Chapter 9A.82 RCW

CRIMINAL PROFITEERING ACT

Sections

9A.82.001Short title.
9A.82.010Definitions.
9A.82.020Extortionate extension of credit.
9A.82.030Advancing money or property to be used for extortionate credit.
9A.82.040Use of extortionate means to collect extensions of credit.
9A.82.045Collection of unlawful debt.
9A.82.050Trafficking in stolen property in the first degree.
9A.82.055Trafficking in stolen property in the second degree.
9A.82.060Leading organized crime.
9A.82.070Influencing outcome of sporting event.
9A.82.080Use of proceeds of criminal profiteeringControlling enterprise or realtyConspiracy or attempt.
9A.82.085Bars on certain prosecutions.
9A.82.090Orders restraining criminal profiteeringWhen issued.
9A.82.100Remedies and procedures.
9A.82.110County antiprofiteering revolving funds.
9A.82.120Criminal profiteering lienAuthority, procedures.
9A.82.130Criminal profiteering lienTrustee of real property.
9A.82.140Criminal profiteering lienProcedures after notice.
9A.82.150Criminal profiteering lienConveyance of property by trustee, liability.
9A.82.160Criminal profiteering lienTrustee's failure to comply, evasion of procedures or lien.
9A.82.170Financial institution recordsInspection and copyingWrongful disclosure.
9A.82.901Effective date1984 c 270 as amended by 1985 c 455.
9A.82.902Effective date1985 c 455.

NOTES:

Special narcotics enforcement unit: RCW 43.43.655.


Short title.

This chapter shall be known as the criminal profiteering act.

NOTES:

Purpose2001 c 222: "The purpose of this act is to respond to State v. Thomas, 103 Wn. App. 800, by reenacting, without substantive changes, the Washington laws relating to criminal profiteering, and the sentencing level ranking for criminal profiteering crimes as they existed prior to December 21, 2000." [ 2001 c 222 § 1.]
Effective date2001 c 222: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [May 9, 2001]." [ 2001 c 222 § 25.]



Definitions.

