173-303-650  <<  173-303-655 >>   173-303-660

WAC 173-303-655

Land treatment.

(1) Applicability. The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat or dispose of dangerous waste in land treatment units, except as WAC 173-303-600 provides otherwise.
(2) Treatment program.
(a) An owner or operator subject to this section must establish a land treatment program that is designed to ensure that dangerous constituents placed in or on the treatment zone are degraded, transformed, or immobilized within the treatment zone. The department will specify in the facility permit the elements of the treatment program, including:
(i) The wastes that are capable of being treated at the unit based on a demonstration under subsection (3) of this section;
(ii) Design measures and operating practices necessary to maximize the success of degradation, transformation, and immobilization processes in the treatment zone in accordance with subsection (4)(a) of this section; and
(iii) Unsaturated zone monitoring provisions meeting the requirements of subsection (6) of this section.
(b) The department will specify in the facility permit the dangerous constituents that must be degraded, transformed, or immobilized under this section. Dangerous constituents are constituents identified in WAC 173-303-9905, and any other constituents which, although not listed in WAC 173-303-9905, cause a waste to be regulated under this chapter, that are reasonably expected to be in, or derived from, waste placed in or on the treatment zone.
(c) The department will specify the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the treatment zone in the facility permit. The treatment zone is the portion of the unsaturated zone below, and including, the land surface in which the owner or operator intends to maintain the conditions necessary for effective degradation, transformation, or immobilization of dangerous constituents. The maximum depth of the treatment zone must be:
(i) No more than 1.5 meters (5 feet) below the initial soil surface; and
(ii) More than 3 meters (10 feet) above the seasonal high water table; except that the owner or operator may demonstrate to the satisfaction of the department that a distance of less than 3 meters will be adequate. In no case will the distance be less than 1 meter.
(3) Treatment demonstration.
(a) For each waste that will be applied to the treatment zone, the owner or operator must demonstrate, prior to application of the waste, that dangerous constituents in the waste can be completely degraded, transformed, or immobilized in the treatment zone.
(b) In making this demonstration, the owner or operator may use field tests, laboratory analyses, available data, or, in the case of existing units, operating data. If the owner or operator intends to conduct field tests or laboratory analyses in order to make the demonstration required under (a) of this subsection, he must obtain a land treatment demonstration permit under WAC 173-303-808. The department will specify in this permit the testing, analytical, design, and operating requirements (including the duration of the tests and analyses, and, in the case of field tests, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the treatment zone, monitoring procedures, closure, and clean-up activities) necessary to meet the requirements in (c) of this subsection.
(c) Any field test or laboratory analysis conducted in order to make a demonstration under (a) of this subsection must:
(i) Accurately simulate the characteristics and operating conditions for the proposed land treatment unit including:
(A) The characteristics of the waste and of dangerous constituents present;
(B) The climate in the area;
(C) The topography of the surrounding area;
(D) The characteristics and depth of the soil in the treatment zone; and
(E) The operating practices to be used at the unit;
(ii) Be likely to show that dangerous constituents in the waste to be tested will be completely degraded, transformed, or immobilized in the treatment zone of the proposed land treatment unit; and
(iii) Be conducted in a manner that protects human health and the environment considering:
(A) The characteristics of the waste to be tested;
(B) The operating and monitoring measures taken during the course of the test;
(C) The duration of the test;
(D) The volume of waste used in the test; and
(E) In the case of field tests, the potential for migration of dangerous constituents to groundwater or surface water.
(4) Design and operating requirements. The department will specify in the facility permit how the owner or operator will design, construct, operate, and maintain the land treatment unit in compliance with this subsection.
(a) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the unit to maximize the degradation, transformation, and immobilization of dangerous constituents in the treatment zone. The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the unit in accordance with all design and operating conditions that were used in the treatment demonstration under subsection (3) of this section. At a minimum, the department will specify in the facility permit:
(i) The rate and method of waste application to the treatment zone;
(ii) Measures to control soil pH;
(iii) Measures to enhance microbial or chemical reactions (e.g., fertilization, tilling); and
(iv) Measures to control the moisture content of the treatment zone.
