge and the person under restraint has violated a provision of the foreign protection order or the Canadian domestic violence protection order prohibiting the person under restraint from contacting or communicating with another person, or excluding the person under restraint from a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, a protected party's person, or a protected party's vehicle, or a violation of any provision for which the foreign protection order or the Canadian domestic violence protection order specifically indicates that a violation will be a crime; or
(d) The person is eighteen years or older and within the preceding four hours has assaulted a family or household member or intimate partner as defined in RCW 10.99.020 and the officer believes: (i) A felonious assault has occurred; (ii) an assault has occurred which has resulted in bodily injury to the victim, whether the injury is observable by the responding officer or not; or (iii) that any physical action has occurred which was intended to cause another person reasonably to fear imminent serious bodily injury or death. Bodily injury means physical pain, illness, or an impairment of physical condition. When the officer has probable cause to believe that family or household members or intimate partners have assaulted each other, the officer is not required to arrest both persons. The officer shall arrest the person whom the officer believes to be the primary physical aggressor. In making this determination, the officer shall make every reasonable effort to consider: (A) The intent to protect victims of domestic violence under RCW 10.99.010; (B) the comparative extent of injuries inflicted or serious threats creating fear of physical injury; and (C) the history of domestic violence of each person involved, including whether the conduct was part of an ongoing pattern of abuse.
(3) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a violation of any of the following traffic laws shall have the authority to arrest the person:
(a) RCW 46.52.010, relating to duty on striking an unattended car or other property;
(b) RCW 46.52.020, relating to duty in case of injury to, or death of, a person or damage to an attended vehicle;
(c) RCW 46.61.500 or 46.61.530, relating to reckless driving or racing of vehicles;
(d) RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, relating to persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs;
(e) RCW 46.61.503 or 46.25.110, relating to persons having alcohol or THC in their system;
(f) RCW 46.20.342, relating to driving a motor vehicle while operator's license is suspended or revoked;
(g) RCW 46.61.5249, relating to operating a motor vehicle in a negligent manner.
(4) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vehicle accident may arrest the driver of a motor vehicle involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has committed, in connection with the accident, a violation of any traffic law or regulation.
(5)(a) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vessel accident may arrest the operator of a motor vessel involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the operator has committed, in connection with the accident, a criminal violation of chapter 79A.60 RCW.
(b) A law enforcement officer investigating at the scene of a motor vessel accident may issue a citation for an infraction to the operator of a motor vessel involved in the accident if the officer has probable cause to believe that the operator has committed, in connection with the accident, a violation of any boating safety law of chapter 79A.60 RCW.
(6) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing a violation of RCW 79A.60.040 shall have the authority to arrest the person.
(7) An officer may act upon the request of a law enforcement officer, in whose presence a traffic infraction was committed, to stop, detain, arrest, or issue a notice of traffic infraction to the driver who is believed to have committed the infraction. The request by the witnessing officer shall give an officer the authority to take appropriate action under the laws of the state of Washington.
(8) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed or is committing any act of indecent exposure, as defined in RCW 9A.88.010, may arrest the person.
(9) A police officer may arrest and take into custody, pending release on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that an antiharassment protection order has been issued of which the person has knowledge under chapter 7.105 RCW or former chapter 10.14 RCW and the person has violated the terms of that order.