Unless the context requires the contrary, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.
(1)(a) "Beneficial interest" means:
(i) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under a trust established under Title 11 RCW in which the trustee for the trust holds legal or record title to real property;
(ii) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under any other trust arrangement under which a trustee holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of the beneficiary; or
(iii) The interest of a person under any other form of express fiduciary arrangement under which one person holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of the other person.
(b) "Beneficial interest" does not include the interest of a stockholder in a corporation or the interest of a partner in a general partnership or limited partnership.
(c) A beneficial interest is considered to be located where the real property owned by the trustee is located.
(2) "Control" means the possession of a sufficient interest to permit substantial direction over the affairs of an enterprise.
(3) "Creditor" means a person making an extension of credit or a person claiming by, under, or through a person making an extension of credit.
(4) "Criminal profiteering" means any act, including any anticipatory or completed offense, committed for financial gain, that is chargeable or indictable under the laws of the state in which the act occurred and, if the act occurred in a state other than this state, would be chargeable or indictable under the laws of this state had the act occurred in this state and punishable as a felony and by imprisonment for more than one year, regardless of whether the act is charged or indicted, as any of the following:
(a) Murder, as defined in RCW 9A.32.030 and 9A.32.050;
(b) Robbery, as defined in RCW 9A.56.200 and 9A.56.210;
(c) Kidnapping, as defined in RCW 9A.40.020 and 9A.40.030;
(d) Forgery, as defined in RCW 9A.60.020 and 9A.60.030;
(e) Theft, as defined in RCW 9A.56.030, 9A.56.040, 9A.56.060, 9A.56.080, and 9A.56.083;
(f) Unlawful sale of subscription television services, as defined in RCW 9A.56.230;
(g) Theft of telecommunication services or unlawful manufacture of a telecommunication device, as defined in RCW 9A.56.262 and 9A.56.264;
(h) Child selling or child buying, as defined in RCW 9A.64.030;
(i) Bribery, as defined in RCW 9A.68.010, 9A.68.020, 9A.68.040, and 9A.68.050;
(j) Gambling, as defined in RCW 9.46.220 and 9.46.215 and 9.46.217;
(k) Extortion, as defined in RCW 9A.56.120 and 9A.56.130;
(l) Unlawful production of payment instruments, unlawful possession of payment instruments, unlawful possession of a personal identification device, unlawful possession of fictitious identification, or unlawful possession of instruments of financial fraud, as defined in RCW 9A.56.320;
(m) Extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.020;
(n) Advancing money for use in an extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.030;
(o) Collection of an extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.040;
(p) Collection of an unlawful debt, as defined in RCW 9A.82.045;
(q) Delivery or manufacture of controlled substances or possession with intent to deliver or manufacture controlled substances under chapter 69.50 RCW;
(r) Trafficking in stolen property, as defined in RCW 9A.82.050;
(s) Leading organized crime, as defined in RCW 9A.82.060;
(t) Money laundering, as defined in RCW 9A.83.020;
(u) Obstructing criminal investigations or prosecutions in violation of RCW 9A.72.090, 9A.72.100, 9A.72.110, 9A.72.120, 9A.72.130, 9A.76.070, or 9A.76.180;
(v) Fraud in the purchase or sale of securities, as defined in RCW 21.20.010;
(w) Promoting pornography, as defined in RCW 9.68.140;
(x) Sexual exploitation of children, as defined in RCW 9.68A.040, 9.68A.050, and 9.68A.060;
(y) Promoting prostitution, as defined in RCW 9A.88.070 and 9A.88.080;
(z) Arson, as defined in RCW 9A.48.020 and 9A.48.030;
(aa) Assault, as defined in RCW 9A.36.011 and 9A.36.021;
(bb) Assault of a child, as defined in RCW 9A.36.120 and 9A.36.130;
(cc) A pattern of equity skimming, as defined in RCW 61.34.020;
(dd) Commercial telephone solicitation in violation of RCW 19.158.040(1);
(ee) Trafficking in insurance claims, as defined in RCW 48.30A.015;
(ff) Unlawful practice of law, as defined in RCW 2.48.180;
(gg) Commercial bribery, as defined in RCW 9A.68.060;
(hh) Health care false claims, as defined in RCW 48.80.030;
(ii) Unlicensed practice of a profession or business, as defined in RCW 18.130.190(7);
(jj) Improperly obtaining financial information, as defined in RCW 9.35.010;
(kk) Identity theft, as defined in RCW 9.35.020;
(ll) Unlawful shipment of cigarettes in violation of *RCW 70.155.105(6) (a) or (b);
(mm) Unlawful shipment of cigarettes in violation of RCW 82.24.110(2);
(nn) Unauthorized sale or procurement of telephone records in violation of RCW 9.26A.140;
(oo) Theft with the intent to resell, as defined in RCW 9A.56.340;
(pp) Organized retail theft, as defined in RCW 9A.56.350;
(qq) Mortgage fraud, as defined in RCW 19.144.080;
(rr) Commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.100;
(ss) Promoting commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.101; or
(tt) Trafficking, as defined in RCW 9A.40.100, promoting travel for commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.102, and permitting commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.103.
(5) "Dealer in property" means a person who buys and sells property as a business.
(6) "Debtor" means a person to whom an extension of credit is made or a person who guarantees the repayment of an extension of credit or in any manner undertakes to indemnify the creditor against loss resulting from the failure of a person to whom an extension is made to repay the same.
(7) "Documentary material" means any book, paper, document, writing, drawing, graph, chart, photograph, phonograph record, magnetic tape, computer printout, other data compilation from which information can be obtained or from which information can be translated into usable form, or other tangible item.
(8) "Enterprise" includes any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, or other profit or nonprofit legal entity, and includes any union, association, or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity, and both illicit and licit enterprises and governmental and nongovernmental entities.
(9) "Extortionate extension of credit" means an extension of credit with respect to which it is the understanding of the creditor and the debtor at the time the extension is made that delay in making repayment or failure to make repayment could result in the use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation, or property of any person.
(10) "Extortionate means" means the use, or an express or implicit threat of use, of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation, or property of any person.
(11) "Financial institution" means any bank, trust company, savings and loan association, savings bank, mutual savings bank, credit union, or loan company under the jurisdiction of the state or an agency of the United States.
(12) "Pattern of criminal profiteering activity" means engaging in at least three acts of criminal profiteering, one of which occurred after July 1, 1985, and the last of which occurred within five years, excluding any period of imprisonment, after the commission of the earliest act of criminal profiteering. In order to constitute a pattern, the three acts must have the same or similar intent, results, accomplices, principals, victims, or methods of commission, or be otherwise interrelated by distinguishing characteristics including a nexus to the same enterprise, and must not be isolated events. However, in any civil proceedings brought pursuant to RCW 9A.82.100 by any person other than the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney in which one or more acts of fraud in the purchase or sale of securities are asserted as acts of criminal profiteering activity, it is a condition to civil liability under RCW 9A.82.100 that the defendant has been convicted in a criminal proceeding of fraud in the purchase or sale of securities under RCW 21.20.400 or under the laws of another state or of the United States requiring the same elements of proof, but such conviction need not relate to any act or acts asserted as acts of criminal profiteering activity in such civil action under RCW 9A.82.100.
(13) "Real property" means any real property or interest in real property, including but not limited to a land sale contract, lease, or mortgage of real property.
(14) "Records" means any book, paper, writing, record, computer program, or other material.
(15) "Repayment of an extension of credit" means the repayment, satisfaction, or discharge in whole or in part of a debt or claim, acknowledged or disputed, valid or invalid, resulting from or in connection with that extension of credit.
(16) "Stolen property" means property that has been obtained by theft, robbery, or extortion.
(17) "To collect an extension of credit" means to induce in any way a person to make repayment thereof.
(18) "To extend credit" means to make or renew a loan or to enter into an agreement, tacit or express, whereby the repayment or satisfaction of a debt or claim, whether acknowledged or disputed, valid or invalid, and however arising, may or shall be deferred.
(19) "Traffic" means to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of stolen property to another person, or to buy, receive, possess, or obtain control of stolen property, with intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of the property to another person.
(20)(a) "Trustee" means:
(i) A person acting as a trustee under a trust established under Title 11 RCW in which the trustee holds legal or record title to real property;
(ii) A person who holds legal or record title to real property in which another person has a beneficial interest; or
(iii) A successor trustee to a person who is a trustee under (a)(i) or (ii) of this subsection.
(b) "Trustee" does not mean a person appointed or acting as:
(i) A personal representative under Title 11 RCW;
(ii) A trustee of any testamentary trust;
(iii) A trustee of any indenture of trust under which a bond is issued; or
(iv) A trustee under a deed of trust.
(21) "Unlawful debt" means any money or other thing of value constituting principal or interest of a debt that is legally unenforceable in the state in full or in part because the debt was incurred or contracted:
(a) In violation of any one of the following:
(i) Chapter 67.16 RCW relating to horse racing;
(ii) Chapter 9.46 RCW relating to gambling;
(b) In a gambling activity in violation of federal law; or
(c) In connection with the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate that is at least twice the permitted rate under the applicable state or federal law relating to usury.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: RCW 70.155.105 was repealed by 2009 c 278 § 3.
Effective date2013 c 302: See note following RCW 9.68A.090.
Findings2008 c 108: See RCW 19.144.005.
IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.
Captions not law2001 c 217: See note following RCW 9.35.005.
Effective date1995 c 285: See RCW 48.30A.900.
Effective date1994 c 218: See note following RCW 9.46.010.
Effective date1989 c 20: See RCW 19.158.901.
Effective date1988 c 33 § 5: "Section 5 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1988." [ 1988 c 33 § 8.]



