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PDFWAC 51-11C-4039

Section C403.9Heat rejection and heat recovery equipment.

C403.9 Heat rejection and heat recovery equipment.
C403.9.1 Heat rejection equipment. Heat rejection equipment, including air-cooled condensers, dry coolers, open-circuit cooling towers, closed-circuit cooling towers and evaporative condensers, shall comply with this section.
EXCEPTION:
Heat rejection devices where energy usage is included in the equipment efficiency ratings listed in Tables C403.3.2(1)A, C403.3.2(1)B, C403.3.2(1)C, C403.3.2(2), C403.3.2(3), C403.3.2(7) and C403.3.2(9).
Heat rejection equipment shall have a minimum efficiency performance not less than values specified in Table C403.3.2(8).
C403.9.1.1 Fan speed control. Each fan powered by an individual motor or array of motors with a connected power, including the motor service factor, totaling 5 hp (3.7 kW) or more shall have controls and devices configured to automatically modulate the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature and pressure of the heat rejection device. Fan motor power input shall be not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of the design airflow.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Fans serving multiple refrigerant or fluid cooling circuits.
 
2. Condenser fans serving flooded condensers.
C403.9.1.2 Multiple-cell heat rejection equipment. Multiple-cell heat rejection equipment with variable speed fan drives shall be controlled to operate the maximum number of fans allowed that comply with the manufacturer's requirements for all system components and so that all fans can operate at the same fan speed required for the instantaneous cooling duty, as opposed to staged (on/off) operation. The minimum fan speed shall be the minimum allowable speed of the fan drive system in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
C403.9.1.3 Limitation on centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towers. Centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towers with a combined rated capacity of 1,100 gpm (4164 L/m) or greater at 95°F (35°C) condenser water return, 85°F (29°C) condenser water supply, and 75°F (24°C) outdoor air wet-bulb temperature shall meet the energy efficiency requirement for axial fan open-circuit cooling towers listed in Table C403.3.2(8).
C403.9.1.4 Tower flow turndown. Open-circuit cooling towers used on water-cooled chiller systems that are configured with multiple- or variable-speed condenser water pumps shall be designed so that all open circuit cooling tower cells can be run in parallel with the larger of the flow that is produced by the smallest pump at its minimum expected flow rate or at 50 percent of the design flow for the cell.
C403.9.2 Heat recovery.
C403.9.2.1 Heat recovery for service water heating. Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water cooled systems exceeds 1,500,000 Btu/hr of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 250,000 Btu/hr.
The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:
1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or
2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
 
2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.
C403.9.2.2 Steam condensate systems. On-site steam heating systems shall have condensate water heat recovery. On-site includes a system that is located within or adjacent to one or more buildings within the boundary of a contiguous area or campus under one ownership and which serves one or more of those buildings.
Buildings using steam generated off-site with steam heating systems which do not have condensate water recovery shall have condensate water recovery.
C403.9.2.3 Refrigeration condenser heat recovery. Facilities having food service, meat or deli departments and having 500,000 Btu/h or greater of remote refrigeration condensers shall have condenser waste heat recovery from freezers and coolers and shall use the waste heat for service water heating, space heating or for dehumidification reheat. Facilities having a gross conditioned floor area of 40,000 ft2 or greater and 1,000,000 Btu/h or greater of remote refrigeration shall have condenser waste heat recovery from freezers and coolers and shall use the waste heat for service water heating, and either for space heating or for dehumidification reheat for maintaining low space humidity.
C403.9.2.4 Heat recovery for space heating. A water-source condenser heat recovery system meeting the requirements of Sections C403.9.2.4.1 through C403.9.2.4.4 shall be installed to serve space and ventilation heating systems in new buildings and additions meeting the following criteria:
1. The facility operates greater than 70 hours per week.
2. The sum of all heat rejection equipment capacity serving the new building or addition exceeds 1,500,000 Btu/hr.
3. The sum of zone minimum airflows in all zones with zone reheat coils divided by the conditioned floor area served by those systems is at least 0.45 cfm per square foot.
EXCEPTION:
Systems complying with Section C403.3.5 Dedicated outdoor air systems.
C403.9.2.4.1 Water-to-water heat recovery. Ninety percent (90%) of the total building space and ventilation heating system design load shall be served by systems that include heat recovery chiller or water-to-water heat pump equipment capable of rejecting heat from the cooling loop to the space and ventilation heating loop as the first stage of heating.
C403.9.2.4.2 Exhaust heat recovery. Heat shall be recovered by the heat recovery system from 90 percent of the total building exhaust airflow. The maximum leaving air temperature of exhaust air after heat recovery shall be 55ºF dry-bulb when operating at full capacity in heat recovery mode.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Where energy recovery systems are restricted by Section 514 of the International Mechanical Code to sensible energy, those systems shall not be included in the calculation of total building exhaust airflow.
 
2. Exhaust air systems handling contaminated airstreams that are regulated by applicable codes or accreditation standards and pose a health risk to maintenance personnel to maintain heat recovery devices, those systems shall not be included in the calculation of total building exhaust airflow.
C403.9.2.4.3 Process heat recovery. Spaces with year-round cooling loads from lights and equipment of 5 watts and greater per square foot shall be served by water-cooled equipment. Cooling loops serving the water-cooled equipment shall be served by water source heat recovery systems meeting the requirements of Section C403.9.2.4.1. If such spaces are provided with an air or water economizer, the economizer controls shall be configured with an override signal from the building automation system to disable economizer operation during heat recovery mode.
C403.9.2.4.4 Water-to-water heat recovery sizing. The minimum total combined capacity of heat recovery chillers or water-to-water heat pumps shall match the total combined capacity of installed equipment sized to meet the requirements of Sections C403.9.2.4.2 and C403.9.2.4.3.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.160 and chapter 19.27 RCW. WSR 19-24-040, § 51-11C-4039, filed 11/26/19, effective 7/1/20.]
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