(10) Any police officer having probable cause to believe that a person has, within twenty-four hours of the alleged violation, committed a violation of RCW 9A.50.020 may arrest such person.
(11) A police officer having probable cause to believe that a person illegally possesses or illegally has possessed a firearm or other dangerous weapon on private or public elementary or secondary school premises shall have the authority to arrest the person.
For purposes of this subsection, the term "firearm" has the meaning defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the term "dangerous weapon" has the meaning defined in RCW 9.41.250 and 9.41.280(1) (c) through (e).
(12) A law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed a violation under RCW 77.15.160(5) may issue a citation for an infraction to the person in connection with the violation.
(13) A law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that a person has committed a criminal violation under RCW 77.15.809 or 77.15.811 may arrest the person in connection with the violation.
(14) Except as specifically provided in subsections (2), (3), (4), and (7) of this section, nothing in this section extends or otherwise affects the powers of arrest prescribed in Title 46 RCW.
(15) No police officer may be held criminally or civilly liable for making an arrest pursuant to subsection (2) or (9) of this section if the police officer acts in good faith and without malice.
(16)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a police officer shall arrest and keep in custody, until release by a judicial officer on bail, personal recognizance, or court order, a person without a warrant when the officer has probable cause to believe that the person has violated RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance and the police officer: (i) Has knowledge that the person has a prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055 within ten years; or (ii) has knowledge, based on a review of the information available to the officer at the time of arrest, that the person is charged with or is awaiting arraignment for an offense that would qualify as a prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055 if it were a conviction.
(b) A police officer is not required to keep in custody a person under (a) of this subsection if the person requires immediate medical attention and is admitted to a hospital.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note:Chapter 26.10 RCW, with the exception of RCW 26.10.115, was repealed by 2020 c 312 § 905. RCW 26.10.115 was repealed by 2021 c 215 § 170, effective July 1, 2022.
Effective date2021 c 215: See note following RCW 7.105.900.
Effective date2020 c 29: See note following RCW 7.77.060.
Effective date2019 c 263 §§ 901-915, 1001, and 1002: See RCW 26.55.903.
Finding2017 c 336: See note following RCW 9.96.060.
Findings2014 c 202: See note following RCW 77.135.010.
Intent2010 c 274: "The legislature intends to improve the lives of persons who suffer from the adverse effects of domestic violence and to require reasonable, coordinated measures to prevent domestic violence from occurring. The legislature intends to give law enforcement and the courts better tools to identify violent perpetrators of domestic violence and hold them accountable. The legislature intends to: Increase the safety afforded to individuals who seek protection of public and private agencies involved in domestic violence prevention; improve the ability of agencies to address the needs of victims and their children and the delivery of services; upgrade the quality of treatment programs; and enhance the ability of the justice system to respond quickly and fairly to domestic violence. In order to improve the lives of persons who have, or may suffer, the effects of domestic violence the legislature intends to achieve more uniformity in the decision-making processes at public and private agencies that address domestic violence by reducing inconsistencies and duplications allowing domestic violence victims to achieve safety and stability in their lives." [ 2010 c 274 § 101.]
Short title2006 c 138: See RCW 7.90.900.
Application2000 c 119: See note following RCW 26.50.021.
Short title1999 c 184: See RCW 26.52.900.
Severability1995 c 246: See note following RCW 26.50.010.
Effective date1995 c 184: "This act shall take effect January 1, 1996. Prior to that date, law enforcement agencies, prosecuting authorities, and local governments are encouraged to develop and adopt arrest and charging guidelines regarding criminal trespass." [ 1995 c 184 § 2.]
Effective date1993 c 128: See RCW 9A.50.902.
Effective date1984 c 263: See RCW 26.50.901.
Arrest procedure involving traffic violations: Chapter 46.64 RCW.
Uniform Controlled Substances Act: Chapter 69.50 RCW.