Extortionate extension of credit.

(1) A person who knowingly makes an extortionate extension of credit is guilty of a class B felony.
(2) In a prosecution under this section, if it is shown that all of the following factors are present in connection with the extension of credit, there is prima facie evidence that the extension of credit was extortionate:
(a) The repayment of the extension of credit, or the performance of any promise given in consideration thereof, would be unenforceable at the time the extension of credit was made through civil judicial processes against the debtor in the county in which the debtor, if a natural person, resided or in every county in which the debtor, if other than a natural person, was incorporated or qualified to do business.
(b) The extension of credit was made at a rate of interest in excess of an annual rate of forty-five percent calculated according to the actuarial method of allocating payments made on a debt between principal and interest, pursuant to which a payment is applied first to the accumulated interest and the balance is applied to the unpaid principal.
(c) The creditor intended the debtor to believe that failure to comply with the terms of the extension of credit would be enforced by extortionate means.
(d) Upon the making of the extension of credit, the total of the extensions of credit by the creditor to the debtor then outstanding, including any unpaid interest or similar charges, exceeded one hundred dollars.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Advancing money or property to be used for extortionate credit.

A person who advances money or property, whether as a gift, loan, investment, or pursuant to a partnership or profit-sharing agreement or otherwise, to any person, with the knowledge that it is the intention of that person to use the money or property so advanced, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of making extortionate extensions of credit, is guilty of a class B felony.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Use of extortionate means to collect extensions of credit.

A person who knowingly participates in any way in the use of any extortionate means to collect or attempt to collect any extensions of credit or to punish any person for the nonrepayment thereof, is guilty of a class B felony.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Collection of unlawful debt.

It is unlawful for any person knowingly to collect any unlawful debt. A violation of this section is a class C felony.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Trafficking in stolen property in the first degree.

(1) A person who knowingly initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, or supervises the theft of property for sale to others, or who knowingly traffics in stolen property, is guilty of trafficking in stolen property in the first degree.
(2) Trafficking in stolen property in the first degree is a class B felony.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Trafficking in stolen property in the second degree.

(1) A person who recklessly traffics in stolen property is guilty of trafficking in stolen property in the second degree.
(2) Trafficking in stolen property in the second degree is a class C felony.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.



Leading organized crime.

