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PDFWAC 296-56-60077

Powered industrial trucks.

(1) This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or equipment handling within a marine terminal. You must comply with the provisions of chapter 296-863 WAC and this section. It does not apply to over-the-road vehicles.
(2) You must meet the following general requirements for powered industrial trucks:
(a) Modifications, such as adding counterweights, that might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety must not be performed without either the manufacturer's prior written approval or the written approval of a professional engineer experienced with the equipment who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals must be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.
(b) Unauthorized personnel must not ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride must be provided when riding is authorized.
(c) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load-engaging means must be fully lowered, controls neutralized and brakes set. Unless the truck is in view and within twenty-five feet (7.62 m) of the operator, power must be shut off. Wheels must be blocked or curbed if the truck is on an incline.
(d) Powered industrial trucks must not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational safety.
(e) Powered industrial trucks must be marked with their rated capacities, which must be visible to the operator.
(f) Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the truck must be handled.
(g) Drivers must ascend and descend grades slowly.
(h) Drivers must slow down and sound the horn at crossaisles and other locations where visibility is obstructed.
(i) If the load obstructs the forward view drivers must travel with the load trailing.
(j) Steering knobs must not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.
(k) When powered industrial trucks use cargo lifting devices that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means must be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been engaged.
(l) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means must be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.
(3) You must meet the following requirements for maintenance:
(a) Only designated persons must perform maintenance and repair.
(b) Batteries on all powered trucks must be disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy must be safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
(c) Replacement parts whose function might affect operational safety must be equivalent in strength and performance capability to the original parts which they replace.
(d) Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking must be operable and in safe condition.
(e) Powered industrial trucks must be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices must not be removed or made inoperative except as otherwise provided in this section. Trucks with a fuel system leak or any other safety defect must not be operated.
(f) Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards must be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such repairs.
(4) You must meet these requirements for approved trucks:
(a) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, must bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
(b) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous and the provisions of United States Coast Guard regulations at 33 C.F.R. 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations must be used.
(5) You must meet these requirements for operator duties:
(a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are:
(i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner.
(ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work.
(iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle.
(iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when traveling with a load on the fork lift jitney.
(b) When traveling, power-propelled vehicles must at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator must be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so.
(c) Operators and authorized passengers are not permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor are they permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position.
(d) Vehicles must be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions must be taken when pushing vehicles where the view is obstructed. Vehicles must not be pushed with blades of a forklift.
(e) In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers, trailers must be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution must be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers must be loaded in a manner which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer must be evenly distributed to prevent the trailer from tipping to one side.
(f) Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited.
(g) No one except the operator shall ride on power-driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers.
(h) Employees must not jump on or off moving vehicles.
(i) If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator must report the defect immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle must not be used for production work until it has been made safe.
(6) You must meet the following requirements for vehicle equipment and maintenance:
(a) All power-propelled vehicles must be provided with horns or other warning devices.
(b) Power-propelled vehicles used for night work, when required to travel away from an illuminated work area must be equipped with a light or lights directed in the direction of travel in order to safely travel about the area.
(c) Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position must be equipped with a substantial guard securely attached to the platform or frame of the vehicle in such a manner as to protect the operator from falling objects and so designed that the operator can easily mount or dismount from the operating station.
(d) All vehicles having a driver's seat must be provided with resilient seat cushions fixed in place.
(e) Counterbalances of all power-driven vehicles must be positively secured to prevent accidental dislodging, but may be a removable type which may be removed, if desired, prior to hoisting the vehicle.
(f) Exhaust pipes and mufflers of internal combustion engines, where workers are exposed to contact shall be isolated or insulated. Exhaust pipes must be constructed to discharge not less than seventy-two inches above the floor on jitneys and eighty-four inches on forklifts or less than twenty inches from the floor.
(g) Internal combustion engines may be used only in areas where adequate ventilation is provided.
(h) Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations must not exceed the levels specified in WAC 296-56-60055.
(i) When disputes arise concerning degree of concentration, methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions should be referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.
(j) Couplings installed on cargo trucks (four-wheelers) must be of a type which will prevent accidental disengaging.
(k) Operating levers on power-driven vehicles must be so placed as not to project toward the operator's body.
(l) The front axle assembly on all trailers must be securely fastened to the truck bed.
(m) Tractors hauling heavy duty highway trailers must have an air line brake hook-up.
(n) On power-driven vehicles where the operator stands on a platform, resilient foot mats must be securely attached.
(o) All power-propelled vehicles must be cleaned at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dust and grease that may present a hazard.
(7) You must meet the following requirements for forklift trucks:
(a) Overhead guards.
(i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks must be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards must be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects.
(ii) Overhead guards must not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard must not exceed six inches (15.24 cm) in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard.
(iii) Overhead guards must be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.
(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.
(v) Overhead guards must be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.
(b) Cargo or supplies must not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading.
(c) When standing, lift forklift forks must be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks must be kept as low as possible.
(d) Not less than two forklifts must be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded.
(e) Seats on forklifts must be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather.
(f) Workers must not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking must be used in conjunction with the jack.
(g) The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks must not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit must be prominently posted on such docks.
(h) Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks must be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.
(i) Forks, fork extensions and other attachments must be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and must be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(j) Counterweights must be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.
(k) Capacities and weights:
(i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, must not be exceeded. Rated capacities must be marked on the vehicle and be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, must be similarly marked.
(ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load must not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.
(l) Employees may be elevated by forklift trucks only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform must meet the following requirements:
(i) The platform must have a railing complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).
(ii) The platform must have toeboards complying with WAC 296-56-60123(4), if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.
(iii) When the truck has controls which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means must be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(iv) Employees on the platform must be protected from exposure to moving truck parts.
(v) The platform floor must be skid resistant.
(vi) A truck operator must be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage.
(vii) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments.
(8) You must meet the following requirements for bulk cargo-moving vehicles:
(a) Where a seated operator may come into contact with projecting overhead members, crawler-type bulk cargo-moving vehicles that are rider operated must be equipped with operator guards.
(b) Guards and their attachment points must be so designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.
(c) After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles must be equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a rollover or upset.
(9) You must meet the following requirements for straddle trucks:
(a) Straddle trucks must have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent.
(b) Guarding:
(i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels must be guarded as follows:
(A) The upper sprocket must be fully enclosed;
(B) The upper half of the lower sprocket must be enclosed; and
(C) The drive chain must be enclosed to a height of eight feet (2.44 m) except for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket.
(ii) Gears must be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator must be guarded.
(iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel-deflecting guards must be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels.
(c) Operator visibility must be provided in all directions of movement.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for trailer-spotting tractors:
(a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) must be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel.
(b) Rear cab windows must be of safety glass or equivalent material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 15-24-102, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/1/15, effective 1/5/16; WSR 09-15-144, § 296-56-60077, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-21-103, § 296-56-60077, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01; WSR 00-01-176, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/21/99, effective 3/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-02-024, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60077, filed 1/17/86; WSR 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60077, filed 4/19/85; WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60077, filed 12/11/84.]
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