(b) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain the treatment zone to minimize runoff of dangerous constituents during the active life of the land treatment unit.
(c) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the treatment zone during peak discharge from at least a twenty-five-year storm.
(d) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a runoff management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a twenty-four-hour, twenty-five-year storm.
(e) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and runoff control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously and in accordance with this chapter after storms to maintain the design capacity of the system.
(f) If the treatment zone contains particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal, the owner or operator must control wind dispersal.
(g) The owner or operator must inspect the unit weekly and after storms to detect evidence of:
(i) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of run-on and runoff control systems; and
(ii) Improper functioning of wind dispersal control measures.
(5) Food chain crops. The department may allow the growth of food chain crops in or on the treatment zone only if the owner or operator satisfies the conditions of this subsection. The department will specify in the facility permit the specific food chain crops which may be grown.
(a)(i) The owner or operator must demonstrate that there is no substantial risk to human health caused by the growth of such crops in or on the treatment zone by demonstrating, prior to the planting of such crops, that dangerous constituents other than cadmium:
(A) Will not be transferred to the food or feed portions of the crop by plant uptake or direct contact, and will not otherwise be ingested by food chain animals (e.g., by grazing); or
(B) Will not occur in greater concentrations in or on the food or feed portions of crops grown on the treatment zone than in or on identical portions of the same crops grown on untreated soils under similar conditions in the same region.
(ii) The owner or operator must make the demonstration required under (a)(i) of this subsection prior to the planting of crops at the facility for all dangerous constituents that are reasonably expected to be in, or derived from, waste placed in or on the treatment zone.
(iii) In making such a demonstration, the owner or operator may use field tests, greenhouse studies, available data, or, in the case of existing units, operating data, and must:
(A) Base the demonstration on conditions similar to those present in the treatment zone, including soil characteristics (e.g., pH, cation exchange capacity), specific wastes, application rates, application methods, and crops to be grown; and
(B) Describe the procedures used in conducting any tests, including the sample selection criteria, sample size, analytical methods, and statistical procedures.
(iv) If the owner or operator intends to conduct field tests or greenhouse studies in order to make the demonstration he must obtain a permit for conducting such activities.
(b) The owner or operator must comply with the following conditions if cadmium is contained in wastes applied to the treatment zone;
(i)(A) The pH of the waste and soil mixture must be 6.5 or greater at the time of each waste application, except for waste containing cadmium at concentrations of 2 mg/kg (dry weight) or less;
(B) The annual application of cadmium from waste must not exceed 0.5 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) on land used for production of tobacco, leafy vegetables, or root crops grown for human consumption. For other food chain crops, the annual cadmium application rate must not exceed:
Time period
 
 
 
Annual Cd
application rate
(kilograms per hectare)
Present to June 30, 1984. . . .
2.0
July 1, 1984 to Dec. 31, 1986. . . .
1.25
Beginning Jan. 1, 1987. . . .
0.5
(C) The cumulative application of cadmium from waste must not exceed 5kg/ha if the waste and soil mixture has a pH of less than 6.5; and
(D) If the waste and soil mixture has a pH of 6.5 or greater or is maintained at a pH of 6.5 or greater during crop growth, the cumulative application of cadmium from waste must not exceed: 5 kg/ha if soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is less than 5 meq/100g; 10 kg/ha if soil CEC is 5-15 meq/100g; and 20 kg/ha if soil CEC is greater than 15 meq/100g; or
(ii)(A) Animal feed must be the only food chain crop produced;
(B) The pH of the waste and soil mixture must be 6.5 or greater at the time of waste application or at the time the crop is planted, whichever occurs later, and this pH level must be maintained whenever food chain crops are grown;
(C) There must be an operating plan which demonstrates how the animal feed will be distributed to preclude ingestion by humans. The operating plan must describe the measures to be taken to safeguard against possible health hazards from cadmium entering the food chain, which may result from alternative land uses; and
(D) Future property owners must be notified by a stipulation in the land record or property deed which states that the property has received waste at high cadmium application rates and that food chain crops must not be grown except in compliance with (b)(ii) of this subsection.