(1) A person commits the offense of leading organized crime by:
(a) Intentionally organizing, managing, directing, supervising, or financing any three or more persons with the intent to engage in a pattern of criminal profiteering activity; or
(b) Intentionally inciting or inducing others to engage in violence or intimidation with the intent to further or promote the accomplishment of a pattern of criminal profiteering activity.
(2)(a) Leading organized crime as defined in subsection (1)(a) of this section is a class A felony.
(b) Leading organized crime as defined in subsection (1)(b) of this section is a class B felony.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Influencing outcome of sporting event.

Whoever knowingly gives, promises, or offers to any professional or amateur baseball, football, hockey, polo, tennis, horse race, or basketball player or boxer or any player or referee or other official who participates or expects to participate in any professional or amateur game or sport, or to any manager, coach, or trainer of any team or participant or prospective participant in any such game, contest, or sport, any benefit with intent to influence the person to lose or try to lose or cause to be lost or to limit the person's or person's team's margin of victory or defeat, or in the case of a referee or other official to affect the decisions or the performance of the official's duties in any way, in a baseball, football, hockey, or basketball game, boxing, tennis, horse race, or polo match, or any professional or amateur sport or game, in which the player or participant or referee or other official is taking part or expects to take part, or has any duty or connection therewith, is guilty of a class C felony.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Use of proceeds of criminal profiteeringControlling enterprise or realtyConspiracy or attempt.

(1)(a) It is unlawful for a person who has knowingly received any of the proceeds derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of criminal profiteering activity to use or invest, whether directly or indirectly, any part of the proceeds, or the proceeds derived from the investment or use thereof, in the acquisition of any title to, or any right, interest, or equity in, real property or in the establishment or operation of any enterprise.
(b) A violation of this subsection is a class B felony.
(2)(a) It is unlawful for a person knowingly to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control of any enterprise or real property through a pattern of criminal profiteering activity.
(b) A violation of this subsection is a class B felony.
(3)(a) It is unlawful for a person knowingly to conspire or attempt to violate subsection (1) or (2) of this section.
(b) A violation of this subsection is a class C felony.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Bars on certain prosecutions.

In a criminal prosecution alleging a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, the state is barred from joining any offense other than the offenses alleged to be part of the pattern of criminal profiteering activity. When a defendant has been tried criminally for a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, the state is barred from subsequently charging the defendant with an offense that was alleged to be part of the pattern of criminal profiteering activity for which he or she was tried.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Orders restraining criminal profiteeringWhen issued.

During the pendency of any criminal case charging a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, the superior court may, in addition to its other powers, issue an order pursuant to RCW 9A.82.100 (2) or (3). Upon conviction of a person for a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, the superior court may, in addition to its other powers of disposition, issue an order pursuant to RCW 9A.82.100.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Remedies and procedures.

