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Chapter 246-221 WAC

Last Update: 10/4/18

RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS

WAC Sections

HTMLPDF246-221-001Purpose and scope.
HTMLPDF246-221-005Radiation protection programs.
HTMLPDF246-221-010Occupational dose limits for adults.
HTMLPDF246-221-015Compliance with requirements for summation of external and internal doses.
HTMLPDF246-221-020Determination of prior occupational dose.
HTMLPDF246-221-030Requirements for planned special exposures.
HTMLPDF246-221-040Determination of internal exposure of individuals to concentrations of radioactive materials in restricted areas.
HTMLPDF246-221-050Occupational dose limits for minors.
HTMLPDF246-221-055Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.
HTMLPDF246-221-060Dose limits for individual members of the public.
HTMLPDF246-221-070Compliance with dose limits for individual members of the public.
HTMLPDF246-221-080Leak tests.
HTMLPDF246-221-090Personnel monitoring for external dose.
HTMLPDF246-221-100Personnel monitoring for internal dose.
HTMLPDF246-221-102Control of access to high radiation areas.
HTMLPDF246-221-104Control of access to very high radiation areas.
HTMLPDF246-221-106Control of access to very high radiation areas—Irradiators.
HTMLPDF246-221-110Surveys.
HTMLPDF246-221-113Use of process, engineering or other controls.
HTMLPDF246-221-117Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.
HTMLPDF246-221-120Caution signs, and labels.
HTMLPDF246-221-130Exceptions from posting and labeling requirements.
HTMLPDF246-221-140Instruction of personnel.
HTMLPDF246-221-150Security and control of radioactive material and radiation machines.
HTMLPDF246-221-160Procedures for picking up, receiving, and opening packages.
HTMLPDF246-221-170Waste disposal, general requirement.
HTMLPDF246-221-180Method of obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.
HTMLPDF246-221-190Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage systems.
HTMLPDF246-221-200Disposal by burial in soil.
HTMLPDF246-221-210Disposal by incineration.
HTMLPDF246-221-220Disposal of specific wastes.
HTMLPDF246-221-230Records important to radiation safety.
HTMLPDF246-221-235Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.
HTMLPDF246-221-236Nationally tracked source thresholds.
HTMLPDF246-221-240Reports of stolen, lost or missing radiation sources.
HTMLPDF246-221-250Notification of incidents.
HTMLPDF246-221-260Reports of overexposures and excessive levels and concentrations.
HTMLPDF246-221-265Special reports to the department—Planned special exposures and leaking sources.
HTMLPDF246-221-270Vacating premises and release of equipment.
HTMLPDF246-221-275Notification of changes in a facility.
HTMLPDF246-221-280Notifications and reports to individuals.
HTMLPDF246-221-285Assigned protection factors for respiratorsa.
HTMLPDF246-221-290Appendix A—Annual limits on intake (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) of radionuclides for occupational exposure; effluent concentrations; concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage.
HTMLPDF246-221-300Appendix B—Minimum quantities of radioactive material requiring labeling.


PDF246-221-001

Purpose and scope.

(1) This chapter establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. Except as otherwise specifically provided, this chapter applies to all licensees or registrants. The requirements of this chapter are designed to control the receipt, possession, use, transfer, and disposal of sources of radiation by any licensee or registrant so the total dose to an individual, including doses resulting from all sources of radiation other than background radiation, does not exceed the standards for protection against radiation prescribed in this chapter.
(2) The limits in this chapter do not apply to doses due to background radiation, to exposure of patients to radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or therapy, to exposure from individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, or to voluntary participation in medical research programs.
(3) Nothing in this chapter shall be interpreted as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect health and safety in an emergency.
(4) The definitions contained in WAC 246-220-010 also apply to this chapter. WAC 246-220-007, Statement of philosophy, is directly applicable to this chapter.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 06-05-019, § 246-221-001, filed 2/6/06, effective 3/9/06; WSR 98-13-037, § 246-221-001, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-001, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-001, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-001, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91; Order 1095, § 402-24-010, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-010, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-005

Radiation protection programs.

(1) Each specific licensee shall develop, document, and implement a radiation protection program sufficient to ensure compliance with the provisions of this chapter.
(2) The licensee shall use, to the extent practical, procedures and engineering controls based upon sound radiation protection principles to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA).
(3) The licensee shall review the radiation protection program content and implementation at the frequency specified in the license.
(4) To implement the ALARA requirements of subsection (2) of this section, and notwithstanding the requirements of WAC 246-221-060, a constraint on air emission of radioactive material to the environment, excluding radon-220, radon-222 and their daughters, shall be established by licensees such that the individual member of the public likely to receive the highest dose will not be expected to receive a total effective dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) per year from these emissions. This dose constraint does not apply to sealed sources or to accelerators less than 200MeV. If a licensee subject to this requirement exceeds this dose constraint, the licensee shall report the exceedance as provided in WAC 246-221-260 and promptly take appropriate corrective action to ensure against recurrence.
(5) Each licensee shall maintain records of the radiation protection program, including:
(a) The provisions of the program; and
(b) Audits, where required, and other reviews of program content and implementation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-005, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 99-15-105, § 246-221-005, filed 7/21/99, effective 8/21/99; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-005, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-010

Occupational dose limits for adults.

(1) The licensee or registrant shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures pursuant to WAC 246-221-030, to the following dose limits:
(a) An annual limit, which is the more limiting of:
(i) The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 0.05 Sv (5 rem); or
(ii) The sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 0.50 Sv (50 rem).
(b) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of the extremities which are:
(i) A lens dose equivalent of 0.15 Sv (15 rem); and
(ii) A shallow dose equivalent of 0.50 Sv (50 rem) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.
(2) Doses received in excess of the annual limits, including doses received during accidents, emergencies, and planned special exposures, must be subtracted from the limits specified in WAC 246-221-030 for planned special exposures that the individual may receive during the current year and during the individual's lifetime.
(3) When the external exposure is determined by measurement with an external personal monitoring device, the deep-dose equivalent must be used in place of the effective dose equivalent, unless the effective dose equivalent is determined by a dosimetry method approved by the NRC or the department. The assigned deep-dose equivalent must be for the part of the body receiving the highest exposure. The assigned shallow dose equivalent shall be the dose averaged over the contiguous ten square centimeters of skin receiving the highest exposure. The deep dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent, and shallow dose equivalent may be assessed from surveys or other radiation measurements for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the occupational dose limits, if the individual monitoring device was not in the region of highest potential exposure, or the results of the individual monitoring are unavailable.
(4) Derived air concentration (DAC) and annual limit on intake (ALI) values are specified in WAC 246-221-290 and may be used to determine the individual's dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits.
(5) Notwithstanding the annual dose limits, the licensee shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity.
(6) The licensee or registrant shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person during the current year as determined in accordance with WAC 246-221-020.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050, 56 F.R. 23396, 10 C.F.R. 20.1201 (a)(1)(ii). WSR 18-21-020, § 246-221-010, filed 10/4/18, effective 11/4/18. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-010, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 04-23-093, § 246-221-010, filed 11/17/04, effective 12/18/04; WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-010, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-010, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-010, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-010, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-020, filed 12/11/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-020, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-020, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-020, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-015

Compliance with requirements for summation of external and internal doses.

(1) If the licensee is required to monitor under both WAC 246-221-090 and 246-221-100, the licensee shall demonstrate compliance with the dose limits by summing external and internal doses. If the licensee is required to monitor only under WAC 246-221-090 or only under WAC 246-221-100, then summation is not required to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits. The licensee may demonstrate compliance with the requirements for summation of external and internal doses under subsections (2), (3), and (4) of this section. The dose equivalents for the lens of the eye, the skin, and the extremities are not included in the summation, but are subject to separate limits.
(2) Intake by inhalation. If the only intake of radionuclides is by inhalation, the total effective dose equivalent limit is not exceeded if the sum of the deep dose equivalent divided by the total effective dose equivalent limit, and one of the following, does not exceed unity:
(a) The sum of the fractions of the inhalation ALI for each radionuclide; or
(b) The total number of derived air concentration-hours (DAC-hours) for all radionuclides divided by two thousand; or
(c) The sum of the calculated committed effective dose equivalents to all significantly irradiated organs or tissues (T) calculated from bioassay data using appropriate biological models and expressed as a fraction of the annual limit. For purposes of this requirement, an organ or tissue is deemed to be significantly irradiated if, for that organ or tissue, the product of the weighting factors, wT, and the committed dose equivalent, HT,50, per unit intake is greater than ten percent of the maximum weighted value of H50, that is, wTHT,50, per unit intake for any organ or tissue.
(3) Intake by oral ingestion. If the occupationally exposed individual also receives an intake of radionuclides by oral ingestion greater than ten percent of the applicable oral ALI, the licensee shall account for this intake and include it in demonstrating compliance with the limits.
(4) Intake through wounds or absorption through skin. The licensee shall evaluate and, to the extent practical, account for intakes through wounds or skin absorption. The intake through intact skin has been included in the calculation of DAC for hydrogen-3 and does not need to be evaluated or accounted for pursuant to this section.
(5) External dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the contribution to the deep dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent, and shallow dose equivalent from external exposure to the radioactive cloud. Airborne radioactivity measurements and DAC values shall not be used as the primary means to assess the deep dose equivalent when the airborne radioactive material includes radionuclides other than noble gases or if the cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform. The determination of the deep dose equivalent to an individual shall be based upon measurements using instruments or individual monitoring devices.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-015, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-015, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-020

Determination of prior occupational dose.

(1) For each individual who is likely to receive, in a year, an occupational dose requiring monitoring pursuant to WAC 246-221-090 and 246-221-100, the licensee or registrant shall:
(a) Determine the occupational radiation dose received during the current year; and
(b) Attempt to obtain the records of lifetime cumulative occupational radiation dose.
(2) Prior to permitting an individual to participate in a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant shall determine:
(a) The internal and external doses from all previous planned special exposures; and
(b) All doses in excess of the limits, including doses received during accidents and emergencies, received during the lifetime of the individual.
(3) In complying with the requirements of subsection (1) of this section, a licensee or registrant may:
(a) Accept, as a record of the occupational dose that the individual received during the current year, a written signed statement from the individual, or from the individual's most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, that discloses the nature and the amount of any occupational dose that the individual received during the current year; and
(b) Accept, as the record of lifetime cumulative radiation dose, an up-to-date Form RHF-4A, or equivalent, signed by the individual and countersigned by an appropriate official of the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant; and
(c) Obtain reports of the individual's dose equivalent from the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant, by telephone, facsimile, email, or letter. The licensee or registrant shall request a written verification of the dose data if the authenticity of the transmitted report cannot be established.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall record the exposure history, as required by subsection (1) of this section, on Form RHF-4A, or other clear and legible record, of all the information required on that form. The form or record shall show each period in which the individual received occupational exposure to radiation or radioactive material and shall be signed by the individual who received the exposure. For each period for which the licensee or registrant obtains reports, the licensee or registrant shall use the dose shown in the report in preparing Form RHF-4A. For any period in which the licensee or registrant does not obtain a report, the licensee or registrant shall place a notation on Form RHF-4A indicating the periods of time for which data are not available.
(5) Licensees or registrants are not required to reevaluate the separate external dose equivalents and internal committed dose equivalents or intakes of radionuclides assessed under the regulations in effect before January 1, 1994. Further, occupational exposure histories obtained and recorded on Form RHF-4 before January 1, 1994, would not have included effective dose equivalent, but may be used in the absence of specific information on the intake of radionuclides by the individual.
(6) If the licensee or registrant is unable to obtain a complete record of an individual's current and previously accumulated occupational dose, the licensee or registrant shall assume:
(a) In establishing administrative controls under WAC 246-221-010(6) for the current year, that the allowable dose limit for the individual is reduced by 12.5 mSv (1.25 rem) for each calendar quarter for which records were unavailable and the individual was engaged in activities that could have resulted in occupational radiation exposure; and
(b) That the individual is not available for planned special exposures.
(7) The licensee or registrant shall retain the records on Form RHF-4A or equivalent until the department terminates each pertinent license requiring this record. The licensee or registrant shall retain records used in preparing Form RHF-4 or RHF-4A for three years after the record is made.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.110. WSR 16-13-054, § 246-221-020, filed 6/10/16, effective 7/11/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 00-08-013, § 246-221-020, filed 3/24/00, effective 4/24/00; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-020, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-020, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-020, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-024, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-024, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-030

Requirements for planned special exposures.

A licensee or registrant may authorize an adult worker to receive doses in addition to and accounted for separately from the doses received under the limits specified in WAC 246-221-010 provided that each of the following conditions is satisfied:
(1) The licensee or registrant authorizes a planned special exposure only in an exceptional situation when alternatives that might avoid the dose estimated to result from the planned special exposure are unavailable or impractical.
(2) The licensee or registrant, and employer if the employer is not the licensee or registrant, specifically authorizes the planned special exposure, in writing, before the exposure occurs.
(3) Before a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant ensures that each individual involved is:
(a) Informed of the purpose of the planned operation; and
(b) Informed of the estimated doses and associated potential risks and specific radiation levels or other conditions that might be involved in performing the task; and
(c) Instructed in the measures to be taken to keep the dose ALARA considering other risks that may be present.
(4) Prior to permitting an individual to participate in a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant ascertains prior doses as required by WAC 246-221-020(2) during the lifetime of the individual for each individual involved.
(5) Subject to WAC 246-221-010(2), the licensee or registrant shall not authorize a planned special exposure that would cause an individual to receive a dose from all planned special exposures and all doses in excess of the limits to exceed:
(a) The numerical values of any of the dose limits in WAC 246-221-010(1) in any year; and
(b) Five times the annual dose limits in WAC 246-221-010(1) during the individual's lifetime.
(6) The licensee or registrant maintains records that describe:
(a) The exceptional circumstances requiring the use of a planned special exposure;
(b) The name of the management official who authorized the planned special exposure and a copy of the signed authorization;
(c) What actions were necessary;
(d) Why the actions were necessary;
(e) What precautions were taken to assure that doses were maintained ALARA; and
(f) What individual and collective doses were expected to result.
(7) The licensee or registrant records the best estimate of the dose resulting from the planned special exposure in the individual's record and informs the individual, in writing, of the dose within thirty days from the date of the planned special exposure. The dose from planned special exposures shall not be considered in controlling future occupational dose of the individual under WAC 246-221-010(1) but shall be included in evaluations required by subsections (4) and (5) of this section.
(8) The licensee or registrant submits a written report in accordance with WAC 246-221-265.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-030, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-030, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-030, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-030, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-027, filed 12/8/80.]