(6) Unsaturated zone monitoring. An owner or operator subject to this section must establish an unsaturated zone monitoring program to discharge the responsibilities described in this subsection.
(a) The owner or operator must monitor the soil and soil-pore liquid to determine whether dangerous constituents migrate out of the treatment zone.
(i) The department will specify the dangerous constituents to be monitored in the facility permit. The dangerous constituents to be monitored are those specified under subsection (2)(b) of this section.
(ii) The department may require monitoring for principal dangerous constituents (PDCs) in lieu of the constituents specified under subsection (2)(b) of this section. PDCs are dangerous constituents contained in the wastes to be applied at the unit that are the most difficult to treat, considering the combined effects of degradation, transformation, and immobilization. The department will establish PDCs if it finds, based on waste analyses, treatment demonstrations, or other data, that effective degradation, transformation, or immobilization of the PDCs will assure treatment at least equivalent levels for the other dangerous constituents in the wastes.
(b) The owner or operator must install an unsaturated zone monitoring system that includes soil monitoring using soil cores and soil-pore liquid monitoring using devices such as lysimeters. The unsaturated zone monitoring system must consist of a sufficient number of sampling points at appropriate locations and depths to yield samples that:
(i) Represent the quality of background soil-pore liquid quality and the chemical makeup of soil that has not been affected by leakage from the treatment zone; and
(ii) Indicate the quality of soil-pore liquid and the chemical makeup of the soil below the treatment zone.
(c) The owner or operator must establish a background value for each dangerous constituent to be monitored under (a) of this subsection. The permit will specify the background values for each constituent or specify the procedures to be used to calculate the background values.
(i) Background soil values may be based on a one-time sampling at a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone.
(ii) Background soil-pore liquid values must be based on at least quarterly sampling for one year at a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone.
(iii) The owner or operator must express all background values in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under (f) of this subsection.
(iv) In taking samples used in the determination of all background values, the owner or operator must use an unsaturated zone monitoring system that complies with (b)(i) of this subsection.
(d) The owner or operator must conduct soil monitoring and soil-pore liquid monitoring immediately below the treatment zone. The department will specify the frequency and timing of soil and soil-pore liquid monitoring in the facility permit after considering the frequency, timing, and rate of waste application, and the soil permeability. The owner or operator must express the results of soil and soil-pore liquid monitoring in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under (f) of this subsection.
(e) The owner or operator must use consistent sampling and analysis procedures that are designed to ensure sampling results that provide a reliable indication of soil-pore liquid quality and the chemical makeup of the soil below the treatment zone. At a minimum, the owner or operator must implement procedures and techniques for:
(i) Sample collection;
(ii) Sample preservation and shipment;
(iii) Analytical procedures; and
(iv) Chain of custody control.
(f) The owner or operator must determine whether there is a statistically significant change over background values for any dangerous constituent to be monitored under (a) of this subsection, below the treatment zone each time he conducts soil monitoring and soil-pore liquid monitoring under (d) of this subsection.
(i) In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator must compare the value of each constituent, as determined under (d) of this subsection, to the background value for that constituent according to the statistical procedure specified in the facility permit under this subsection.
(ii) The owner or operator must determine whether there has been a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone within a reasonable time period after completion of sampling. The department will specify that time period in the facility permit after considering the complexity of the statistical test and the availability of laboratory facilities to perform the analysis of soil and soil-pore liquid samples.
(iii) The owner or operator must determine whether there is a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone using a statistical procedure that provides reasonable confidence that migration from the treatment zone will be identified. The department will specify a statistical procedure in the facility permit that it finds:
(A) Is appropriate for the distribution of the data used to establish background values; and
(B) Provides a reasonable balance between the probability of falsely identifying migration from the treatment zone and the probability of failing to identify real migration from the treatment zone.