(1)(a) A person who sustains injury to his or her person, business, or property by an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or by an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or by a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 may file an action in superior court for the recovery of damages and the costs of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(b) The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may file an action: (i) On behalf of those persons injured or, respectively, on behalf of the state or county if the entity has sustained damages, or (ii) to prevent, restrain, or remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(c) An action for damages filed by or on behalf of an injured person, the state, or the county shall be for the recovery of damages and the costs of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(d) In an action filed to prevent, restrain, or remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, the court, upon proof of the violation, may impose a civil penalty not exceeding two hundred fifty thousand dollars, in addition to awarding the cost of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(2) The superior court has jurisdiction to prevent, restrain, and remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 after making provision for the rights of all innocent persons affected by the violation and after hearing or trial, as appropriate, by issuing appropriate orders.
(3) Prior to a determination of liability, orders issued under subsection (2) of this section may include, but are not limited to, entering restraining orders or prohibitions or taking such other actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, in connection with any property or other interest subject to damages, forfeiture, or other restraints pursuant to this section as the court deems proper. The orders may also include attachment, receivership, or injunctive relief in regard to personal or real property pursuant to Title 7 RCW. In shaping the reach or scope of receivership, attachment, or injunctive relief, the superior court shall provide for the protection of bona fide interests in property, including community property, of persons who were not involved in the violation of this chapter, except to the extent that such interests or property were acquired or used in such a way as to be subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f).
(4) Following a determination of liability, orders may include, but are not limited to:
(a) Ordering any person to divest himself or herself of any interest, direct or indirect, in any enterprise.
(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions on the future activities or investments of any person, including prohibiting any person from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise engaged in, the activities of which affect the laws of this state, to the extent the Constitutions of the United States and this state permit.
(c) Ordering dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.
(d) Ordering the payment of actual damages sustained to those persons injured by a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering, and in the court's discretion, increasing the payment to an amount not exceeding three times the actual damages sustained.
(e) Ordering the payment of all costs and expenses of the prosecution and investigation of a pattern of criminal profiteering, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, activity or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, civil and criminal, incurred by the state or county, including any costs of defense provided at public expense, as appropriate to the state general fund or the antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county.
(f) Ordering forfeiture first as restitution to any person damaged by an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering, or by an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, then to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, to the extent not already ordered to be paid in other damages, of the following:
(i) Any property or other interest acquired or maintained in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 to the extent of the investment of funds, and any appreciation or income attributable to the investment, from a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(ii) Any property, contractual right, or claim against property used to influence any enterprise that a person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(iii) All proceeds traceable to or derived from an offense included in the pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, and other things of value significantly used or intended to be used significantly to facilitate commission of the offense.
(g) Ordering payment to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, of an amount equal to the gain a person has acquired or maintained through an offense included in the definition of criminal profiteering.
(5) In addition to or in lieu of an action under this section, the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may file an action for forfeiture to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, to the extent not already ordered paid pursuant to this section, of the following:
(a) Any interest acquired or maintained by a person in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 to the extent of the investment of funds obtained from a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 and any appreciation or income attributable to the investment.
(b) Any property, contractual right, or claim against property used to influence any enterprise that a person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(c) All proceeds traceable to or derived from an offense included in the pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, and other things of value significantly used or intended to be used significantly to facilitate the commission of the offense.
(6) A defendant convicted in any criminal proceeding is precluded in any civil proceeding from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense proven in the criminal trial in which the defendant was convicted. For the purposes of this subsection, a conviction shall be deemed to have occurred upon a verdict, finding, or plea of guilty, notwithstanding the fact that appellate review of the conviction and sentence has been or may be sought. If a subsequent reversal of the conviction occurs, any judgment that was based upon that conviction may be reopened upon motion of the defendant.
(7) The initiation of civil proceedings under this section shall be commenced within three years after discovery of the pattern of criminal profiteering activity or after the pattern should reasonably have been discovered or, in the case of an offense that is defined in RCW 9A.40.100, within three years after the final disposition of any criminal charges relating to the offense, whichever is later.
(8) The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may, in a civil action brought pursuant to this section, file with the clerk of the superior court a certificate stating that the case is of special public importance. A copy of that certificate shall be furnished immediately by the clerk to the presiding chief judge of the superior court in which the action is pending and, upon receipt of the copy, the judge shall immediately designate a judge to hear and determine the action. The judge so designated shall promptly assign the action for hearing, participate in the hearings and determination, and cause the action to be expedited.
(9) The standard of proof in actions brought pursuant to this section is the preponderance of the evidence test.
(10) A person other than the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney who files an action under this section shall serve notice and one copy of the pleading on the attorney general within thirty days after the action is filed with the superior court. The notice shall identify the action, the person, and the person's attorney. Service of the notice does not limit or otherwise affect the right of the state to maintain an action under this section or intervene in a pending action nor does it authorize the person to name the state or the attorney general as a party to the action.
(11) Except in cases filed by a county prosecuting attorney, the attorney general may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under this section if the attorney general certifies that in the attorney general's opinion the action is of special public importance. Upon intervention, the attorney general may assert any available claim and is entitled to the same relief as if the attorney general had instituted a separate action.
(12) In addition to the attorney general's right to intervene as a party in any action under this section, the attorney general may appear as amicus curiae in any proceeding in which a claim under this section has been asserted or in which a court is interpreting RCW 9A.82.010, 9A.82.080, 9A.82.090, 9A.82.110, or 9A.82.120, or this section.
(13) A private civil action under this section does not limit any other civil or criminal action under this chapter or any other provision. Private civil remedies provided under this section are supplemental and not mutually exclusive.
(14) Upon motion by the defendant, the court may authorize the sale or transfer of assets subject to an order or lien authorized by this chapter for the purpose of paying actual attorney's fees and costs of defense. The motion shall specify the assets for which sale or transfer is sought and shall be accompanied by the defendant's sworn statement that the defendant has no other assets available for such purposes. No order authorizing such sale or transfer may be entered unless the court finds that the assets involved are not subject to possible forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f). Prior to disposition of the motion, the court shall notify the state of the assets sought to be sold or transferred and shall hear argument on the issue of whether the assets are subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f). Such a motion may be made from time to time and shall be heard by the court on an expedited basis.
(15) In an action brought under subsection (1)(a) and (b)(i) of this section, either party has the right to a jury trial.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.
Application1989 c 271 §§ 101-111: See note following RCW 9.94A.510.
Severability1989 c 271: See note following RCW 9.94A.510.



County antiprofiteering revolving funds.