PDF246-221-040

Determination of internal exposure of individuals to concentrations of radioactive materials in restricted areas.

(1) For purposes of assessing dose used to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits, the licensee shall, when required under WAC 246-221-100, take suitable and timely measurements of:
(a) Concentrations of radioactive materials in air in work areas; or
(b) Quantities of radionuclides in the body; or
(c) Quantities of radionuclides excreted from the body; or
(d) Combinations of these measurements.
(2) Unless respiratory protective equipment is used, as provided in WAC 246-221-117, or the assessment of intake is based on bioassays, the licensee shall assume that an individual inhales radioactive material at the airborne concentration in which the individual is present.
(3) When specific information on the physical and biochemical properties of the radionuclides taken into the body or the behavior or the material in an individual is known, the licensee may:
(a) Use that information to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, and, if used, the licensee shall document that information in the individual's record; and
(b) Upon prior approval of the department, adjust the DAC or ALI values to reflect the actual physical and chemical characteristics of airborne radioactive material, for example, aerosol size distribution or density; and
(c) Separately assess the contribution of fractional intakes of Class D, W, or Y compounds of a given radionuclide to the committed effective dose equivalent. See WAC 246-221-290.
(4) If the licensee chooses to assess intakes of Class Y material using the measurements given in subsection (1)(b) or (c) of this section, the licensee may delay the recording and reporting of the assessments for periods up to seven months, unless otherwise required by WAC 246-221-250 or 246-221-260. This delay permits the licensee to make additional measurements basic to the assessments.
(5) If the identity and concentration of each radionuclide in a mixture are known, the fraction of the DAC applicable to the mixture for use in calculating DAC-hours shall be either:
(a) The sum of the ratios of the concentration to the appropriate DAC value, that is, D, W, or Y, from WAC 246-221-290 for each radionuclide in the mixture; or
(b) The ratio of the total concentration for all radionuclides in the mixture to the most restrictive DAC value for any radionuclide in the mixture.
(6) If the identity of each radionuclide in a mixture is known, but the concentration of one or more of the radionuclides in the mixture is not known, the DAC for the mixture shall be the most restrictive DAC of any radionuclide in the mixture.
(7) When a mixture of radionuclides in air exists, a licensee may disregard certain radionuclides in the mixture if:
(a) The licensee uses the total activity of the mixture in demonstrating compliance with the dose limits in WAC 246-221-010 and in complying with the monitoring requirements in WAC 246-221-100; and
(b) The concentration of any radionuclide disregarded is less than ten percent of its DAC; and
(c) The sum of these percentages for all of the radionuclides disregarded in the mixture does not exceed thirty percent.
(8) When determining the committed effective dose equivalent, the following information may be considered:
(a) In order to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, the licensee may assume that the inhalation of one ALI, or an exposure of 2,000 DAC-hours, results in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) for radionuclides that have their ALIs or DACs based on the committed effective dose equivalent.
(b) For an ALI and the associated DAC determined by the nonstochastic organ dose limit of 0.50 Sv (50 rem), the intake of radionuclides that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), that is, the stochastic ALI, is listed in parentheses in Table I of WAC 246-221-290. The licensee may, as a simplifying assumption, use the stochastic ALIs to determine committed effective dose equivalent. However, if the licensee uses the stochastic ALIs, the licensee shall also demonstrate that the limit in WAC 246-221-010 (1)(a)(ii) is met.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-040, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-040, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-040, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-040, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-030, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-030, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-030, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-050

Occupational dose limits for minors.

No licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer sources of radiation in such a manner as to cause any occupationally exposed individual who is under 18 years of age, to receive a dose in excess of 10 percent of the annual occupational dose limits specified in WAC 246-221-010(1).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-050, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-050, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-050, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-035, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-035, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-055

Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

(1) The licensee or registrant shall ensure that the dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
(2) Once pregnancy has been declared, the licensee or registrant shall make every effort to avoid substantial variation above a uniform monthly exposure rate to a declared pregnant woman in order to satisfy the limit in subsection (1) of this section.
(3) If by the time the woman declares pregnancy to the licensee or registrant, the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus has exceeded 5 mSv (0.5 rem), or is within 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem) of this dose, the licensee or registrant shall be deemed to be in compliance with subsection (1) of this section if the additional dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus does not exceed 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem) during the remainder of the pregnancy.
(4) The dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus shall be taken as the sum of:
(a) The deep dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman; and
(b) The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.
(5) The licensee or registrant shall maintain the records of dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus with the records of dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman. The declaration of pregnancy, including the estimated date of conception, shall also be kept on file, but may be maintained separately from the dose records.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.010, 70.98.050, and 70.98.080. WSR 17-12-046, § 246-221-055, filed 6/1/17, effective 7/2/17. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-055, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-055, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-060

Dose limits for individual members of the public.

(1) Each licensee or registrant shall conduct operations so that:
(a) The total effective dose equivalent to individual members of the public from the licensed or registered operation does not exceed 1 mSv (0.1 rem) in a year, exclusive of the dose contributions from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, and from the licensee's or registrant's disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage in accordance with WAC 246-221-190; and
(b) The dose in any unrestricted area from external sources, exclusive of the dose contributions from patients administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, does not exceed 0.02 mSv (0.002 rem) in any one hour.
(2) If the licensee or registrant permits members of the public to have access to restricted areas, they shall be escorted and the limits for members of the public continue to apply to those individuals.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, a licensee or registrant may continue to operate a facility constructed and put into operation prior to January 1, 1994, where the annual dose limit for an individual member of the public is more than 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem) total effective dose equivalent, if:
(a) The facility's approved operating conditions for each radiation source remain the same. Any increase in the following operating conditions shall require reevaluation by the department and modification of the facility shielding applicable to the source of radiation to meet the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) total effective dose equivalent limit for individual members of the public: Size of the radiation source, workload, or occupancy factors associated with the source of radiation; and
(b) Any change in the permanent shielding of the facility due to remodeling, repair or replacement requires the facility to meet the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) total effective dose equivalent limit for individual members of the public for areas affected by that portion of the shielding.
(4) Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the dose limit for individual members of the public.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-060, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 06-05-019, § 246-221-060, filed 2/6/06, effective 3/9/06; WSR 98-13-037, § 246-221-060, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-060, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-060, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-060, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-040, filed 12/11/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-040, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-040, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-040, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-070

Compliance with dose limits for individual members of the public.

(1) The licensee shall make or cause to be made surveys of radiation levels in unrestricted areas and radioactive materials in effluents released to unrestricted areas to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits for individual members of the public in WAC 246-221-060.
(2) A licensee shall show compliance with the annual dose limit in WAC 246-221-060 by:
(a) Demonstrating by measurement or calculation that the total effective dose equivalent to the individual likely to receive the highest dose from the licensed operation does not exceed the annual dose limit; or
(b) Demonstrating that:
(i) The annual average concentrations of radioactive material released in gaseous and liquid effluents at the boundary of the unrestricted area do not exceed the values specified in Table II of WAC 246-221-290; and
(ii) If an individual were continually present in an unrestricted area, the dose from external sources would not exceed 0.02 mSv (0.002 rem) in an hour and 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem) in a year.
(3) Upon approval from the department, the licensee may adjust the effluent concentration values in WAC 246-221-290, Table II, for members of the public, to take into account the actual physical and chemical characteristics of the effluents, such as, aerosol size distribution, solubility, density, radioactive decay equilibrium, and chemical form.
(4) The provisions of this section do not apply to disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage systems, which is governed by WAC 246-221-190.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-070, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-070, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-070, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-050, filed 12/11/86; Order 1095, § 402-24-050, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-050, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-080

Leak tests.

(1) Each sealed radioactive source possessed under the provisions of a specific license, other than hydrogen-3 (tritium), with a half-life greater than thirty days and in any form other than gas, shall be tested and results obtained for leakage or contamination prior to initial use and at six-month intervals or as specified by the license, except that each source designed for the purpose of emitting alpha particles shall be tested at intervals not to exceed three months. If at any other time there is reason to suspect that a sealed source might have been damaged, it shall be tested for leakage and results obtained before further use. In the absence of a certificate from a transferor indicating that a test for leakage has been made within six months prior to the transfer (three months for a source designed to emit alpha particles), the sealed source shall not be put into use until tested and the results received.
(2) Leak tests shall be capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcurie) of removable contamination. The results of leak tests made pursuant to subsection (1) of this section shall be recorded in units of becquerel or microcuries and shall be maintained for inspection by the department. Any test conducted pursuant to subsection (1) of this section which reveals the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcurie) or more of removable contamination shall be considered evidence that the sealed source is leaking. The licensee shall immediately withdraw the source from use shall take action to prevent the spread of contamination and shall cause it to be decontaminated and repaired or to be disposed in accordance with WAC 246-232-080. If a sealed source shows evidence of leaking, a report shall be filed with the department within five days of the test, describing the equipment involved, the test results, and the corrective action taken.
(3) Test samples shall be taken from the sealed source or from the internal surfaces or the opening of the container in which the sealed source is stored or from surfaces of devices or equipment in which the sealed source is permanently mounted. Tests for contamination and leakage may be made by wiping appropriate accessible surfaces on which one might expect contamination to accumulate and measuring these wipes for transferred contamination. Test samples shall also be taken from the interior surfaces of the container in which a sealed source of radium is stored.
(4) Leak tests are required for sealed radioactive sources that are greater than 3.7 MBq (100 microcuries) for beta and gamma emitting sources and greater than 370 KBq (10 microcuries) for sources designed to emit alpha particles.
(5) Tests for leakage or contamination shall be performed by persons specifically authorized by the department, an agreement state, or the NRC to perform such services.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-080, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-080, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-080, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-080, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-060, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-060, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-060, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-060, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-090

Personnel monitoring for external dose.

Each licensee or registrant shall monitor occupational exposure from sources of radiation at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of WAC 246-221-010, 246-221-030, 246-221-050 and 246-221-055.
(1) Each licensee or registrant shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed (or registered) and unlicensed (or unregistered) radiation sources under the control of the licensee or registrant and shall supply and shall require the use of individual monitoring devices by:
(a) Each adult likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of ten percent of the applicable limits specified in WAC 246-221-010(1).
(b) Each minor likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
(c) Each declared pregnant woman likely to receive during the entire pregnancy, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem). All of the occupational dose limits specified in WAC 246-221-010 continue to be applicable to the declared pregnant worker as long as the embryo/fetus dose limit is not exceeded.
(d) Each individual who enters a high or very high radiation area.
(2) Personnel monitoring devices assigned to an individual:
(a) Shall not intentionally be exposed to give a false or erroneous reading;
(b) Shall be assigned to one individual per exposure interval (i.e., weekly, monthly) and used to determine exposure for that individual only;
(c) Shall not be worn by any individual other than that individual originally assigned to the device;
(d) Personnel monitoring devices that are exposed while not being worn by the assigned individual shall be processed and recorded as soon as possible. A replacement monitoring device shall be assigned to the individual immediately. A record of the circumstances of the exposure shall be retained.
(3) All personnel dosimeters, except for direct and indirect reading pocket ionization chambers and those dosimeters used to measure the dose to any extremities, that require processing to determine the radiation dose and that are utilized by licensees or registrants to comply with subsection (1) of this section, with other applicable provisions of chapters 246-220 through 246-255 WAC, or with conditions specified in a licensee's license must be processed and evaluated by a dosimetry processor:
(a) Holding current personnel dosimetry accreditation from either the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards) or the United States Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry Systems (DOELAP); and
(b) Approved in this accreditation process for the type of radiation or radiations included in the NVLAP or DOELAP program that most closely approximate the type of radiation or radiations for which the individual wearing the dosimeter is monitored.
(4) For the purposes of this section "dosimetry processor" means an individual or an organization that processes and evaluates personnel monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the device.
(5) Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records of doses received by all individuals for whom monitoring was required under subsection (1) of this section, and records of doses received during planned special exposures, accidents, and emergency conditions. Assessments of dose equivalent and records made using units in effect before January 1, 1994, need not be changed. These records shall include, when applicable:
(a) The deep dose equivalent to the whole body, lens dose equivalent, shallow dose equivalent to the skin, and shallow dose equivalent to the extremities; and
(b) The total effective dose equivalent when required by WAC 246-221-015; and
(c) The total of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose to the organ receiving the highest total dose (total organ dose equivalent).
(6) The licensee or registrant shall maintain the records specified in subsection (5) of this section on department Form RHF-5A, in accordance with the instructions provided on the form, or in clear and legible records containing all the information required by Form RHF-5A; and shall update the information at least annually.
(7) Each licensee or registrant shall ensure that individuals, for whom they are required to monitor occupational doses in accordance with subsection (1) of this section, wear individual monitoring devices as follows:
(a) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the whole body shall be worn at the unshielded or least shielded location of the whole body likely to receive the highest exposure. When a protective apron is worn, the location of the individual monitoring device is typically at the neck (collar).
(b) Any additional individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman, pursuant to WAC 246-221-055(1), shall be located at the waist under any protective apron being worn by the woman.
(c) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the lens dose equivalent, to demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-221-010 (1)(b)(i), shall be located at the neck (collar), outside any protective apron being worn by the monitored individual, or at an unshielded location closer to the eye.
(d) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the extremities, to demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-221-010 (1)(b)(ii), shall be worn on the extremity likely to receive the highest exposure. Each individual monitoring device shall be oriented to measure the highest dose to the extremity being monitored.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-090, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-090, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 92-06-008 (Order 245), § 246-221-090, filed 2/21/92, effective 3/23/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-090, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-070, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-070, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-070, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-070, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-100

Personnel monitoring for internal dose.