(g) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to (f) of this subsection, that there is a statistically significant increase of dangerous constituents below the treatment zone, he must:
(i) Notify the department of his finding in writing within seven days. The notification must indicate what constituents have shown statistically significant increases;
(ii) Within forty-five days, submit to the department an application for a permit modification to amend the operating practices at the facility in order to maximize the success of degradation, transformation, or immobilization processes in the treatment zone; and
(iii) Continue to monitor in accordance with the unsaturated zone monitoring program established under this subsection.
(h) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to (f) of this subsection, that there is a statistically significant increase of dangerous constituents below the treatment zone, he may demonstrate that a source other than regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from an error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation. While the owner or operator may make a demonstration under this subsection, he is not relieved of the requirement to submit concurrently a permit modification application within the forty-five-day period, unless the demonstration made under this subsection successfully shows that a source other than regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from an error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation. In making a demonstration under this subsection, the owner or operator must:
(i) Notify the department in writing within seven days of determining a statistically significant increase below the treatment zone that he intends to make a demonstration under this subsection;
(ii) Within forty-five days, submit a report to the department demonstrating that a source other than the regulated units caused the increase or that the increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation;
(iii) Within forty-five days, submit to the department an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the unsaturated zone monitoring program at the facility; and
(iv) Continue to monitor in accordance with the unsaturated zone monitoring program established under this subsection.
(7) Recordkeeping. The owner or operator must include dangerous waste application dates and rates in the operating record required under WAC 173-303-380.
(8) Closure and post-closure care.
(a) During the closure period the owner or operator must:
(i) Continue all operations (including pH control) necessary to maximize degradation, transformation, or immobilization of dangerous constituents within the treatment zone as required under subsection (4)(a) of this section, except to the extent such measures are inconsistent with (a)(viii) of this subsection;
(ii) Continue all operations in the treatment zone to minimize runoff of dangerous constituents as required under subsection (4)(b) of this section;
(iii) Maintain the run-on control system required under subsection (4)(c) of this section;
(iv) Maintain the runoff management system required under subsection (4)(d) of this section;
(v) Control wind dispersal of dangerous waste if required under subsection (4)(f) of this section;
(vi) Continue to comply with any prohibitions or conditions concerning growth of food chain crops under subsection (5) of this section;
(vii) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in compliance with subsection (6) of this section, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated ninety days after the last application of waste to the treatment zone; and
(viii) Establish a vegetative cover on the portion of the facility being closed at such time that the cover will not substantially impede degradation, transformation, or immobilization of dangerous constituents in the treatment zone. The vegetative cover must be capable of maintaining growth without extensive maintenance.
(b) For the purpose of complying with WAC 173-303-610(6) when closure is completed, the owner or operator may submit to the department a certification by an independent qualified soil scientist, in lieu of an independent, qualified registered professional engineer, that the facility has been closed in accordance with the specifications in the approved closure plan.
(c) During the post-closure care period the owner or operator must:
(i) Continue all operations (including pH control) necessary to enhance degradation and transformation and sustain immobilization of dangerous constituents in the treatment zone to the extent that such measures are consistent with other post-closure care activities;
(ii) Maintain a vegetative cover over closed portions of the facility;
(iii) Maintain the run-on control system required under subsection (4)(c) of this section;
(iv) Maintain the runoff management system required under subsection (4)(d) of this section;
(v) Control wind dispersal of dangerous waste, if required under subsection (4)(f) of this section;
(vi) Continue to comply with any prohibitions or conditions concerning growth of food chain crops under subsection (5) of this section; and
(vii) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in compliance with subsection (6) of this section, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated one hundred eighty days after the last application of waste to the treatment zone.