(1) In an action brought by the attorney general on behalf of the state under RCW 9A.82.100(1)(b)(i) in which the state prevails, any payments ordered in excess of the actual damages sustained shall be deposited in the crime victims' compensation account provided in RCW 7.68.045.
(2)(a) The county legislative authority may establish an antiprofiteering revolving fund to be administered by the county prosecuting attorney under the conditions and for the purposes provided by this subsection. Disbursements from the fund shall be on authorization of the county prosecuting attorney. No appropriation is required for disbursements.
(b) Any prosecution and investigation costs, including attorney's fees, recovered for the state by the county prosecuting attorney as a result of enforcement of civil and criminal statutes pertaining to any offense included in the definition of criminal profiteering, whether by final judgment, settlement, or otherwise, shall be deposited, as directed by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the fund established by this subsection. In an action brought by a prosecuting attorney on behalf of the county under RCW 9A.82.100(1)(b)(i) in which the county prevails, any payments ordered in excess of the actual damages sustained shall be deposited in the crime victims' compensation account provided in RCW 7.68.045.
(c) The county legislative authority may prescribe a maximum level of moneys in the antiprofiteering revolving fund. Moneys exceeding the prescribed maximum shall be transferred to the county current expense fund.
(d) The moneys in the fund shall be used by the county prosecuting attorney for the investigation and prosecution of any offense, within the jurisdiction of the county prosecuting attorney, included in the definition of criminal profiteering, including civil enforcement.
(e) If a county has not established an antiprofiteering revolving fund, any payments or forfeitures ordered to the county under this chapter shall be deposited to the county current expense fund.

NOTES:

Effective date2009 c 479: See note following RCW 2.56.030.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Criminal profiteering lienAuthority, procedures.

(1) The state, upon filing a criminal action under RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 or for an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, or a civil action under RCW 9A.82.100, may file in accordance with this section a criminal profiteering lien. A filing fee or other charge is not required for filing a criminal profiteering lien.
(2) A criminal profiteering lien shall be signed by the attorney general or the county prosecuting attorney representing the state in the action and shall set forth the following information:
(a) The name of the defendant whose property or other interests are to be subject to the lien;
(b) In the discretion of the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney filing the lien, any aliases or fictitious names of the defendant named in the lien;
(c) If known to the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney filing the lien, the present residence or principal place of business of the person named in the lien;
(d) A reference to the proceeding pursuant to which the lien is filed, including the name of the court, the title of the action, and the court's file number for the proceeding;
(e) The name and address of the attorney representing the state in the proceeding pursuant to which the lien is filed;
(f) A statement that the notice is being filed pursuant to this section;
(g) The amount that the state claims in the action or, with respect to property or other interests that the state has requested forfeiture to the state or county, a description of the property or interests sought to be paid or forfeited;
(h) If known to the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney filing the lien, a description of property that is subject to forfeiture to the state or property in which the defendant has an interest that is available to satisfy a judgment entered in favor of the state; and
(i) Such other information as the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney filing the lien deems appropriate.
(3) The attorney general or the county prosecuting attorney filing the lien may amend a lien filed under this section at any time by filing an amended criminal profiteering lien in accordance with this section that identifies the prior lien amended.
(4) The attorney general or the county prosecuting attorney filing the lien shall, as soon as practical after filing a criminal profiteering lien, furnish to any person named in the lien a notice of the filing of the lien. Failure to furnish notice under this subsection does not invalidate or otherwise affect a criminal profiteering lien filed in accordance with this section.
(5)(a) A criminal profiteering lien is perfected against interests in personal property in the same manner as a security interest in like property pursuant to RCW 62A.9A-301 through 62A.9A-316 or as otherwise required to perfect a security interest in like property under applicable law. In the case of perfection by filing, the state shall file, in lieu of a financing statement in the form prescribed by RCW 62A.9A-502, a notice of lien in substantially the following form:
NOTICE OF LIEN
Pursuant to RCW 9A.82.120, the state of Washington claims a criminal profiteering lien on all real and personal property of:
 
Name:
. . . .
 
 
Address:
. . . .
 
 
. . . .
 
 
State of Washington
 
. . . .
 