(1) Each licensee shall monitor, to determine compliance with WAC 246-221-040, the occupational intake of radioactive material by and assess the committed effective dose equivalent to:
(a) Adults likely to receive, in 1 year, an intake in excess of ten percent of the applicable ALI in Table I, Columns 1 and 2, of WAC 246-221-290;
(b) Minors likely to receive, in one year, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem); and
(c) Declared pregnant women likely to receive, during the entire pregnancy, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem).
(2) Where necessary or desirable in order to aid in determining the extent of an individual's exposure to concentrations of radioactive material, the department may incorporate license provisions or issue an order requiring a licensee or registrant to make available to the individual appropriate bioassay services and to furnish a copy of the reports of such services to the department.
(3) Each licensee shall maintain records of doses received by all individuals for whom monitoring was required pursuant to subsections (1) and (2) of this section, and records of doses received during planned special exposures, accidents, and emergency conditions. Assessments of dose equivalent and records made using units in effect before January 1, 1994, need not be changed. These records shall include, when applicable:
(a) The estimated intake or body burden of radionuclides;
(b) The committed effective dose equivalent assigned to the intake or body burden of radionuclides;
(c) The specific information used to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent pursuant to WAC 246-221-040;
(d) The total effective dose equivalent when required by WAC 246-221-015; and
(e) The total of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose to the organ receiving the highest total dose (total organ dose equivalent).
(4) The licensee or registrant shall maintain the records specified in subsection (3) of this section on department Form RHF-5A, in accordance with the instructions provided on the form, or in clear and legible records containing all the information required by Form RHF-5A; and shall update the information at least annually.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-100, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-100, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-100, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91; Order 1095, § 402-24-080, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-080, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-102

Control of access to high radiation areas.

(1) The licensee or registrant shall ensure that each entrance or access point to a high radiation area has one or more of the following features:
(a) A control device that, upon entry into the area, causes the level of radiation to be reduced below that level at which an individual might receive a deep dose equivalent of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at thirty centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates; or
(b) A control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal so that the individual entering the high radiation area and the supervisor of the activity are made aware of the entry; or
(c) Entryways that are locked, except during periods when access to the areas is required, with positive control over each individual entry.
(2) In place of the controls required by subsection (1) of this section for a high radiation area, the licensee or registrant may substitute continuous direct or electronic surveillance that is capable of preventing unauthorized entry.
(3) The licensee or registrant may apply to the department for approval of alternative methods for controlling access to high radiation areas.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall establish the controls required by subsections (1) and (3) of this section in a way that does not prevent individuals from leaving a high radiation area.
(5) The licensee is not required to control each entrance or access point to a room or other area that is a high radiation area solely because of the presence of radioactive materials prepared for transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation provided that:
(a) The packages do not remain in the area longer than three days; and
(b) The dose rate at one meter from the external surface of any package does not exceed 0.1 mSv (0.01 rem) per hour.
(6) The licensee is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas in hospitals solely because of the presence of patients containing radioactive material, provided that there are personnel in attendance who are taking the necessary precautions to prevent the exposure of individuals to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the established limits and to operate within the ALARA provisions of the licensee's radiation protection program.
(7) The licensee or registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas as described in this section if the licensee or registrant has met all the specific requirements for access and control specified in other applicable chapters of these regulations, such as, chapter 246-243 WAC for industrial radiography, chapter 246-225 WAC for X-rays in the healing arts, and chapter 246-229 WAC for particle accelerators.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-102, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-104

Control of access to very high radiation areas.

(1) In addition to the requirements in WAC 246-221-102, the licensee or registrant shall institute additional measures to ensure that an individual is not able to gain unauthorized or inadvertent access to areas in which radiation levels could be encountered at five Gy (500 rad) or more in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or any surface through which the radiation penetrates. This requirement does not apply to rooms or areas in which diagnostic X-ray systems are the only source of radiation, or to nonself-shielded irradiators.
(2) The licensee or registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas containing sources of radiation capable of producing a very high radiation area as described in this section if the licensee or registrant has met all the specific requirements for access and control specified in other applicable chapters of these regulations, such as, chapter 246-243 WAC for industrial radiography, chapter 246-225 WAC for X-rays in the healing arts, and chapter 246-229 WAC for particle accelerators.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-104, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-106

Control of access to very high radiation areas—Irradiators.

(1) This section applies to licensees or registrants with sources of radiation in nonself-shielded irradiators. This section does not apply to sources of radiation that are used in teletherapy, in industrial radiography, or in completely self-shielded irradiators in which the source of radiation is both stored and operated within the same shielding radiation barrier and, in the designed configuration of the irradiator, is always physically inaccessible to any individual and cannot create a radiation level of five Gy (500 rad) or more in one hour at one meter in an area that is accessible to any individual.
(2) Each area in which there may exist radiation levels in excess of five Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation that is used to irradiate materials shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Each entrance or access point shall be equipped with entry control devices which:
(i) Function automatically to prevent any individual from inadvertently entering a very high radiation area; and
(ii) Permit deliberate entry into the area only after a control device is actuated that causes the radiation level within the area, from the source of radiation, to be reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(iii) Prevent operation of the source of radiation if it would produce radiation levels in the area that could result in a deep dose equivalent to an individual in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour.
(b) Additional control devices shall be provided so that, upon failure of the entry control devices to function as required by (a) of this subsection:
(i) The radiation level within the area, from the source of radiation, is reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(ii) Conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals are generated to make an individual attempting to enter the area aware of the hazard and at least one other authorized individual, who is physically present, familiar with the activity, and prepared to render or summon assistance, aware of the failure of the entry control devices.
(c) The licensee or registrant shall provide control devices so that, upon failure or removal of physical radiation barriers other than the sealed source's shielded storage container:
(i) The radiation level from the source of radiation is reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(ii) Conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals are generated to make potentially affected individuals aware of the hazard and the licensee or registrant or at least one other individual, who is familiar with the activity and prepared to render or summon assistance, aware of the failure or removal of the physical barrier.
(d) When the shield for stored sealed sources is a liquid, the licensee shall provide means to monitor the integrity of the shield and to signal, automatically, loss of adequate shielding.
(e) Physical radiation barriers that comprise permanent structural components, such as walls, that have no credible probability of failure or removal in ordinary circumstances need not meet the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection.
(f) Each area shall be equipped with devices that will automatically generate conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals to alert personnel in the area before the source of radiation can be put into operation and in time for any individual in the area to operate a clearly identified control device, which must be installed in the area and which can prevent the source of radiation from being put into operation.
(g) Each area shall be controlled by use of such administrative procedures and such devices as are necessary to ensure that the area is cleared of personnel prior to each use of the source of radiation.
(h) Each area shall be checked by a radiation measurement to ensure that, prior to the first individual's entry into the area after any use of the source of radiation, the radiation level from the source of radiation in the area is below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour.
(i) Entry and exit portals that are used in transporting materials to and from the irradiation area, and that are not intended for use by individuals, shall be controlled by such devices and administrative procedures as are necessary to physically protect and warn against inadvertent entry by any individual through these portals. Exit portals for irradiated materials shall be equipped to detect and signal the presence of any loose radioactive material that is carried toward such an exit and automatically to prevent loose radioactive material from being carried out of the area.
(3) The entry control devices required in subsection (2)(a) of this section shall be tested for proper functioning:
(a) Prior to initial operation with the source of radiation on any day, unless operations were continued uninterrupted from the previous day; and
(b) Prior to resumption of operation of the source of radiation after any unintentional interruption; and
(c) In accordance with a schedule for periodic tests of the entry control and warning systems submitted by the licensee or registrant and approved by the department.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall not conduct operations, other than those necessary to place the source of radiation in safe condition or to effect repairs on controls, unless control devices are functioning properly.
(5) Licensees, registrants, or applicants for licenses or registrations for sources of radiation within the purview of subsection (2) of this section which will be used in a variety of positions or in locations, such as open fields or forests, that make it impracticable to comply with certain requirements of subsection (2) of this section, such as those for the automatic control of radiation levels, may apply to the department for approval of alternative safety measures. Alternative safety measures shall provide personnel protection at least equivalent to those specified in subsection (2) of this section. At least one of the alternative measures shall include an entry-preventing interlock control based on a measurement of the radiation that ensures the absence of high radiation levels before an individual can gain access to the area where such sources of radiation are used.
(6) The entry control devices required by subsections (2) and (3) of this section shall be established in such a way that no individual will be prevented from leaving the area.
(7) The licensee shall maintain records of tests made pursuant to subsection (3) of this section on entry control devices for very high radiation areas. These records shall include the date, time, and results of each such test of function.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-106, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-110

Surveys.

(1) Each licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made such surveys, as defined in WAC 246-220-010, as may be necessary for the licensee or registrant to establish compliance with these regulations and are reasonable under the circumstances to evaluate the magnitude and extent of radiation levels, concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, and potential radiation hazards. Records of such surveys shall be preserved as specified in WAC 246-221-230. Information on performing surveys may be found in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.23 "Radiation Safety Surveys at Medical Institutions."
(2) The licensee shall ensure that instruments and equipment used for quantitative radiation measurements, for example, dose rate and effluent monitoring, are calibrated annually at intervals not to exceed thirteen months for the radiation measured.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-110, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-110, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-110, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-110, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-110, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-085, filed 12/11/86; WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-085, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-085, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-085, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-113

Use of process, engineering or other controls.

(1) The licensee shall use, to the extent practical, process or other engineering controls, such as, containment, decontamination, or ventilation, to control the concentrations of radioactive material in air.
(2) When it is not practical to apply process or other engineering controls to control the concentrations of radioactive material in air to values below those that define an airborne radioactivity area, the licensee shall, consistent with maintaining the total effective dose equivalent ALARA, increase monitoring and limit intakes by one or more of the following means:
(a) Control of access;
(b) Limitation of exposure times;
(c) Use of respiratory protection equipment; or
(d) Other controls.
(3) If the licensee performs an ALARA analysis to determine whether or not respirators should be used, the licensee may consider safety factors other than radiological factors. The licensee should also consider the impact of respirator use on workers' industrial health and safety.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-113, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-113, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-117

Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.

If the licensee assigns or permits the use of respiratory protection equipment to limit the intake of radioactive material:
(1) The licensee shall use only respiratory protection equipment that is:
(a) Tested and certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); or
(b) Approved by the department on the basis of the licensee's submittal of an application for authorized use of other respiratory protection equipment, including a demonstration by testing, or a demonstration on the basis of reliable test information, that the material and performance characteristics of the equipment are capable of providing the proposed degree of protection under anticipated conditions of use.
(2) The licensee shall implement and maintain a respiratory protection program that includes:
(a) Air sampling sufficient to identify the potential hazard, permit proper equipment selection, and estimate exposures;
(b) Surveys and bioassays, as appropriate, to evaluate actual intakes;
(c) Testing of respirators for operability (user seal check for face sealing devices and functional check for others) immediately prior to each use;
(d) Written procedures regarding:
(i) Monitoring, including air sampling and bioassays;
(ii) Supervision and training of respirator users;
(iii) Fit testing;
(iv) Respirator selection;
(v) Breathing air quality;
(vi) Inventory and control;
(vii) Storage, issuance, maintenance, repair, testing, and quality assurance of respiratory protection equipment;
(viii) Recordkeeping; and
(ix) Limitations on periods of respirator use and relief from respirator use;
(e) Determination by a physician that the individual user is medically fit to use respiratory protection equipment:
(i) Before the initial fitting of a face sealing respirator;
(ii) Before the first field use of nonface sealing respirators; and
(iii) Either every twelve months thereafter, or periodically at a frequency determined by a physician; and
(f) Fit testing, with a fit factor greater than or equal to ten times the APF for negative pressure devices, and a fit factor greater than or equal to five hundred for any positive pressure, continuous flow, and pressure-demand devices, before the first field use of tight fitting, face sealing respirators, and periodically thereafter at a frequency not to exceed one year. Fit testing must be performed with the facepiece operating in the negative pressure mode.
(3) The licensee shall advise each respirator user that the user may leave the area at any time for relief from respirator use in the event of equipment malfunction, physical or psychological distress, procedural or communication failure, significant deterioration of operating conditions, or any other conditions that might require relief.
(4) The licensee shall also consider limitations appropriate to the type and mode of use. When selecting respiratory devices the licensee shall provide for vision correction, adequate communication, low temperature work environments, and the concurrent use of other safety or radiological protection equipment. The licensee shall use equipment in such a way as not to interfere with the proper operation of the respirator.
(5) Standby rescue persons are required whenever one-piece atmosphere-supplying suits, or any combination of supplied air respiratory protection device and personnel protective equipment are used from which an unaided individual would have difficulty extricating himself or herself. The standby persons must be equipped with respiratory protection devices or other apparatus appropriate for the potential hazards. The standby rescue persons shall observe or otherwise maintain continuous communication with the workers (visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio, or other suitable means), and be immediately available to assist them in case of a failure of the air supply or for any other reason that requires relief from distress. A sufficient number of standby rescue persons must be immediately available to assist all users of this type of equipment and to provide effective emergency rescue if needed.
(6) Atmosphere-supplying respirators must be supplied with respirable air of grade D quality or better as defined by the Compressed Gas Association in publication G-7.1, "Commodity Specification for Air," 1997 and included in the regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (29 C.F.R. 1910.134 (i)(1)(ii)(A) through (E)). Grade D quality air criteria include:
(a) Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%;
(b) Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air or less;
(c) Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less;
(d) Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and
(e) Lack of noticeable odor.
(7) The licensee shall ensure that no objects, materials or substances, such as facial hair, or any conditions that interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function, and that are under the control of the respirator wearer, are present between the skin of the wearer's face and the sealing surface of a tight-fitting respirator facepiece.
(8) In estimating the dose to individuals from intake of airborne radioactive materials, the concentration of radioactive material in the air that is inhaled when respirators are worn is initially assumed to be the ambient concentration in air without respiratory protection, divided by the assigned protection factor. If the dose is later found to be greater than the estimated dose, the corrected value must be used. If the dose is later found to be less than the estimated dose, the corrected value may be used.
(9) The department may impose restrictions in addition to the provisions of this section, WAC 246-221-113 and 246-221-285, in order to:
(a) Ensure that the respiratory protection program of the licensee is adequate to limit doses to individuals from intakes of airborne radioactive materials consistent with maintaining total effective dose equivalent ALARA; and
(b) Limit the extent to which a licensee may use respiratory protection equipment instead of process or other engineering controls.
(10) The licensee shall obtain authorization from the department before using assigned protection factors in excess of those specified in WAC 246-221-285. The department may authorize a licensee to use higher assigned protection factors on receipt of an application that:
(a) Describes the situation for which a need exists for higher protection factors; and
(b) Demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under the proposed conditions of use.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-117, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 98-13-034, § 246-221-117, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-117, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-120

Caution signs, and labels.

