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PDFWAC 51-11C-40343

Section C403.4.2Hydronic systems controls.

C403.4.2 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.2.1 through C403.4.2.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls configured to sequence operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146,550 W) input design capacity shall include either a multi-staged or modulating burner.
C403.4.2.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.
C403.4.2.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.
C403.4.2.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump systems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403.4.2.3.1 through C403.4.2.3.3.
C403.4.2.3.1 Temperature dead band. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are configured to provide a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20°F (11.1°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.
EXCEPTION:
Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on real time conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.
C403.4.2.3.2 Heat rejection. Heat rejection equipment shall comply with Sections C403.4.2.3.2.1 and C403.4.2.3.2.2.
EXCEPTION:
Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.
C403.4.2.3.2.1 Climate Zone 4. For Climate Zone 4:
1. If a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.
2. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.
3. If an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.
C403.4.2.3.2.2 Climate Zone 5. For Climate Zone 5, if an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used, then a separate heat exchanger shall be provided to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, and heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop and providing an automatic valve to stop the flow of fluid.
C403.4.2.3.3 Isolation valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5 kW) shall have a two-way (but not three-way) valve. For the purposes of this section, pump system power is the sum of the nominal power demand (i.e., nameplate horsepower at nominal motor efficiency) of motors of all pumps that are required to operate at design conditions to supply fluid from the heating or cooling source to all heat transfer devices (e.g., coils, heat exchanger) and return it to the source. This converts the system into a variable flow system and, as such, the primary circulation pumps shall comply with the variable flow requirements in Section C403.4.2.6.
C403.4.2.4 Part load controls. Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (88 kW) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that are configured to:
1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures in response to varying building heating and cooling demand using coil valve position, zone-return water temperature or outdoor air temperature. The temperature shall be reset by not less than 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference.
EXCEPTION:
Hydronic systems serving hydronic heat pumps.
2. Automatically vary fluid flow for hydronic systems with a combined motor capacity of 3 hp or larger with three or more control valves or other devices by reducing the system design flow rate by not less than 50 percent by designed valves that modulate or step open and close, or pumps that modulate or turn on and off as a function of load.
3. Automatically vary pump flow on chilled-water systems and heat rejection loops serving water-cooled unitary air conditioners with a combined motor capacity of 3 hp or larger by reducing pump design flow by not less than 50 percent utilizing adjustable speed drives on pumps, or multiple-staged pumps where not less than one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off. Pump flow shall be controlled to maintain one control valve nearly wide open or to satisfy the minimum differential pressure.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Supply-water temperature reset for chilled-water systems supplied by off-site district chilled water or chilled water from ice storage systems.
 
2. Minimum flow rates other than 50 percent as required by the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment where using flow bypass or end-of-line 3-way valves.
 
3. Variable pump flow on dedicated equipment circulation pumps where configured in primary/secondary design to provide the minimum flow requirements of the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment.
C403.4.2.5 Boiler turndown.Boiler systems with design input of greater than 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) shall comply with the turndown ratio specified in Table C403.4.2.5.
The system turndown requirement shall be met through the use of multiple single input boilers, one or more modulating boilers or a combination of single input and modulating boilers.
Table C403.4.2.5
Boiler Turndown
Boiler System Design Input (Btu/h)
Minimum Turndown Ratio
≥ 1,000,000 and less than or
equal to 5,000,000
3 to 1
> 5,000,000 and less than or
equal to 10,000,000
4 to 1
> 10,000,000
5 to 1
C403.4.2.6 Pump isolation. Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down and automatically shut off flow to chillers that are shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.
EXCEPTION:
Chillers that are piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential.
Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down.
C403.4.2.7 Variable flow controls. Individual pumps required by this code to have variable speed control shall be controlled in one of the following manners:
1. For systems having a combined pump motor horsepower less than or equal to 20 hp (15 kW) and without direct digital control of individual coils, pump speed shall be a function of either:
1.1. Required differential pressure; or
1.2. Reset directly based on zone hydronic demand, or other zone load indicators; or
1.3. Reset directly based on pump power and pump differential pressure.
2. For systems having a combined pump motor horsepower that exceeds 20 hp (15 kW) or smaller systems with direct digital control, pump speed shall be a function of either:
2.1. The static pressure set point as reset based on the valve requiring the most pressure; or
2.2. Directly controlled based on zone hydronic demand.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, 19.27A.160, and 19.27.074. WSR 16-13-089, § 51-11C-40343, filed 6/15/16, effective 7/16/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.160, and 19.27.074. WSR 16-03-072, § 51-11C-40343, filed 1/19/16, effective 7/1/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.074. WSR 13-20-120, § 51-11C-40343, filed 10/1/13, effective 11/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.025 and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. WSR 13-04-056, § 51-11C-40343, filed 2/1/13, effective 7/1/13.]
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