By (authorized signature)
On receipt of such a notice from the state, a filing officer shall, without payment of filing fee, file and index the notice as if it were a financing statement naming the state as secured party and the defendant as debtor.
(b) A criminal profiteering lien is perfected against interests in real property by filing the lien in the office where a mortgage on the real estate would be filed or recorded. The filing officer shall file and index the criminal profiteering lien, without payment of a filing fee, in the same manner as a mortgage.
(6) The filing of a criminal profiteering lien in accordance with this section creates a lien in favor of the state in:
(a) Any interest of the defendant, in real property situated in the county in which the lien is filed, then maintained, or thereafter acquired in the name of the defendant identified in the lien;
(b) Any interest of the defendant, in personal property situated in this state, then maintained or thereafter acquired in the name of the defendant identified in the lien; and
(c) Any property identified in the lien to the extent of the defendant's interest therein.
(7) The lien created in favor of the state in accordance with this section, when filed or otherwise perfected as provided in subsection (5) of this section, has, with respect to any of the property described in subsection (6) of this section, the same priority determined pursuant to the laws of this state as a mortgage or security interest given for value (but not a purchase money security interest) and perfected in the same manner with respect to such property; except that any lien perfected pursuant to Title 60 RCW by any person who, in the ordinary course of his or her business, furnishes labor, services, or materials, or rents, leases, or otherwise supplies equipment, without knowledge of the criminal profiteering lien, is superior to the criminal profiteering lien.
(8) Upon entry of judgment in favor of the state, the state may proceed to execute thereon as in the case of any other judgment, except that in order to preserve the state's lien priority as provided in this section the state shall, in addition to such other notice as is required by law, give at least thirty days' notice of the execution to any person possessing at the time the notice is given, an interest recorded subsequent to the date the state's lien was perfected.
(9) Upon the entry of a final judgment in favor of the state providing for forfeiture of property to the state, the title of the state to the property:
(a) In the case of real property or a beneficial interest in real property, relates back to the date of filing the criminal profiteering lien or, if no criminal profiteering lien is filed, then to the date of recording of the final judgment or the abstract thereof; or
(b) In the case of personal property or a beneficial interest in personal property, relates back to the date the personal property was seized by the state, or the date of filing of a criminal profiteering lien in accordance with this section, whichever is earlier, but if the property was not seized and no criminal profiteering lien was filed then to the date the final judgment was filed with the department of licensing and, if the personal property is an aircraft, with the federal aviation administration.
(10) This section does not limit the right of the state to obtain any order or injunction, receivership, writ, attachment, garnishment, or other remedy authorized under RCW 9A.82.100 or appropriate to protect the interests of the state or available under other applicable law.
(11) In a civil or criminal action under this chapter, the superior court shall provide for the protection of bona fide interests in property, including community property, subject to liens of persons who were not involved in the violation of this chapter, except to the extent that such interests or property were acquired or used in such a way as to be subject to forfeiture pursuant to RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f).

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Criminal profiteering lienTrustee of real property.

(1) A trustee who is personally served in the manner provided for service of legal process with written notice that a lien notice has been recorded or a civil proceeding or criminal proceeding has been instituted under this chapter against any person for whom the trustee holds legal or record title to real property, shall immediately furnish to the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney the following:
(a) The name and address of the person, as known to the trustee;
(b) To the extent known to the trustee, the name and address of all other persons for whose benefit the trustee holds title to the real property; and
(c) If requested by the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney, a copy of the trust agreement or other instrument under which the trustee holds legal or record title to the real property.
(2) The recording of a lien notice shall not constitute a lien on the record title to real property owned by a trustee at the time of recording except to the extent that trustee is named in and served with the lien notice as provided in subsection (1) of this section. The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may bring a civil proceeding in superior court against the trustee to recover from the trustee the amounts set forth in RCW 9A.82.150. In addition to amounts recovered under RCW 9A.82.150, the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney also may recover its investigative costs and attorneys' fees.
(3) The recording of a lien notice does not affect the use to which real property or a beneficial interest owned by the person named in the lien notice may be put or the right of the person to receive any avails, rents, or other proceeds resulting from the use and ownership except the sale of the property, until a judgment of forfeiture is entered.
(4) This section does not apply to any conveyance by a trustee under a court order unless the court order is entered in an action between the trustee and the beneficiary.
(5) Notwithstanding that a trustee is served with notice as provided in subsection (1) of this section, this section does not apply to a conveyance by a trustee required under the terms of any trust agreement in effect before service of such notice on the trustee.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Criminal profiteering lienProcedures after notice.