(1) The radiation symbol shall be used on all signs, labels, or other written means of warning individuals concerning radiation hazards.
(a) The symbol prescribed by this section is the conventional three-blade design: Radiation symbol
(b) The symbol prescribed by this section shall be:
(i) Magenta, purple, or black on a yellow background; or
(ii) Conspicuously etched or stamped without regard to a color requirement on sources, source holders or device components containing sources which are subjected to extreme environmental conditions which would cause the color to deteriorate.
(2) The conventional radiation symbol as described in subsection (1) of this section shall be used only for:
(a) Instructing individuals to be cognizant of a potential radiation hazard as prescribed in subsections (4) through (10) of this section.
(b) Indicating that information presented pertains to the topic of radiation.
(3) In addition to the contents of signs and labels prescribed in this section, a licensee or registrant may provide on or near such signs and labels any additional information which may be appropriate in aiding individuals to minimize exposure to radiation.
(4) Each radiation area and entrance thereto shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words: caution* - radiation area. However, in an exceptionally large room where other activities of a nonradiological nature are conducted the entrance need not be posted provided a conspicuous barricade with an appropriate number of signs is established to delineate the radiation area.
(5) Each high radiation area and all entrances thereto shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words: caution* - high radiation area or danger - high radiation area. To avoid unnecessary exposure, the licensee or registrant may satisfy this requirement by posting the sign at the estimated location or vicinity of the high radiation area.
(6) Each very high radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words: grave danger - very high radiation area. To avoid unnecessary exposure, the licensee or registrant may satisfy this requirement by posting the sign at the estimated location or vicinity of the very high radiation area.
(7) Each airborne radioactivity area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words: caution* - airborne radioactivity area or danger - airborne radioactivity area.
(8) Each area or room in which any radioactive material is used or stored in an amount exceeding 10 times the quantity of radioactive material specified in WAC 246-221-300 shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words: caution* - radioactive material or danger - radioactive material.
(9) Each container of radioactive material shall bear a durable, clearly visible label identifying the radioactive contents including:
(a) The radiation caution symbol and the words: caution* - radioactive material or danger - radioactive material.
(b) Sufficient information to permit individuals handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity thereof, to take precautions to avoid or minimize exposures, such as radionuclides present, radiation levels, estimate of activity and mass enrichment.
(c) Where containers are used for storage, the quantities and kinds of radioactive materials in the containers and the date of measurement of the quantities.
(10) All radiation machines shall be labeled in a conspicuous manner so as to caution individuals that radiation is produced when the machine is being operated.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-120, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-120, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-120, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-090, filed 12/11/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-090, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-090, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-090, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-130

Exceptions from posting and labeling requirements.

(1) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of a sealed source, provided the radiation level 30 centimeters from the surface of the source container or housing does not exceed 0.05 mSv (five millirem) per hour.
(2) Rooms or other areas in hospitals that are occupied by patients are not required to be posted with caution signs because of the presence of patients containing radioactive material if the patient could be released from licensee control under chapter 246-240 WAC.
(3) Caution signs are not required to be posted in areas or rooms containing radioactive material for periods of less than eight hours if:
(a) The material is constantly attended during those periods by an individual who takes precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established in these rules; and
(b) The area or room is subject to the licensee's or registrant's control.
(4) A room or other area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of radioactive material prepared for transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations of the United States Department of Transportation.
(5) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of a diagnostic X-ray system used solely for healing arts purposes.
(6) The interior of a teletherapy room is not required to be posted with caution signs provided the posting is conspicuously placed at the entrance(s) to the rooms.
(7) A licensee is not required to label:
(a) Containers holding licensed material in quantities less than the quantities listed in WAC 246-221-300; or
(b) Containers holding licensed material in concentrations less than those specified in WAC 246-221-290, Table III; or
(c) Containers attended by an individual who takes the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established by this chapter; or
(d) Containers when they are in transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation; or
(e) Containers such as those located in water-filled canals, storage vaults, or hot cells, that are accessible only to individuals authorized to handle or use them, or to work in the vicinity of the containers, provided the contents are identified to these individuals by a readily available written record. The record shall be retained as long as the containers are in use for the purpose indicated on the record; or
(f) Installed manufacturing or process equipment, such as chemical process equipment, piping, and tanks.
(8) Each licensee, prior to removal or disposal of empty uncontaminated containers to unrestricted areas, shall remove or deface the radioactive material label or otherwise clearly indicate that the container no longer contains radioactive materials.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 06-05-019, § 246-221-130, filed 2/6/06, effective 3/9/06; WSR 98-13-037, § 246-221-130, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-130, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-130, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-130, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-095, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-095, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-095, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-140

Instruction of personnel.

Instructions required for individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a restricted area are specified in WAC 246-222-020, 246-222-030, and 246-222-040.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-140, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-140, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-110, filed 9/16/83; Order 1095, § 402-24-110, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-110, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-110, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, § 402-24-110, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-150

Security and control of radioactive material and radiation machines.

(1) Licensed radioactive materials and registered radiation machines shall be secured from, or controlled in such a manner so as to prevent, unauthorized access or removal from the place of storage.
(2) Each portable gauge licensee shall use a minimum of two independent physical controls that form tangible barriers to secure portable gauges from unauthorized removal, whenever portable gauges are not under the control and constant surveillance of the licensee.
(3) Licensed radioactive materials in an unrestricted area and not in storage shall be tended under the constant surveillance and immediate control of the licensee.
(4) Registered radiation machines in an unrestricted area and not in storage shall be under the control of the registrant.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 07-17-028, § 246-221-150, filed 8/7/07, effective 9/7/07; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-150, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-150, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-120, filed 9/16/83; Order 1095, § 402-24-120, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-120, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-160

Procedures for picking up, receiving, and opening packages.

(1) Each licensee who expects to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of the Type A1 or A2 quantities specified in WAC 246-231-200 shall make arrangements to receive:
(a) The package when it is offered for delivery by the carrier; or
(b) Immediate notification from the carrier of the arrival of the package at the carrier's terminal.
(2) Each licensee who picks up a package of radioactive material from a carrier's terminal shall pick up the package expeditiously upon receipt of notification from the carrier of its arrival.
(3) Each licensee shall:
(a) Monitor for radioactive contamination the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains only radioactive material in the form of gas or in special form as defined in WAC 246-231-010; and
(b) Monitor the radiation levels of the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains quantities of radioactive material that are less than or equal to the Type A quantity, as defined in WAC 246-231-200; and
(c) Monitor all packages known to contain radioactive material for radioactive contamination and radiation levels if the package has evidence of potential contamination, such as packages that are crushed, wet, or damaged.
(4) Monitoring shall be performed:
(a) Immediately upon receipt if there is evidence of package degradation or any other evidence of potential contamination or excessive radiation levels; or
(b) As soon as practicable after receipt, but no later than three hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if received during the licensee's normal working hours, or no later than three hours from the beginning of the next working day if received after normal working hours.
(5) The licensee shall immediately notify the final delivery carrier and, by telephone, facsimile, email, or letter, the department when:
(a) For normal shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 22 dpm/cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 2.2 dpm/cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or
(b) For exclusive use shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 220 dpm/cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 22 dpm/cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or
(c) For normal or exclusive use shipments, external radiation levels exceed two mSv/hour (200 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package; or
(d) For exclusive use shipments where the shipment is made in a closed transport vehicle, packages are secured in a fixed position, and no loading or unloading occurs between the beginning and end of transportation, external radiation levels exceed ten mSv/hour (1000 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package.
(6) Each licensee shall establish and maintain procedures for safely opening packages in which radioactive material is received, and shall assure that such procedures are followed and that due consideration is given to instructions for the type of package being opened and the monitoring of potentially contaminated packaging material (including packages containing radioactive material in gaseous form) to assure that only background levels of radiation are present prior to disposal of such material as nonradioactive waste.
(7) Licensees transferring special form sources to and from a work site in vehicles owned or operated by the licensee are exempt from the contamination monitoring requirements of subsection (3)(a) of this section but are not exempt from the monitoring requirement in subsection (3)(b) of this section for measuring radiation levels to ensure that the source is still properly lodged in its shield.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.110. WSR 16-13-054, § 246-221-160, filed 6/10/16, effective 7/11/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-160, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 99-15-105, § 246-221-160, filed 7/21/99, effective 8/21/99; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-160, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-160, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-160, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-125, filed 12/11/86; WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-125, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-125, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-125, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-170

Waste disposal, general requirement.

(1) No licensee shall dispose of any radioactive material except:
(a) By transfer to an authorized recipient as provided in WAC 246-232-080, or chapter 246-249 WAC; or
(b) As authorized pursuant to WAC 246-221-070, 246-221-180, 246-221-190, 246-221-200, 246-221-210, or 246-221-220.
(c) By decay in storage as authorized in a specific license.
(2) A person shall be specifically licensed to receive waste containing licensed material from other persons for:
(a) Treatment prior to disposal; or
(b) Treatment or disposal by incineration; or
(c) Decay in storage; or
(d) Disposal at a land disposal facility licensed pursuant to chapter 246-250 WAC; or
(e) Storage until transferred to a disposal facility authorized to receive the waste.
(3) Nothing in chapter 246-221 WAC relieves the licensee from complying with other applicable federal, state, and local regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed pursuant to this chapter.
(4) Each licensee shall maintain records of all transfers and disposals of radioactive material. Requirements for the disposition of certain disposal records, prior to license termination, are located in WAC 246-232-060.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 99-15-105, § 246-221-170, filed 7/21/99, effective 8/21/99; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-170, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-170, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-170, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-130, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-130, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-130, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-180

Method of obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

Any person may apply to the department for approval of proposed procedures to dispose of radioactive material in a manner not otherwise authorized in this chapter. Each application shall contain a description of the radioactive material, including the quantities and kinds of radioactive material and levels of radioactivity involved, the physical and chemical properties that have an impact on risk evaluation, and the proposed manner and conditions of disposal. The application, where appropriate, shall also include an analysis and evaluation of pertinent information as to the nature of the environment, including topographical, geological, meteorological, and hydrological characteristics; usage of ground and surface waters in the general area; the nature and location of other potentially affected facilities; analyses and procedures to ensure that doses are maintained ALARA within the dose limits of this chapter; and procedures to be observed to minimize the risk of unexpected or hazardous exposures.
The department will not approve any application for a license to receive radioactive material from other persons for disposal on land not owned by a state or the federal government.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-180, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-180, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-135, filed 12/11/86; Order 1095, § 402-24-135, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-190

Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage systems.

(1) No licensee shall discharge radioactive material into a sanitary sewerage system unless:
(a) It is readily soluble or it is biological material which is readily dispersible in water;
(b) The quantity of any radioactive material released in any one month, if diluted by the average monthly quantity of water released by the licensee, will not result in an average concentration exceeding the limits specified in WAC 246-221-290, Table III; and
(c) The sum of the fractions for each radionuclide, if more than one radionuclide is released, will not exceed unity; where the fraction for each radionuclide is determined by dividing the actual monthly average concentration of each radionuclide released by the licensee into the sewer by the concentration of that radionuclide listed in Table III of WAC 246-221-290; and
(d) The total quantity of licensed and other radioactive material that the licensee releases into the sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 185 GBq (5 Ci) of hydrogen-3, 37 GBq (1 Ci) of carbon-14, and 37 GBq (1 Ci) of all other radioactive materials combined.
(2) Excreta from individuals undergoing medical diagnosis or therapy with radioactive material shall be exempt from any limitations contained in this section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-190, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-190, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-190, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-140, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-140, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-140, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-140, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-200

Disposal by burial in soil.

No licensee shall dispose of radioactive material by burial in soil except as specifically approved by the department pursuant to WAC 246-221-180.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-200, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-200, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-150, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-150, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-150, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-210

Disposal by incineration.

No licensee shall incinerate radioactive material for the purpose of disposal or preparation for disposal except as specifically approved by the department pursuant to WAC 246-221-070 and 246-221-180.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-210, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-210, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91; Order 1095, § 402-24-160, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-160, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-220

Disposal of specific wastes.

(1) Any licensee may dispose of the following licensed material without regard to its radioactivity:
(a) 1.85 KBq (0.05 microcurie) or less of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14, per gram of medium, used for liquid scintillation counting; and
(b) 1.85 KBq (0.05 microcurie) or less of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14, per gram of animal tissue averaged over the weight of the entire animal.
(2) The licensee shall not dispose of tissue under this section in a manner that would permit its use either as food for humans or as animal feed; and
(3) Nothing in this section, however, relieves the licensee of maintaining records showing the receipt, transfer and disposal of such radioactive material as specified in WAC 246-220-020; and
(4) Nothing in this section relieves the licensee from complying with other applicable federal, state and local regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous property of these materials.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-220, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-220, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-220, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-220, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-165, filed 9/16/83.]