Alternatives to arrestIndividuals with mental disorders or substance use disorders.

(1) When a police officer has reasonable cause to believe that the individual has committed acts constituting a crime, and the individual is known by history or consultation with the behavioral health administrative services organization, managed care organization, crisis hotline, local crisis services providers, or community health providers to have a mental disorder or substance use disorder, in addition to existing authority under state law or local policy, as an alternative to arrest, the arresting officer is authorized and encouraged to:
(a) Take the individual to a crisis stabilization unit as defined in RCW 71.05.020. Individuals delivered to a crisis stabilization unit pursuant to this section may be held by the facility for a period of up to twelve hours. The individual must be examined by a mental health professional or substance use disorder professional within three hours of arrival;
(b) Take the individual to a triage facility as defined in RCW 71.05.020. An individual delivered to a triage facility which has elected to operate as an involuntary facility may be held up to a period of twelve hours. The individual must be examined by a mental health professional or substance use disorder professional within three hours of arrival;
(c) Refer the individual to a designated crisis responder for evaluation for initial detention and proceeding under chapter 71.05 RCW;
(d) Release the individual upon agreement to voluntary participation in outpatient treatment;
(e) Refer the individual to youth, adult, or geriatric mobile crisis response services, as appropriate; or
(f) Refer the individual to the regional entity responsible to receive referrals in lieu of legal system involvement, including the recovery navigator program described in RCW 71.24.115.
(2) If the individual is released to the community from the facilities in subsection (1)(a) through (c) of this section, the mental health provider or substance use disorder professional shall make reasonable efforts to inform the arresting officer of the planned release prior to release if the arresting officer has specifically requested notification and provided contact information to the provider.
(3) In deciding whether to refer the individual to treatment under this section, the police officer must be guided by local law enforcement diversion guidelines for behavioral health developed and mutually agreed upon with the prosecuting authority with an opportunity for consultation and comment by the defense bar and disability community. These guidelines must address, at a minimum, the length, seriousness, and recency of the known criminal history of the individual, the mental health history of the individual, if available, the substance use disorder history of the individual, if available, the opinions of a mental health professional, if available, the opinions of a substance use disorder professional, if available, and the circumstances surrounding the commission of the alleged offense. The guidelines must include a process for clearing outstanding warrants or referring the individual for assistance in clearing outstanding warrants, if any, and issuing a new court date, if appropriate, without booking or incarcerating the individual or disqualifying the individual from referral to treatment under this section, and define the circumstances under which such action is permissible. Referrals to services, care, and treatment for substance use disorder must be made in accordance with protocols developed for the recovery navigator program described in RCW 71.24.115.
(4) Any agreement to participate in treatment or services in lieu of jail booking or referring a case for prosecution shall not require individuals to stipulate to any of the alleged facts regarding the criminal activity as a prerequisite to participation in the alternative response described in this section. Any agreement is inadmissible in any criminal or civil proceeding. Such agreements do not create immunity from prosecution for the alleged criminal activity.
(5) If there are required terms of participation in the services or treatment to which an individual was referred under this section, and if the individual violates such terms and is therefore no longer participating in services:
(a) The behavioral health or service provider shall inform the referring law enforcement agency of the violation, if consistent with the terms of the program and applicable law; and
(b) The original charges may be filed or referred to the prosecutor, as appropriate, and the matter may proceed accordingly, unless filing or referring the charges is inconsistent with the terms of a local diversion program or a recovery navigator program described in RCW 71.24.115.
(6) The police officer is immune from liability for any good faith conduct under this section.

NOTES:

Effective date2021 c 311 §§ 1-11 and 13-21: See note following RCW 71.24.115.
Intent2019 c 326: See note following RCW 10.77.074.
Effective date2019 c 325: See note following RCW 71.24.011.
Effective date2014 c 225: See note following RCW 71.24.016.
Findings2011 c 305: See note following RCW 74.09.295.
Certification of triage facilitiesEffective date2011 c 148: See notes following RCW 71.05.020.
FindingsPurpose2007 c 375: "The legislature finds that *RCW 10.77.090 contains laws relating to three discrete subjects. Therefore, one purpose of this act is to reorganize some of those laws by creating new sections in the Revised Code of Washington that clarify and identify these discrete subjects.
The legislature further finds that there are disproportionate numbers of individuals with mental illness in jail. The needs of individuals with mental illness and the public safety needs of society at large are better served when individuals with mental illness are provided an opportunity to obtain treatment and support." [ 2007 c 375 § 1.]
*Reviser's note: RCW 10.77.090 was repealed by 2007 c 375 § 17. For later enactment, see RCW 10.77.084, 10.77.086, and 10.77.088.
Construction2007 c 375: "Nothing in this act shall be construed to alter or diminish a prosecutor's inherent authority to divert or pursue the prosecution of criminal offenders." [ 2007 c 375 § 16.]
Severability2007 c 375: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 2007 c 375 § 18.]



Drug possessionReferral to assessment and services.

(1) For all individuals who otherwise would be subject to arrest for possession of a counterfeit substance under RCW 69.50.4011, possession of a controlled substance under RCW 69.50.4013, possession of 40 grams or less of marijuana under RCW 69.50.4014, or possession of a legend drug under RCW 69.41.030(2)(b), in lieu of jail booking and referral to the prosecutor, law enforcement shall offer a referral to assessment and services available pursuant to RCW 10.31.110 or other program or entity responsible for receiving referrals in lieu of legal system involvement, which may include the recovery navigator program established under RCW 71.24.115.
(2) If law enforcement agency records reflect that an individual has been diverted to referral for assessment and services twice or more previously, officers may, but are not required to, make additional diversion efforts.
(3) Nothing in this section precludes prosecutors from diverting or declining to file any charges for possession offenses that are referred under RCW 69.50.4011, 69.50.4013, 69.50.4014, or 69.41.030(2)(b) in the exercise of their discretion.

NOTES:

Effective date2021 c 311 §§ 1-11 and 13-21: See note following RCW 71.24.115.