(1) The term of a lien notice shall be six years from the date the lien notice is recorded. If a renewal lien notice is filed by the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney, the term of the renewal lien notice shall be for six years from the date the renewal lien notice is recorded. The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney is entitled to only one renewal of the lien notice.
(2) The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney filing the lien notice may release in whole or in part any lien notice or may release any specific property or beneficial interest from the lien notice upon such terms and conditions as the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney considers appropriate and shall release any lien upon the dismissal of the action which is the basis of the lien or satisfaction of the judgment of the court in the action or other final disposition of the claim evidenced by the lien. A release of a lien notice executed by the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney shall be recorded in the official records in which the lien notice covering that property was recorded. No charge or fee may be imposed for recording any release of a lien notice.
(3)(a) A person named in the lien notice may move the court in which the civil proceeding giving rise to the lien notice is pending for an order extinguishing the lien notice.
(b) Upon the motion of a person under (a) of this subsection, the court immediately shall enter an order setting a date for hearing, which shall be not less than five nor more than ten days after the motion is filed. The order and a copy of the motion shall be served on the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney within three days after the entry of the court's order. At the hearing, the court shall take evidence on the issue of whether any property or beneficial interest owned by the person is covered by the lien notice or otherwise subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.120. If the person shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the lien notice is not applicable to the person or that any property or beneficial interest owned by the person is not subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.120, the court shall enter a judgment extinguishing the lien notice or releasing the property or beneficial interest from the lien notice.
(c) The court may enter an order releasing from the lien notice any specific real property or beneficial interest if, at the time the lien notice is recorded, there is pending an arms length sale of the real property or beneficial interest in which the parties are under no undue compulsion to sell or buy and are able, willing, and reasonably well informed and the sale is for the fair market value of the real property or beneficial interest and the recording of the lien notice prevents the sale of the property or interest. The proceeds resulting from the sale of the real property or beneficial interest shall be deposited with the court, subject to the further order of the court.
(d) At any time after filing of a lien, the court may release from the lien any property upon application by the defendant and posting of security equal to the value of the property to be released.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Criminal profiteering lienConveyance of property by trustee, liability.

(1) If a trustee conveys title to real property for which, at the time of the conveyance, the trustee has been personally served with notice as provided in RCW 9A.82.130(1) of a lien under this chapter, the trustee shall be liable to the state for the greater of:
(a) The amount of proceeds received by the person named in the lien notice as a result of the conveyance;
(b) The amount of proceeds received by the trustee as a result of the conveyance and distributed by the trustee to the person named in the lien notice; or
(c) The fair market value of the interest of the person named in the lien notice in the real property so conveyed.
(2) If the trustee conveys the real property for which a lien notice has been served on the trustee at the time of the conveyance and holds the proceeds that would otherwise be paid or distributed to the beneficiary or at the direction of the beneficiary or beneficiary's designee, the trustee's liability shall not exceed the amount of the proceeds so held so long as the trustee continues to hold the proceeds.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Criminal profiteering lienTrustee's failure to comply, evasion of procedures or lien.

(1) A trustee who knowingly fails to comply with RCW 9A.82.130(1) is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(2) A trustee who conveys title to real property after service of the notice as provided in RCW 9A.82.130(1) with the intent to evade the provisions of RCW 9A.82.100 or 9A.82.120 with respect to such property is guilty of a class C felony.

NOTES:

IntentEffective date2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Financial institution recordsInspection and copyingWrongful disclosure.

(1) Upon request of the attorney general or prosecuting attorney, a subpoena for the production of records of a financial institution may be signed and issued by a superior court judge if there is reason to believe that an act of criminal profiteering or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 has occurred or is occurring and that the records sought will materially aid in the investigation of such activity or appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of information that will do so. The subpoena shall be served on the financial institution as in civil actions. The court may, upon motion timely made and in any event before the time specified for compliance with the subpoena, condition compliance upon advancement by the attorney general or prosecuting attorney of the reasonable costs of producing the records specified in the subpoena.
(2) A response to a subpoena issued under this section is sufficient if a copy or printout, duly authenticated by an officer of the financial institution as a true and correct copy or printout of its records, is provided, unless otherwise provided in the subpoena for good cause shown.
(3) Except as provided in this subsection, a financial institution served with a subpoena under this section shall not disclose to the customer the fact that a subpoena seeking records relating to the customer has been served. A judge of the superior court may order the attorney general, prosecuting attorney, or financial institution to advise the financial institution's customer of the subpoena. Unless ordered to do so by the court, disclosure of the subpoena by the financial institution or any of its employees to the customer is a misdemeanor.
(4) A financial institution shall be reimbursed in an amount set by the court for reasonable costs incurred in providing information pursuant to this section.
(5) This section does not preclude the use of other legally authorized means of obtaining records, nor preclude the assertion of any legally recognized privileges.
(6) Disclosure by the attorney general, county prosecuting attorney, or any peace officer or other person designated by the attorney general or the county prosecuting attorney, of information obtained under this section, except in the proper discharge of official duties, is punishable as a misdemeanor.
(7) Upon filing of any civil or criminal action, the nondisclosure requirements of any subpoena or order under this section shall terminate, and the attorney general or prosecuting attorney filing the action shall provide to the defendant copies of all subpoenas or other orders issued under this section.
(8) A financial institution shall not be civilly liable for harm resulting from its compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Effective date1984 c 270 as amended by 1985 c 455.

Sections 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, chapter 270, Laws of 1984 as amended by sections 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 of this 1985 act shall take effect on July 1, 1986, and the remainder of chapter 270, Laws of 1984 shall take effect on July 1, 1985.

NOTES:

PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.



Effective date1985 c 455.

With the exception of sections 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 of this act, this act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety, the support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1985.