PDF246-221-230

Records important to radiation safety.

(1) Each licensee or registrant shall make and retain records of activities, program reviews, measurements, and calculations which may be necessary to determine the extent of occupational and public exposure from sources of radiation under the control of the licensee or registrant.
(2) Each record required by this section shall be legible throughout the specified retention period.
(3) Each licensee or registrant shall use the SI units: Becquerel, gray, sievert and coulomb per kilogram, or the special units: Curie, rad, rem, and roentgen, including multiples and subdivisions, and shall clearly indicate the units of all quantities on records required by these regulations.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall make a clear distinction among the quantities entered on the records required by these regulations such as, total effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent, shallow dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent, deep dose equivalent, or committed effective dose equivalent.
(5) Records which must be maintained under this part shall be the original or a reproduced copy or microform if such reproduced copy or microform is duly authenticated by authorized personnel and the microform is capable of producing a clear and legible copy after storage for the period specified by department regulations. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records during the required retention period. Electronic media data storage systems shall incorporate standard or universally recognized security measures. Records, such as letters, drawings, and specifications, shall include all pertinent information, such as stamps, initials, and signatures.
(6) The licensee shall maintain adequate safeguards against tampering with and loss of records.
(7) The licensee or registrant shall retain the following required records until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record, and upon termination of the license or registration, the licensee or registrant shall store for at least thirty years:
(a) Records of prior occupational dose and exposure history as recorded on department Form RHF-4 or RHF-4A, or equivalent;
(b) Records on department Form RHF-5 or RHF-5A, or equivalent, of doses received by all individuals for whom monitoring was required pursuant to WAC 246-221-090 and 246-221-100;
(c) Records of doses received during planned special exposures, accidents, and emergency conditions;
(d) The specific information used to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent pursuant to WAC 246-221-040(3);
(e) Records of the results of surveys to determine the dose from external sources of radiation used, in the absence of or in combination with individual monitoring data, in the assessment of individual dose equivalents;
(f) Records of the results of measurements and calculations used to determine individual intakes of radioactive material and used in the assessment of internal dose;
(g) Records showing the results of air sampling, surveys, and bioassays required pursuant to WAC 246-221-117 (1)(b)(i) and (ii);
(h) Records of the results of measurements and calculations used to evaluate the release of radioactive effluents to the environment.
(8) The licensee or registrant shall retain the following records until the department terminates the pertinent license or registration requiring the record:
(a) Records of waste disposal made under the provisions of WAC 246-221-180, 246-221-190, 246-221-210 and 246-221-220, chapter 246-249 WAC, and any burials in soil as previously authorized;
(b) Records of dose to individual members of the public as required by WAC 246-221-060(4);
(c) Records of the provisions of the radiation protection program as required by WAC 246-221-005.
(9) The licensee or registrant shall retain the following records for three years after the record is made:
(a) Records of testing entry control devices for very high radiation areas as required by WAC 246-221-106(3);
(b) Records used in preparing department Form RHF-4 or RHF-4A;
(c) Records showing the results of general surveys required by WAC 246-221-110 and package surveys required by WAC 246-221-160;
(d) Records of calibrations required by WAC 246-221-110;
(e) Records of program audits and other reviews of the content and implementation of the radiation protection program required by WAC 246-221-005;
(f) Records of waste disposal by decay in storage.
(10) If there is a conflict between the department's regulations in this part, license condition, or other written department approval or authorization pertaining to the retention period for the same type of record, the retention period specified in the regulations in this part for such records shall apply unless the department, under WAC 246-220-050, has granted a specific exemption from the record retention requirements specified in the regulations in this part.
(11) The discontinuance or curtailment of activities does not relieve the licensee or registrant of responsibility for retaining all records required by this section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-230, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-230, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-230, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-230, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-170, filed 12/11/86; WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-170, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-170, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-170, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-170, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-170, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, § 402-24-170, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-235

Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

Each licensee who manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in subsections (1) through (5) of this section for each type of transaction.
(1) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source;
(d) The radioactive material in the source;
(e) The initial source strength in becquerels (curies) at the time of manufacture; and
(f) The manufacture date of the source.
(2) Each licensee that transfers a nationally tracked source to another person shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The name and license number of the recipient facility and the shipping address;
(d) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;
(e) The radioactive material in the source;
(f) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);
(g) The date for which the source strength is reported;
(h) The shipping date;
(i) The estimated arrival date; and
(j) For nationally tracked sources transferred as waste under a Uniform Low-Level Radioactive Waste Manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification of the container with the nationally tracked source.
(3) Each licensee that receives a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The name, address, and license number of the person that provided the source;
(d) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;
(e) The radioactive material in the source;
(f) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);
(g) The date for which the source strength is reported;
(h) The date of receipt; and
(i) For material received under a Uniform Low-Level Radioactive Waste Manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification with the nationally tracked source.
(4) Each licensee that disassembles a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;
(d) The radioactive material in the source;
(e) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);
(f) The date for which the source strength is reported;
(g) The disassemble date of the source.
(5) Each licensee who disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The waste manifest number;
(d) The container identification with the nationally tracked source;
(e) The date of disposal; and
(f) The method of disposal.
(6) The reports discussed in subsections (1) through (5) of this section must be submitted by the close of the next business day after the transaction. A single report may be submitted for multiple sources and transactions. The reports must be submitted to the National Source Tracking System by using:
(a) The online National Source Tracking System;
(b) Electronically using a computer-readable format;
(c) By facsimile;
(d) By mail to the address on the National Source Tracking Transaction Report Form (NRC Form 748); or
(e) By telephone with follow-up by facsimile or mail.
(7) Each licensee shall correct any error in previously filed reports or file a new report for any missed transaction within five business days of the discovery of the error or missed transaction. Such errors may be detected by a variety of methods such as administrative reviews or by physical inventories required by regulation. In addition, each licensee shall reconcile the inventory of nationally tracked sources possessed by the licensee against that licensee's data in the National Source Tracking System. The reconciliation must be conducted during the month of January in each year. The reconciliation process must include resolving any discrepancies between the National Source Tracking System and the actual inventory by filing the reports identified by subsections (1) through (5) of this section. By January 31, of each year, each licensee must submit to the National Source Tracking System confirmation that the data in the National Source Tracking System is correct.
(8) Each licensee that possesses Category 1 or 2 nationally tracked sources shall report its initial inventory of Category 1 or 2 nationally tracked sources to the National Source Tracking System by January 31, 2009. The information may be submitted by using any of the methods identified in subsection (6)(a) through (d) of this section. The initial inventory report shall include the following information:
(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;
(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;
(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of each nationally tracked source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;
(d) The radioactive material in the sealed source;
(e) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies); and
(f) The date for which the source strength is reported.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 09-06-003, § 246-221-235, filed 2/18/09, effective 3/21/09.]



PDF246-221-236

Nationally tracked source thresholds.

The Terabecquerel (TBq) values are the regulatory standard. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the TBq value. The curie values are provided for practical usefulness only and are rounded after conversion.
Radioactive Material
Category 1
(TBq)
Category 1
(Ci)
Category 2
(TBq)
Category 2
(Ci)
Actinium-227
20
540
0.2
5.4
Americium-241
60
1,600
0.6
16
Americium-241/Be
60
1,600
0.6
16
Californium-252
20
540
0.2
5.4
Cobalt-60
30
810
0.3
8.1
Cesium-137
100
2,700
1
27
Curium-244
50
1,400
0.5
14
Gadolinium-153
1,000
27,000
10
270
Iridium-192
80
2,200
0.8
22
Plutonium-238
60
1,600
0.6
16
Plutonium-239/Be
60
1,600
0.6
16
Polonium-210
60
1,600
0.6
16
Promethium-147
40,000
1,100,000
400
11,000
Radium-226
40
1,100
0.4
11
Selenium-75
200
5,400
2
54
Strontium-90
1,000
27,000
10
270
Thorium-228
20
540
0.2
5.4
Thorium-229
20
540
0.2
5.4
Thulium-170
20,000
540,000
200
5,400
Ytterbium-169
300
8,100
3
81
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 09-06-003, § 246-221-236, filed 2/18/09, effective 3/21/09.]



PDF246-221-240

Reports of stolen, lost or missing radiation sources.

(1) Each licensee and registrant shall report by telephone ( 206-682-5327) and confirm promptly by letter, facsimile, or email to the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827.
(a) Immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, stolen, lost, or missing radioactive material in an aggregate quantity equal to or greater than one thousand times the quantity specified in WAC 246-221-300, Appendix B; or
(b) Within thirty days after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, lost, stolen, or missing radioactive material in an aggregate quantity greater than ten times the quantity specified in WAC 246-221-300, Appendix B that is still missing or any item not exempted in chapter 246-232 WAC; or
(c) Immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the registrant, a stolen, lost, or missing radiation machine.
(2) Each licensee or registrant required to make a report pursuant to subsection (1) of this section shall, within thirty days after making the telephone report, make a written report to the department setting forth the following information:
(a) A description of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved, including, for radioactive material, the kind, quantity, and chemical and physical form; and, for radiation machines, the manufacturer, model and serial number, type and maximum energy of radiation emitted; and
(b) A description of the circumstances under which the loss or theft occurred; and
(c) A statement of disposition, or probable disposition, of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved; and
(d) Exposures of individuals to radiation, circumstances under which the exposures occurred, and the possible total effective dose equivalent to persons in unrestricted areas; and
(e) Actions that have been taken, or will be taken, to recover the source of radiation; and
(f) Procedures or measures that have been, or will be, adopted to ensure against a recurrence of the loss or theft of licensed or registered sources of radiation.
(3) Subsequent to filing the written report, the licensee or registrant shall also report additional substantive information on the loss or theft within thirty days after the licensee or registrant learns of such information.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall prepare any report filed with the department pursuant to this section so that names of individuals who may have received exposure to radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.110. WSR 16-13-054, § 246-221-240, filed 6/10/16, effective 7/11/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-240, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-240, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-240, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-240, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-180, filed 12/11/86; WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-180, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-180, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-180, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-180, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-180, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, § 402-24-180, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-250

Notification of incidents.

(1) Immediate notification. Notwithstanding other requirements for notification, each licensee and registrant shall immediately (as soon as possible but no later than four hours after discovery of an incident) notify the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827, by telephone ( 206-682-5327) and confirming letter, facsimile, or email with a follow-up written report within thirty days of any incident involving any radiation source which may have caused or threatens to cause:
(a) An individual to receive:
(i) A total effective dose equivalent of 0.25 Sv (25 rem) or more;
(ii) A lens dose equivalent of 0.75 Sv (75 rem) or more; or
(iii) A shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent of 2.5 Sv (250 rem) or more;
(b) The release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for twenty-four hours, the individual could have received an intake five times the occupational ALI. This provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures; or
(c) The loss of ability to take immediate protective actions necessary to avoid exposure to sources of radiation or releases of radioactive material that could exceed regulatory limits. Events which could cause such a loss of ability include fires, explosions, toxic gas releases, etc.
(2) Twenty-four hour notification. Each licensee and registrant shall within twenty-four hours of discovery of the event, notify the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827, by telephone ( 206-682-5327) and confirming letter, facsimile, or email with a follow-up written report within thirty days of any incident involving any radiation source possessed which may have caused or threatens to cause:
(a) An individual to receive, in a period of twenty-four hours:
(i) A total effective dose equivalent exceeding 0.05 Sv (5 rem);
(ii) A lens dose equivalent exceeding 0.15 Sv (15 rem); or
(iii) A shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent exceeding 0.5 Sv (50 rem);
(b) The release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for twenty-four hours, the individual could have received an intake in excess of one occupational ALI. This provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures;
(c) An unplanned contamination incident that:
(i) Requires access to the contaminated area, by workers or the general public, to be restricted for more than twenty-four hours by imposing additional radiological controls or by prohibiting entry into the area;
(ii) Involves a quantity of material greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in WAC 246-221-290; and
(iii) Has access to the area restricted for a reason other than to allow radionuclides with a half-life of less than twenty-four hours to decay prior to decontamination;
(d) Equipment failure or inability to function as designed when:
(i) The equipment is required by regulation or license condition to prevent releases exceeding regulatory limits, to prevent exposures to radiation and radioactive material exceeding regulatory limits or to mitigate the consequences of an accident;
(ii) The equipment is required to be available and operable at the time it becomes disabled or fails to function; and
(iii) No redundant equipment is available and operable to perform the required safety functions;
(e) An unplanned medical treatment at a medical facility of an individual with removable radioactive contamination on the individual's clothing or body; or
(f) An unplanned fire or explosion damaging any radioactive material or any device, container or equipment containing radioactive material when:
(i) The quantity of radioactive material involved is greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in WAC 246-221-290; and
(ii) The damage affects the integrity of the radioactive material or its container.
(3) For each occurrence requiring notification pursuant to this section, a prompt investigation of the situation shall be initiated by the licensee/registrant. A written report of the findings of the investigation shall be sent to the department within thirty days.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall prepare each report filed with the department under this section so that names of individuals who have received exposure to sources of radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.
Any report filed with the department under this section shall contain the information described in WAC 246-221-260 (2) and (3).
(5) The provisions of this section do not apply to doses that result from planned special exposures, provided such doses are within the limits for planned special exposures and are reported pursuant to WAC 246-221-265.
(6) Telephone notifications that do not involve immediate or twenty-four hour notification should be made to the Tumwater office ( 360-236-3300).
(7) Telephone notification required under this section shall include, to the extent that the information is available at the time of notification:
(a) The caller's name and call-back telephone number;
(b) A description of the incident including date and time;
(c) The exact location of the incident;
(d) The radionuclides, quantities, and chemical and physical forms of the radioactive materials involved; and
(e) Any personnel radiation exposure data available.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.110. WSR 16-13-054, § 246-221-250, filed 6/10/16, effective 7/11/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 14-01-077, § 246-221-250, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14; WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-250, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 98-13-037, § 246-221-250, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; WSR 95-01-108, § 246-221-250, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-250, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-250, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-250, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-190, filed 12/11/86; WSR 83-19-050 (Order 2026), § 402-24-190, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-190, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-190, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-190, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-190, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, § 402-24-190, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-260

Reports of overexposures and excessive levels and concentrations.