(d) The owner or operator is not subject to regulation under (a)(viii) and (c) of this subsection, if the department finds that the level of dangerous constituents in the treatment zone soil does not exceed the background value of those constituents by an amount that is statistically significant when using the test specified in (d)(iii) of this subsection. The owner or operator may submit such a demonstration to the department at any time during the closure or post-closure care periods. For the purposes of this subsection:
(i) The owner or operator must establish background soil values and determine whether there is a statistically significant increase over those values for all dangerous constituents specified in the facility permit under subsection (2)(b) of this section;
(A) Background soil values may be based on a one-time sampling of a background plot having characteristics similar to those of the treatment zone;
(B) The owner or operator must express background values and values for dangerous constituents in the treatment zone in a form necessary for the determination of statistically significant increases under (d)(iii) of this subsection;
(ii) In taking samples used in the determination of background and treatment zone values, the owner or operator must take samples at a sufficient number of sampling points and at appropriate locations and depths to yield samples that represent the chemical makeup of soil that has not been affected by leakage from the treatment zone and the soil within the treatment zone, respectively;
(iii) In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator must compare the value of each constituent in the treatment zone to the background value for that constituent using a statistical procedure that provides reasonable confidence that constituent presence in the treatment zone will be identified. The owner or operator must use a statistical procedure that:
(A) Is appropriate for the distribution of the data used to establish background values; and
(B) Provides a reasonable balance between the probability of falsely identifying dangerous constituent presence in the treatment zone and the probability of failing to identify real presence in the treatment zone.
(e) The owner or operator is not subject to regulation under WAC 173-303-645 if the department finds that the owner or operator satisfies (d) of this subsection, and if unsaturated zone monitoring under subsection (6) of this section, indicates that dangerous constituents have not migrated beyond the treatment zone during the active life of the land treatment unit.
(9) Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste. The owner or operator must not apply ignitable or reactive waste to the treatment zone unless the waste and the treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of WAC 173-303-140 (2)(a), and:
(a) The waste is immediately incorporated into the soil so that:
(i) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under WAC 173-303-090 (5) and (7); and
(ii) WAC 173-303-395 is complied with; or
(b) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react.
(10) Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner or operator must not place incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, in or on the same treatment zone, unless WAC 173-303-395 (1)(b) is complied with.
(11) Special requirements for extremely hazardous waste. Under no circumstances will EHW be allowed to remain in a closed land treatment unit after concluding the post-closure care period. If EHW remains at the end of the scheduled post-closure care period specified in the permit, then the department will either extend the post-closure care period, or require that all EHW be disposed of off-site or that it be treated. In deciding whether to extend post-closure care or require disposal or treatment, the department will take into account the likelihood that the waste will or will not continue to degrade in the land treatment unit to the extent that it is no longer EHW. For the purposes of this subsection, EHW will be considered to remain in a land treatment unit if representative samples of the treatment zone are designated as EHW. Procedures for representative sampling and testing will be specified in the permit.
(12) Special requirements for dangerous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, and F027.
(a) Dangerous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, and F027 must not be placed in a land treatment unit unless the owner or operator operates the facility in accordance with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the department pursuant to the standards set out in this subsection and in accord with all other applicable requirements of this chapter. The factors to be considered are:
(i) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes including their potential to migrate through soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere;
(ii) The attenuative properties of underlying and surrounding soils or other materials;
(iii) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and
(iv) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques.
(b) The department may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for land treatment facilities managing dangerous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or F027 in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to groundwater, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW. WSR 09-14-105 (Order 07-12), § 173-303-655, filed 6/30/09, effective 7/31/09; WSR 95-22-008 (Order 94-30), § 173-303-655, filed 10/19/95, effective 11/19/95; WSR 94-01-060 (Order 92-33), § 173-303-655, filed 12/8/93, effective 1/8/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW. WSR 86-12-057 (Order DE-85-10), § 173-303-655, filed 6/3/86; WSR 84-09-088 (Order DE 83-36), § 173-303-655, filed 4/18/84.]
Site Contents
Selected content listed in alphabetical order under each group