(1) In addition to any notification required by WAC 246-221-250, each licensee or registrant shall submit a written report to the department within thirty days after learning of any of the following occurrences:
(a) Incidents for which notification is required by WAC 246-221-250; or
(b) Doses in excess of any of the following:
(i) The occupational dose limits for adults in WAC 246-221-010; or
(ii) The occupational dose limits for a minor in WAC 246-221-050; or
(iii) The limits for an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman in WAC 246-221-055; or
(iv) The limits for an individual member of the public in WAC 246-221-060; or
(v) Any applicable limit in the license; or
(vi) The ALARA constraints for air emissions established under WAC 246-221-005; or
(c) Levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in:
(i) A restricted area in excess of applicable limits in the license; or
(ii) An unrestricted area in excess of ten times the applicable limit set forth in this chapter or in the license or registration, whether or not involving exposure of any individual in excess of the limits in WAC 246-221-060; or
(d) For source materials milling licensees and nuclear power plants subject to the provisions of United States Environmental Protection Agency's generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 C.F.R. 190, levels of radiation or releases of radioactive material in excess of those standards, or of license conditions related to those standards.
(2) Each report required by subsection (1) of this section shall describe:
(a) The incident and its exact location, time and date;
(b) The extent of exposure of individuals to radiation or to radioactive material, including estimates of each individual's dose as required by subsection (3) of this section;
(c) Levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material involved, including the radionuclides, quantities, and chemical and physical form;
(d) The cause or probable cause of the exposure, levels of radiation or concentrations;
(e) The manufacturer and model number (if applicable) of any equipment that failed or malfunctioned;
(f) The results of any evaluations or assessments; and
(g) Corrective steps taken or planned to assure against a recurrence, including the schedule for achieving conformance with applicable limits, ALARA constraints, generally applicable environmental standards, and associated license conditions.
(3) Each report filed with the department pursuant to this section shall include for each individual exposed the name, Social Security number, and date of birth, and an estimate of the individual's dose. With respect to the limit for the embryo/fetus in WAC 246-221-055, the identifiers should be those of the declared pregnant woman. The report shall be prepared so that this information is stated in a separate and detachable part of the report.
(4) Individuals shall be notified of reports in accordance with the requirements of WAC 246-222-040.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 99-15-105, § 246-221-260, filed 7/21/99, effective 8/21/99; WSR 95-01-108, § 246-221-260, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-260, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-260, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-260, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 81-01-011 (Order 1570), § 402-24-200, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, § 402-24-200, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, § 402-24-200, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, § 402-24-200, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, § 402-24-200, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-265

Special reports to the department—Planned special exposures and leaking sources.

(1) The licensee or registrant shall submit a written report to the department within thirty days following any planned special exposure conducted in accordance with WAC 246-221-030. The written report shall:
(a) Inform the department that a planned special exposure was conducted;
(b) Indicate the date the planned special exposure occurred; and
(c) Provide the information required by WAC 246-221-030.
(2) The licensee shall file a written report with the department within five days after learning that a sealed source is leaking or contaminated. The report shall describe:
(a) The source;
(b) The source holder;
(c) The equipment in which the source is installed;
(d) The test results; and
(e) The corrective action taken.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 99-05-013, § 246-221-265, filed 2/5/99, effective 3/8/99; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-265, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-270

Vacating premises and release of equipment.

(1) Each specific licensee shall notify the department in writing of intent to vacate, at least thirty days before vacating or relinquishing possession or control of premises which may have been contaminated with radioactive material as a result of licensed activities.
(2) Each licensee shall permanently decontaminate the premise, before vacating any premise or transferring the premise, in accordance with the standards specified in chapter 246-246 WAC. A survey by the licensee shall be made after the decontamination and the department and the landlord or subsequent tenant or transferee shall be provided with a copy of the survey no later than the date of vacating or relinquishing possession or control of the premise.
(3) No machinery, instruments, laboratory equipment or any other property used in contact with, or close proximity to radioactive material at a licensed premise shall be assigned, sold, leased, or transferred to an unlicensed person unless the property has been decontaminated and meets the standards specified in WAC 246-232-140. A survey shall be made after the decontamination and the department and subsequent owner or transferee shall be provided with a copy of the survey report.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 00-07-085, § 246-221-270, filed 3/15/00, effective 4/15/00; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-270, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-270, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91; Order 1095, § 402-24-210, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, § 402-24-210, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]



PDF246-221-275

Notification of changes in a facility.

Each licensee or registrant shall notify the department of changes in any room or area in a facility where a source of radiation is used. Changes of interest to the department include, but are not limited to, new or replacement equipment containing or emitting radiation, increased occupancy, repair or replacement of existing shielding, new shielding, alteration of the ventilation system, and changes in procedures done in the room or area.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-275, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-280

Notifications and reports to individuals.

(1) Requirements for notification and reports to individuals of exposure to radiation or radioactive material are specified in WAC 246-222-040.
(2) When a licensee or registrant is required pursuant to WAC 246-221-260 to report to the department any exposure of an identified occupationally exposed individual, or an identified member of the public, or dosimetry device assigned to any individual to radiation from any source, the licensee or registrant shall also notify the individual. Such notice shall be transmitted at a time not later than the transmittal to the department, and shall comply with the provisions of WAC 246-222-040(1).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 99-05-012, § 246-221-280, filed 2/5/99, effective 3/8/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. WSR 91-15-112 (Order 184), § 246-221-280, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. WSR 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as § 246-221-280, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. WSR 87-01-031 (Order 2450), § 402-24-215, filed 12/11/86; Order 1095, § 402-24-215, filed 2/6/76.]



PDF246-221-285

Assigned protection factors for respirators.a

 
 
Operating mode
Assigned Protection Factors
I.
Air-Purifying Respirators (Particulate b only) c:
 
 
 
Filtering facepiece disposable d
Negative Pressure . . . .
(d)
 
Facepiece, half e. . . .
Negative Pressure . . . .
10
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Negative Pressure . . . .
100
 
Facepiece, half . . . .
Powered air-purifying respirators . . . .
50
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Powered air-purifying respirators . . . .
1000
 
Helmet/hood . . . .
Powered air-purifying respirators . . . .
1000
 
Facepiece, loose-fitting . . . .
Powered air-purifying respirators . . . .
25
II.
Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators (Particulate, gases and vaporsf):
 
 
 
1. Air-line respirator:
 
 
 
Facepiece, half . . . .
Demand . . . .
10
 
Facepiece, half . . . .
Continuous Flow . . . .
50
 
Facepiece, half . . . .
Pressure Demand . . . .
50
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Demand . . . .
100
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Continuous Flow . . . .
1000
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Pressure Demand . . . .
1000
 
Helmet/hood . . . .
Continuous Flow . . . .
1000
 
Facepiece, loose-fitting . . . .
Continuous Flow . . . .
25
 
Suit . . . .
Continuous Flow . . . .
(g)
 
2. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA):
 
 
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Demand . . . .
h100
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Pressure Demand . . . .
i10,000
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Demand, Recirculating . . . .
h100
 
Facepiece, full . . . .
Positive Pressure Recirculating . . . .
i10,000
III.
Combination Respirators:
 
 
 
Any combination of air-purifying and atmosphere-supplying respirators.
Assigned protection factor for type and mode of operation as listed above.
 
a
These assigned protection factors apply only in a respiratory protection program that meets the requirements of this chapter. They are applicable only to airborne radiological hazards and may not be appropriate to circumstances when chemical or other respiratory hazards exist instead of, or in addition to, radioactive hazards. Selection and use of respirators for these circumstances must also comply with Department of Labor regulations.
 
Radioactive contaminants for which the concentration values in Table 1, Column 3 of WAC 246-221-290, Appendix A, are based on internal dose due to inhalation may, in addition, present external exposure hazards at higher concentrations. Under these circumstances, limitations on occupancy may have to be governed by external dose limits.
b
Air-purifying respirators with APF <100 must be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 95 percent efficient. Air-purifying respirators with APF = 100 must be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 99 percent efficient. Air-purifying respirators with APFs ˃100 must be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 99.97 percent efficient.
c
The licensee may apply to the department for the use of an APF greater than 1 for sorbent cartridges as protection against airborne radioactive gases and vapors (e.g., radioiodine).
d
Licensees may permit individuals to use this type of respirator who have not been medically screened or fit tested on the device provided that no credit be taken for their use in estimating intake or dose. It is also recognized that it is difficult to perform an effective positive or negative pressure preuse user seal check on this type of device. All other respiratory protection program requirements listed in WAC 246-221-117 apply. An assigned protection factor has not been assigned for these devices. However, an APF equal to 10 may be used if the licensee can demonstrate a fit factor of at least 100 by use of a validated or evaluated, qualitative or quantitative fit test.
e
Under-chin type only. No distinction is made in this section between elastomeric half-masks with replaceable cartridges and those designed with the filter medium as an integral part of the facepiece (e.g., disposable or reusable disposable). Both types are acceptable so long as the seal area of the latter contains some substantial type of seal-enhancing material such as rubber or plastic, the two or more suspension straps are adjustable, the filter medium is at least 95 percent efficient and all other requirements of this part are met.
f
The assigned protection factors for gases and vapors are not applicable to radioactive contaminants that present an absorption or submersion hazard. For tritium oxide vapor, approximately one-third of the intake occurs by absorption through the skin so that an overall protection factor of 3 is appropriate when atmosphere-supplying respirators are used to protect against tritium oxide. Exposure to radioactive noble gases is not considered a significant respiratory hazard, and protective actions for these contaminants should be based on external (submersion) dose considerations.
g
No NIOSH approval schedule is currently available for atmosphere-supplying suits. This equipment may be used in an acceptable respiratory protection program as long as all the other minimum program requirements, with the exception of fit testing, are met (i.e., WAC 246-221-117).
h
The licensee should implement institutional controls to assure that these devices are not used in areas immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).
i
This type of respirator may be used as an emergency device in unknown concentrations for protection against inhalation hazards. External radiation hazards and other limitations to permitted exposure such as skin absorption shall be taken into account in these circumstances. This device may not be used by any individual who experiences perceptible outward leakage of breathing gas while wearing the device.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. WSR 01-05-110, § 246-221-285, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; WSR 94-01-073, § 246-221-285, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]



PDF246-221-290

Appendix A—Annual limits on intake (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) of radionuclides for occupational exposure; effluent concentrations; concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage.

For each radionuclide, Table I indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 µm (micron) and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times for D if less than ten days, for W from ten to one hundred days, and for Y greater than one hundred days. Table II provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.
Note:
The values in Tables I, II, and III are presented in the computer "E" notation. In this notation a value of 6E-02 represents a value of 6 x 10-2 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6 x 102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6 x 100 or 6.
Table I "Occupational Values"
Note that the columns in Table I of this appendix captioned "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI," and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.
The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "Reference Man" which would result in either: A committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), stochastic ALI; or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to an organ or tissue, nonstochastic ALI. The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 0.05 Sv (5 rem). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of weighting factor in WAC 246-221-005. The nonstochastic ALIs were derived to avoid nonstochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.
A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the GI tract — stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine — are to be treated as four separate organs.
Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, elbows, arms below the elbows, feet and lower legs, knees, and legs below the knees, skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.
When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:
LLI wall
=
lower large intestine wall;
St. wall
=
stomach wall;
Blad wall
=
bladder wall; and
Bone surf
=
bone surface.
The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and nonstochastic ALIs, will ensure that nonstochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the nonstochastic ALI is limiting, use of that nonstochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 0.5 Sv (50 rem) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, ∑ (intake (in µCi) of each radionuclide/ALIns) ≤ 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd/50), instead of ≤ 1.0.
The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:
DAC = ALI (in µCi)/(2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 2 x 104 ml per minute) = [ALI/2.4 x 109] µCi/ml,
where 2 x 104 ml per minute is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by Reference Man under working conditions of light work.
The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: Either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.
The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.
The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation. See WAC 246-221-015. When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as, Class D, Class W, or Class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.
It should be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.
Table II "Effluent Concentrations"
The columns in Table II of this appendix captioned "Effluents," "Air" and "Water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of WAC 246-221-070. The concentration values given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem).
Consideration of nonstochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because nonstochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the nonstochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in Table II. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in the previous Appendix A of this chapter.
The air concentration values listed in Table II, Column 1 were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 x 109, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of three hundred. The factor of three hundred includes the following components: A factor of fifty to relate the 0.05 Sv (5 rem) annual occupational dose limit to the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) limit for members of the public, a factor of three to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of two to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups.
For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in Table I, Column 3 was divided by two hundred nineteen. The factor of two hundred nineteen is composed of a factor of fifty, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for two thousand hours per year to full-time exposure (eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours per year). Note that an additional factor of two for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.
The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 107. The factor of 7.3 x 107 (ml) includes the following components: The factors of fifty and two described above and a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml) which is the annual water intake of Reference Man.
Note 2 of this appendix provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.
Table III "Releases to Sewers"
The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in WAC 246-221-190. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 106 (ml). The factor of 7.3 x 106 (ml) is composed of a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml), the annual water intake by Reference Man, and a factor of ten, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by a Reference Man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
list of elements
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Actinium
Ac
89
Molybdenum
Mo
42
Aluminum
Al
13
Neodymium
Nd
60
Americium
Am
95
Neptunium
Np
93
Antimony
Sb
51
Nickel
Ni
28
Argon
Ar
18
Nitrogen
N
7
Arsenic
As
33
Niobium
Nb
41
Astatine
At
85
Osmium
Os
76
Barium
Ba
56
Oxygen
O
8
Berkelium
Bk
97
Palladium
Pd
46
Beryllium
Be
4
Phosphorus
P
15
Bismuth
Bi
83
Platinum
Pt
78
Bromine
Br
35
Plutonium
Pu
94
Cadmium
Cd
48
Polonium
Po
84
Calcium
Ca
20
Potassium
K
19
Californium
Cf
98
Praseodymium
Pr
59
Carbon
C
6
Promethium
Pm
61
Cerium
Ce
58
Protactinium
Pa
91
Cesium
Cs
55
Radium
Ra
88
Chlorine
Cl
17
Radon
Rn
86
Chromium
Cr
24
Rhenium
Re
75
Cobalt
Co
27
Rhodium
Rh
45
Copper
Cu
29
Rubidium
Rb
37
Curium
Cm
96
Ruthenium
Ru
44
Dysprosium
Dy
66
Samarium
Sm
62
Einsteinium
Es
99
Scandium
Sc
21
Erbium
Er
68
Selenium
Se
34
Europium
Eu
63
Silicon
Si
14
Fermium
Fm
100
Silver
Ag
47
Fluorine
F
9
Sodium
Na
11
Francium
Fr
87
Strontium
Sr
38
Gadolinium
Gd
64
Sulfur
S
16
Gallium
Ga
31
Tantalum
Ta
73
Germanium
Ge
32
Technetium
Tc
43
Gold
Au
79
Tellurium
Te
52
Hafnium
Hf
72
Terbium
Tb
65
Holmium
Ho
67
Thallium
Tl
81
Hydrogen
H
1
Thorium
Th
90
Indium
In
49
Thulium
Tm
69
Iodine
I
53
Tin
Sn
50
Iridium
Ir
77
Titanium
Ti
22
Iron
Fe
26
Tungsten
W
74
Krypton
Kr
36
Uranium
U
92
Lanthanum
La
57
Vanadium
V
23
Lead
Pb
82
Xenon
Xe
54
Lutetium
Lu
71
Ytterbium
Yb
70
Magnesium
Mg
12
Yttrium
Y
39
Manganese
Mn
25
Zinc
Zn
30
Mendelevium
Md
101
Zirconium
Zr
40
Mercury
Hg
80
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table 1
Occupational Values
Table II
Effluent
Concentration
Table III
Releases to
Sewers
 
 
 
Col. 1
Col. 2
Col. 3
Col. 1
Col. 2
Monthly
Average
Concen-
tration
 
 
 
Oral
Ingestion
Inhalation
 
 
Atomic No.
Radionuclide
Class
ALI
µCi
ALI
µCi
DAC
µCi/ml
Air
µCi/ml
Water
µCi/ml
µCi/ml
1
Hydrogen-3
Water, DAC includes
skin absorption
8E+4
8E+4
2E-5
1E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
Gas (HT or T2) Submersion1: Use above values as HT and T2 oxidize in air and in the body to HTO.
 
 
4
Beryllium-7
W, all compounds except those given for Y
4E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
Y, oxides, halides, and nitrates
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
4
Beryllium-10
W, see 7Be
1E+3
2E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 7Be
-
1E+1
6E-9
2E-11
-
-
6
Carbon-112
Monoxide
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Dioxide
-
6E+5
3E-4
9E-7
-
-
 
 
Compounds
4E+5
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
6E-3
6E-2
6
Carbon-14
Monoxide
-
2E+6
7E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Dioxide
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Compounds
2E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
3E-5
3E-4
7
Nitrogen-132
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
8
Oxygen-152
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
9
Fluorine-182
D, fluorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
5E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
W, fluorides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re
Y, lanthanum fluoride
-
-
9E+4
8E+4
4E-5
3E-5
1E-7
1E-7
-
-
-
-
11
Sodium-22
D, all compounds
4E+2
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
6E-6
6E-5
11
Sodium-24
D, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
5E-5
5E-4
12
Magnesium-28
D, all compounds except those given for W
7E+2
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
13
Aluminum-26
D, all compounds except those given for W
4E+2
6E+1
3E-8
9E-11
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
14
Silicon-31
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
9E+3
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and nitrates
Y, aluminosilicate glass
-
-
3E+4
3E+4
1E-5
1E-5
5E-8
4E-8
-
-
-
-
14
Silicon-32
D, see 31Si
2E+3
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (3E+3)
-
-
-
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 31Si
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 31Si
-
5E+0
2E-9
7E-12
-
-
15
Phosphorus-32
D, all compounds except phosphates given for W
6E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
15
Phosphorus-33
D, see 32P
6E+3
8E+3
4E-6
1E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 32P
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
16
Sulfur-35
Vapor
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
D, sulfides and sulfates except those given for W
1E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (8E+3)
-
-
-
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, elemental sulfur, sulfides of Sr, Ba, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, W, and Mo. Sulfates of Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, As, Sb, and Bi
6E+3
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
17
Chlorine-36
D, chlorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
2E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, chlorides of lantha-nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, and Re
-
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
17
Chlorine-382
D, see 36Cl
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 36Cl
-
5E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
17
Chlorine-392
D, see 36Cl
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 36Cl
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
18
Argon-37
Submersion1
-
-
1E+0
6E-3
-
-
18
Argon-39
Submersion1
-
-
2E-4
8E-7
-
-
18
Argon-41
Submersion1
-
-
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
19
Potassium-40
D, all compounds
3E+2
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
4E-6
4E-5
19
Potassium-42
D, all compounds
5E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
6E-5
6E-4
19
Potassium-43
D, all compounds
6E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
9E-5
9E-4
19
Potassium-442
D, all compounds
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
19
Potassium-452
D, all compounds
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
20
Calcium-41
W, all compounds
3E+3
4E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (4E+3)
Bone surf (4E+3)
-
5E-9
6E-5
6E-4
20
Calcium-45
W, all compounds
2E+3
8E+2
4E-7
1E-9
2E-5
2E-4
20
Calcium-47
W, all compounds
8E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-43
Y, all compounds
7E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
21
Scandium-44m
Y, all compounds
5E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
21
Scandium-44
Y, all compounds
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
5E-5
5E-4
21
Scandium-46
Y, all compounds
9E+2
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-47
Y, all compounds
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (3E+3)
-
-
-
4E-5
4E-4
21
Scandium-48
Y, all compounds
8E+2
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-492
Y, all compounds
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
3E-4
3E-3
22
Titanium-44
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
3E+2
1E+1
5E-9
2E-11
4E-6
4E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+1
1E-8
4E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, SrTi0
-
6E+0
2E-9
8E-12
-
-
22
Titanium-45
D, see 44Ti
9E+3
3E+4
1E-5
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 44Ti
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 44Ti
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
23
Vanadium-472
D, all compounds except those given for W
3E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and halides
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
23
Vanadium-48
D, see 47V
6E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 47V
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
23
Vanadium-49
D, see 47V
7E+4
3E+4
1E-5
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (9E+4)
Bone surf (3E+4)
-
5E-8
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 47V
-
2E+4
8E-6
2E-8
-
-
24
Chromium-48
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
6E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, halides and nitrates
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
24
Chromium-492
D, see 48Cr
3E+4
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 48Cr
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 48Cr
-
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
24
Chromium-51
D, see 48Cr
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
6E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 48Cr
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 48Cr
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-512
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
6E+4
3E-5
8E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-52m2
D, see 51Mn
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
25
Manganese-52
D, see 51Mn
7E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
25
Manganese-53
D, see 51Mn
5E+4
1E+4
5E-6
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (2E+4)
-
3E-8
-
-
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-54
D, see 51Mn
2E+3
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
25
Manganese-56
D, see 51Mn
5E+3
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
26
Iron-52
D, all compounds except those given for W
9E+2
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, and halides
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
26
Iron-55
D, see 52Fe
9E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
26
Iron-59
D, see 52Fe
8E+2
3E+2
1E-7
5E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
26
Iron-60
D, see 52Fe
3E+1
6E+0
3E-9
9E-12
4E-7
4E-6
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
2E+1
8E-9
3E-11
-
-
27
Cobalt-55
W, all compounds except those given for Y
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
27
Cobalt-56
W, see 55Co
5E+2
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
Y, see 55Co
4E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
-
-
27
Cobalt-57
W, see 55Co
8E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, see 55Co
4E+3
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
27
Cobalt-58m
W, see 55Co
6E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
8E-4
8E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
27
Cobalt-58
W, see 55Co
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 55Co
1E+3
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
27
Cobalt-60m2
W, see 55Co
1E+6
4E+6
2E-3
6E-6
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(1E+6)
-
-
-
2E-2
2E-1
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
3E+6
1E-3
4E-6
-
-
27
Cobalt-60
W, see 55Co
5E+2
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
Y, see 55Co
2E+2
3E+1
1E-8
5E-11
-
-
27
Cobalt-612
W, see 55Co
2E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
27
Cobalt-62m2
W, see 55Co
4E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
28
Nickel-56
D, all compounds except those given for W
1E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, and carbides
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-57
D, see 56Ni
2E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-59
D, see 56Ni
2E+4
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-63
D, see 56Ni
9E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-65
D, see 56Ni
8E+3
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
28
Nickel-66
D, see 56Ni
4E+2
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+2)
-
-
-
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
29
Copper-602
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, sulfides, halides, and nitrates
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
29
Copper-61
D, see 60Cu
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
29
Copper-64
D, see 60Cu
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
29
Copper-67
D, see 60Cu
5E+3
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
30
Zinc-62
Y, all compounds
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
30
Zinc-632
Y, all compounds
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
30
Zinc-65
Y, all compounds
4E+2
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
5E-6
5E-5
30
Zinc-69m
Y, all compounds
4E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
6E-5
6E-4
30
Zinc-692
Y, all compounds
6E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
8E-4
8E-3
30
Zinc-71m
Y, all compounds
6E+3
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
30
Zinc-72
Y, all compounds
1E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
31
Gallium-652
D, all compounds excep [except] those given for W
5E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
31
Gallium-66
D, see 65Ga
1E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
31
Gallium-67
D, see 65Ga
7E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
1E+4
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
31
Gallium-682
D, see 65Ga
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
31
Gallium-702
D, see 65Ga
5E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
31
Gallium-72
D, see 65Ga
1E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
31
Gallium-73
D, see 65Ga
5E+3
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-66
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, oxides, sulfides, and halides
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-672
D, see 66Ge
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
32
Germanium-68
D, see 66Ge
5E+3
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
1E+2
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
32
Germanium-69
D, see 66Ge
1E+4
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-71
D, see 66Ge
5E+5
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
7E-3
7E-2
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-752
D, see 66Ge
4E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
32
Germanium-77
D, see 66Ge
9E+3
1E+4
4E-6
1E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
32
Germanium-782
D, see 66Ge
2E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(2E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
33
Arsenic-692
W, all compounds
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
6E-4
6E-3
33
Arsenic-702
W, all compounds
1E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
2E-4
2E-3
33
Arsenic-71
W, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
5E-5
5E-4
33
Arsenic-72
W, all compounds
9E+2
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
33
Arsenic-73
W, all compounds
8E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-4
1E-3
33
Arsenic-74
W, all compounds
1E+3
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
2E-5
2E-4
33
Arsenic-76
W, all compounds
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
33
Arsenic-77
W, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+3)
-
-
-
6E-5
6E-4
33
Arsenic-782
W, all compounds
8E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
34
Selenium-702
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and elemental Se
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
34
Selenium-73m2
D, see 70Se
6E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
3E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-73
D, see 70Se
3E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
34
Selenium-75
D, see 70Se
5E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
6E+2
3E-7
8E-10
-
-
34
Selenium-79
D, see 70Se
6E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
6E+2
2E-7
8E-10
-
-
34
Selenium-81m2
D, see 70Se
4E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-812
D, see 70Se
6E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(8E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-832
D, see 70Se
4E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-74m2
D, bromides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(2E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, bromides of lantha-nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-742
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-45E-3
-
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-752
D, see 74mBr
3E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-76
D, see 74mBr
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
35
Bromine-77
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-80m
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-802
D, see 74mBr
5E+4
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(9E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-82
D, see 74mBr
3E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
-
-
35
Bromine-83
D, see 74mBr
5E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-842
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-742
Submersion1
-
-
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-76
Submersion1
-
-
9E-6
4E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-772
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-79
Submersion1
-
-
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-81
Submersion1
-
-
7E-4
3E-6
-
-
36
Krypton-83m2
Submersion1
-
-
1E-2
5E-5
-
-
36
Krypton-85m
Submersion1
-
-
2E-5
1E-7
-
-
36
Krypton-85
Submersion1
-
-
1E-4
7E-7
-
-
36
Krypton-872
Submersion1
-
-
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-88
Submersion1
-
-
2E-6
9E-9
-
-
37
Rubidium-792
D, all compounds
4E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
8E-4
8E-3
37
Rubidium-81m2
D, all compounds
2E+5
3E+5
1E-4
5E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+5)
-
-
-
4E-3
4E-2
37
Rubidium-81
D, all compounds
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
5E-4
5E-3
37
Rubidium-82m
D, all compounds
1E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
2E-4
2E-3
37
Rubidium-83
D, all compounds
6E+2
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
9E-6
9E-5
37
Rubidium-84
D, all compounds
5E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
37
Rubidium-86
D, all compounds
5E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
37
Rubidium-87
D, all compounds
1E+3
2E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
37
Rubidium-882
D, all compounds
2E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
37
Rubidium-892
D, all compounds
4E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
38
Strontium-802
D, all soluble compound except SrTiO
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, all insoluble compounds and SrTi0
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
38
Strontium-812
D, see 80Sr
3E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
38
Strontium-82
D, see 80Sr
3E+2
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+2)
-
-
-
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
38
Strontium-83
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-85m2
D, see 80Sr
2E+5
6E+5
3E-4
9E-7
3E-3
3E-2
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
8E+5
4E-4
1E-6
-
-
38
Strontium-85
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
2E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-87m
D, see 80Sr
5E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
4E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
38
Strontium-89
D, see 80Sr
6E+2
8E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+2)
-
-
-
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
5E+2
1E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
38
Strontium-90
D, see 80Sr
3E+1
2E+1
8E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (4E+1)
Bone surf (2E+1)
-
3E-11
5E-7
5E-6
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
4E+0
2E-9
6E-12
-
-
38
Strontium-91
D, see 80Sr
2E+3
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-92
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
7E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-86m2
W, all compounds except those given for Y
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-86
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-87
W, see 86mY
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-88
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+2
1E-7
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-90m
W, see 86mY
8E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-90
W, see 86mY
4E+2
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+2)
-
-
-
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-91m2
W, see 86mY
1E+5
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
39
Yttrium-91
W, see 86mY
5E+2
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+2)
-
-
-
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-92
W, see 86mY
3E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-93
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-942
W, see 86mY
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
39
Yttrium-952
W, see 86mY
4E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
40
Zirconium-86
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
1E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, carbide
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
40
Zirconium-88
D, see 86Zr
4E+3
2E+2
9E-8
3E-10
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
40
Zirconium-89
D, see 86Zr
2E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
40
Zirconium-93
D, see 86Zr
1E+3
6E+0
3E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (3E+3)
Bone surf (2E+1)
-
2E-11
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
2E+1
1E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (6E+1)
-
9E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
6E+1
2E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (7E+1)
-
9E-11
-
-
40
Zirconium-95
D, see 86Zr
1E+3
1E+2
5E-8
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (3E+2)
-
4E-10
-
-
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
40
Zirconium-97
D, see 86Zr
6E+2
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-882
W, all compounds except those given for Y
5E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
41
Niobium-892
(66 min)
W, see 88Nb
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
41
Niobium-89
(122 min)
W, see 88Nb
5E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
41
Niobium-90
W, see 88Nb
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-93m
W, see 88Nb
9E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+4)
-
-
-
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
41
Niobium-94
W, see 88Nb
9E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+1
6E-9
2E-11
-
-
41
Niobium-95m
W, see 88Nb
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+3)
-
-
-
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-95
W, see 88Nb
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-96
W, see 88Nb
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-972
W, see 88Nb
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
41
Niobium-982
W, see 88Nb
1E+4
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
42
Molybdenum-90
D, all compounds except those given for Y
4E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, oxides, hydroxides, and MoS
2E+3
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
42
Molybdenum-93m
D, see 90Mo
9E+3
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
4E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
42
Molybdenum-93
D, see 90Mo
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
2E+4
2E+2
8E-8
2E-10
-
-
42
Molybdenum-99
D, see 90Mo
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
42
Molybdenum-1012
D, see 90Mo
4E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-93m2
D, all compounds except those given for W
7E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-93
D, see 93mTc
3E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-94m2
D, see 93mTc
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-94
D, see 93mTc
9E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-95m
D, see 93mTc
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-95
D, see 93mTc
1E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-96m2
D, see 93mTc
2E+5
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-96
D, see 93mTc
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-97m
D, see 93mTc
5E+3
7E+3
3E-6
-
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
 
-
St wall
(7E+3)
-
1E-8
-
-
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-97
D, see 93mTc
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-98
D, see 93mTc
1E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
43
Technetium-99m
D, see 93mTc
8E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-99
D, see 93mTc
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
-
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
 
-
St wall
(6E+3)
-
8E-9
-
-
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
43
Technetium-1012
D, see 93mTc
9E+4
3E+5
1E-4
5E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(1E+5)
-
-
-
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
4E+5
2E-4
5E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-1042
D, see 93mTc
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
44
Ruthenium-942
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, halides
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-97
D, see 94Ru
8E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-103
D, see 94Ru
2E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
44
Ruthenium-105
D, see 94Ru
5E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-106
D, see 94Ru
2E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+2)
-
-
-
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
5E+1
2E-8
8E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+1
5E-9
2E-11
-
-
45
Rhodium-99m
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, halides
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-99
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-100
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-101m
D, see 99mRh
6E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
8E+3
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-101
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
2E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
45
Rhodium-102m
D, see 99mRh
1E+3
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
45
Rhodium-102
D, see 99mRh
6E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
6E+1
2E-8
8E-11
-
-
45
Rhodium-103m2
D, see 99mRh
4E+5
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
6E-3
6E-2
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
45
Rhodium-105
D, see 99mRh
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+3)
-
-
-
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-106m
D, see 99mRh
8E+3
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-1072
D, see 99mRh
7E+4
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(9E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
3E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
46
Palladium-100
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, nitrates
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
46
Palladium-101
D, see 100Pd
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
5E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
3E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
46
Palladium-103
D, see 100Pd
6E+3
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (7E+3)
-
-
-
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
46
Palladium-107
D, see 100Pd
3E+4
2E+4
9E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+4)
Kidneys (2E+4)
-
3E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
-
-
46
Palladium-109
D, see 100Pd
2E+3
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
47
Silver-1022
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
5E+4
2E+5
8E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, nitrates and sulfides
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
47
Silver-1032
D, see 102Ag
4E+4
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-104m2
D, see 102Ag
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-1042
D, see 102Ag
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-105
D, see 102Ag
3E+3
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
47
Silver-106m
D, see 102Ag
8E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
47
Silver-1062
D, see 102Ag
6E+4
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St. wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
47
Silver-108m
D, see 102Ag
6E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+1
1E-8
3E-11
-
-
47
Silver-110m
D, see 102Ag
5E+2
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
47
Silver-111
D, see 102Ag
9E+2
2E+3
6E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
Liver
(2E+3)
-
2E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
47
Silver-112
D, see 102Ag
3E+3
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+4
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
47
Silver-1152
D, see 102Ag
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
48
Cadmium-1042
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, sulfides, halides, and nitrates
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
48
Cadmium-107
D, see 104Cd
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
48
Cadmium-109
D, see 104Cd
3E+2
4E+1
1E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
Kidneys (4E+2)
Kidneys (5E+1)
-
7E-11
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
1E+2
5E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Kidneys (1E+2)
-
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
48
Cadmium-113m
D, see 104Cd
2E+1
2E+0
1E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
Kidneys (4E+1)
Kidneys (4E+0)
-
5E-12
5E-7
5E-6
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
8E+0
4E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Kidneys (1E+1)
-
2E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+1
5E-9
2E-11
-
-
48
Cadmium-113
D, see 104Cd
2E+1
2E+0
9E-10
-
-
-
 
 
 
Kidneys (3E+1)
Kidneys (3E+0)
-
5E-12
4E-7
4E-6
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
8E+0
3E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Kidneys (1E+1)
-
2E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+1
6E-9
2E-11
-
-
48
Cadmium-115m
D, see 104Cd
3E+2
5E+1
2E-8
-
4E-6
4E-5
 
 
 
-
Kidneys (8E+1)
-
1E-10
-
-
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
48
Cadmium-115
D, see 104Cd
9E+2
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
48
Cadmium-117m
D, see 104Cd
5E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
48
Cadmium-117
D, see 104Cd
5E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 104Cd
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 104Cd
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
49
Indium-109
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
49
Indium-1102
D, see 109In
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
(69.1 min)
W, see 109In
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
49
Indium-110
D, see 109In
5E+3
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
(4.9 h)
W, see 109In
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
49
Indium-111
D, see 109In
4E+3
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 109In
-
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
49
Indium-1122
D, see 109In
2E+5
6E+5
3E-4
9E-7
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 109In
-
7E+5
3E-4
1E-6
-
-
49
Indium-113m2
D, see 109In
5E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
49
Indium-114m
D, see 109In
3E+2
6E+1
3E-8
9E-11
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+2)
-
-
-
5E-6
5E-5
 
 
W, see 109In
-
1E+2
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
49
Indium-115m
D, see 109In
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
49
Indium-115
D, see 109In
4E+1
1E+0
6E-10
2E-12
5E-7
5E-6
 
 
W, see 109In
-
5E+0
2E-9
8E-12
-
-
49
Indium-116m2
D, see 109In
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
49
Indium-117m2
D, see 109In
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
5E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
49
Indium-1172
D, see 109In
6E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
8E-4
8E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
49
Indium-119m2
D, see 109In
4E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
W, see 109In
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
50
Tin-110
D, all compounds except those given for W
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, sulfides, oxides, hydroxides, halides, nitrates, and stannic phosphate
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
50
Tin-1112
D, see 110Sn
7E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
50
Tin-113
D, see 110Sn
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+3)
-
-
-
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
5E+2
2E-7
8E-10
-
-
50
Tin-117m
D, see 110Sn
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+3)
Bone surf (2E+3)
-
3E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
50
Tin-119m
D, see 110Sn
3E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+3)
-
-
-
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
50
Tin-121m
D, see 110Sn
3E+3
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+3)
-
-
-
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
5E+2
2E-7
8E-10
-
-
50
Tin-121
D, see 110Sn
6E+3
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+3)
-
-
-
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
50
Tin-123m2
D, see 110Sn
5E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
50
Tin-123
D, see 110Sn
5E+2
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+2)
-
-
-
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
50
Tin-125
D, see 110Sn
4E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+2)
-
-
-
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
4E+2
1E-7
5E-10
-
-
50
Tin-126
D, see 110Sn
3E+2
6E+1
2E-8
8E-11
4E-6
4E-5
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
7E+1
3E-8
9E-11
-
-
50
Tin-127
D, see 110Sn
7E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
9E-5
9E-4
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
50
Tin-1282
D, see 110Sn
9E+3
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 110Sn
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
51
Antimony-1152
D, all compounds except those given for W
8E+4
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, sulfides, sulfates, and nitrates
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-116m2
D, see 115Sb
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-1162
D, see 115Sb
7E+4
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(9E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
3E+5
1E-4
5E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-117
D, see 115Sb
7E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-118m
D, see 115Sb
6E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
5E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
51
Antimony-119
D, see 115Sb
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
2E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
51
Antimony-1202
D, see 115Sb
1E+5
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
-
-
 
(16 min)
 
St wall (2E+5)
-
-
-
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
5E+5
2E-4
7E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-120
(5.76 d)
D, see 115Sb
1E+3
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
9E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
51
Antimony-122
D, see 115Sb
8E+2
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (8E+2)
-
-
-
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
7E+2
1E+3
4E-7
2E-9
-
-
51
Antimony-124m2
D, see 115Sb
3E+5
8E+5
4E-4
1E-6
3E-3
3E-2
 
 
W, see 115Sb
2E+5
6E+5
2E-4
8E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-124
D, see 115Sb
6E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
W, see 115Sb
5E+2
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
51
Antimony-125
D, see 115Sb
2E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
51
Antimony-126m2
D, see 115Sb
5E+4
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-126
D, see 115Sb
6E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
W, see 115Sb
5E+2
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
51
Antimony-127
D, see 115Sb
8E+2
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (8E+2)
-
-
-
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
7E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
51
Antimony-1282
D, see 115Sb
8E+4
4E+5
2E-4
5E-7
-
-
 
(10.4 min)
 
St wall
(1E+5)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-128
D, see 115Sb
1E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
(9.01 h)
W, see 115Sb
-
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
51
Antimony-129
D, see 115Sb
3E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
51
Antimony-1302
D, see 115Sb
2E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
51
Antimony-1312
D, see 115Sb
1E+4
2E+4
1E-5
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (2E+4)
Thyroid (4E+4)
-
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 115Sb
-
2E+4
1E-5
 
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (4E+4)
-
6E-8
-
-
52
Tellurium-116
D, all compounds except those given for W
8E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, and nitrates
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
52
Tellurium-121m
D, see 116Te
5E+2
2E+2
8E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (7E+2)
Bone surf (4E+2)
-
5E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
-
-
52
Tellurium-121
D, see 116Te
3E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
52
Tellurium-123m
D, see 116Te
6E+2
2E+2
9E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (1E+3)
Bone surf (5E+2)
-
8E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
5E+2
2E-7
8E-10
-
-
52
Tellurium-123
D, see 116Te
5E+2
2E+2
8E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (1E+3)
Bone surf (5E+2)
-
7E-10
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
4E+2
2E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (1E+3)
-
2E-9
-
-
52
Tellurium-125m
D, see 116Te
1E+3
4E+2
2E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (1E+3)
Bone surf (1E+3)
-
1E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
52
Tellurium-127m
D, see 116Te
6E+2
3E+2
1E-7
-
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (4E+2)
-
6E-10
-
-
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
52
Tellurium-127
D, see 116Te
7E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
52
Tellurium-129m
D, see 116Te
5E+2
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
52
Tellurium-1292
D, see 116Te
3E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
52
Tellurium-131m
D, see 116Te
3E+2
4E+2
2E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (6E+2)
Thyroid (1E+3)
-
2E-9
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
4E+2
2E-7
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (9E+2)
-
1E-9
-
-
52
Tellurium-1312
D, see 116Te
3E+3
5E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (6E+3)
Thyroid (1E+4)
-
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
5E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (1E+4)
-
2E-8
-
-
52
Tellurium-132
D, see 116Te
2E+2
2E+2
9E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (7E+2)
Thyroid (8E+2)
-
1E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
2E+2
9E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (6E+2)
-
9E-10
-
-
52
Tellurium-133m2
D, see 116Te
3E+3
5E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (6E+3)
Thyroid (1E+4)
-
2E-8
9E-5
9E-4
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
5E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (1E+4)
-
2E-8
-
-
52
Tellurium-1332
D, see 116Te
1E+4
2E+4
9E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
Thyroid (3E+4)
Thyroid (6E+4)
-
8E-8
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 116Te
-
2E+4
9E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Thyroid (6E+4)
-
8E-8
-
-