Chapter 70.98 RCW

NUCLEAR ENERGY AND RADIATION

Sections

70.98.010Declaration of policy.
70.98.020Purpose.
70.98.030Definitions.
70.98.050State radiation control agency.
70.98.080Rules and regulationsLicensing requirements and procedureNotice of license applicationObjectionsNotice upon granting of licenseRegistration of sources of ionizing radiationExemptions from registration or licensing.
70.98.085User permit systemFeesIndemnify and hold state harmlessAdoption of rules.
70.98.090Inspection.
70.98.095Financial assuranceNoncompliance.
70.98.098Financial assuranceGenerally.
70.98.100Records.
70.98.110Federal-state agreementsAuthorizedEffect as to federal licenses.
70.98.120Inspection agreements and training programs.
70.98.122Department of ecology to seek federal funding for environmental radiation monitoring.
70.98.125Federal assistance to be sought for high-level radioactive waste program.
70.98.130Administrative procedure.
70.98.140Injunction proceedings.
70.98.150Prohibited uses.
70.98.160Impounding of materials.
70.98.170ProhibitionFluoroscopic X-ray shoefitting devices.
70.98.180Exemptions.
70.98.190Professional uses.
70.98.200Penalties.
70.98.220Adoption of rules for administering site use permit program.
70.98.910Effective date1961 c 207.
70.98.920Section headings not part of law.

NOTES:

Reviser's note: Powers and duties of the department of social and health services and the secretary of social and health services transferred to the department of health and the secretary of health. See RCW 43.70.060.
Nuclear, thermal power facilities, joint city, public utility district, electrical companies development: Chapter 54.44 RCW.
Radioactive and hazardous waste emergency response programs, state coordinator: RCW 38.52.030.
Radioactive waste act: Chapter 43.200 RCW.


Declaration of policy.

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It is the policy of the state of Washington in furtherance of its responsibility to protect the public health and safety and to encourage, insofar as consistent with this responsibility, the industrial and economic growth of the state and to institute and maintain a regulatory and inspection program for sources and uses of ionizing radiation so as to provide for (1) compatibility with the standards and regulatory programs of the federal government, (2) a single, effective system of regulation within the state, and (3) a system consonant insofar as possible with those of other states.
[1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 108 § 12; 1961 c 207 § 1.]

NOTES:

SeverabilityEffective date1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 108: See notes following RCW 43.21F.010.



Purpose.

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It is the purpose of this chapter to effectuate the policies set forth in RCW 70.98.010 as now or hereafter amended by providing for:
(1) A program of effective regulation of sources of ionizing radiation for the protection of the occupational and public health and safety;
(2) A program to promote an orderly regulatory pattern within the state, among the states and between the federal government and the state and facilitate intergovernmental cooperation with respect to use and regulation of sources of ionizing radiation to the end that duplication of regulation may be minimized;
(3) A program to establish procedures for assumption and performance of certain regulatory responsibilities with respect to by-product, source, and special nuclear materials.
[1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 108 § 13; 1965 c 88 § 1; 1961 c 207 § 2.]

NOTES:

SeverabilityEffective date1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 108: See notes following RCW 43.21F.010.



Definitions.

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(1) "By-product material" means any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material.
(2)(a) "General license" means a license effective pursuant to rules promulgated by the state radiation control agency, without the filing of an application, to transfer, acquire, own, possess, or use quantities of, or devices or equipment utilizing, by-product, source, special nuclear materials, or other radioactive material occurring naturally or produced artificially.
(b) "Specific license" means a license, issued after application to use, manufacture, produce, transfer, receive, acquire, own, or possess quantities of, or devices or equipment utilizing by-product, source, special nuclear materials, or other radioactive materials occurring naturally or produced artificially.
(3) "Ionizing radiation" means gamma rays and x-rays, alpha and beta particles, high-speed electrons, neutrons, protons, and other atomic or subatomic particles; but not sound or radio waves, or visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.
(4) "Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, agency, political subdivision of this state, any other state or political subdivision or agency thereof, and any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing, other than the United States Atomic Energy Commission, or any successor thereto, and other than federal government agencies licensed by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, or any successor thereto.
(5) "Radiation source" means any type of device or substance which is capable of producing or emitting ionizing radiation.
(6) "Registration" means registration with the state department of health by any person possessing a source of ionizing radiation in accordance with rules adopted by the department of health.
(7) "Site use permit" means a permit, issued after application, to use the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility.
(8) "Source material" means (a) uranium, thorium, or any other material which is determined by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its successor pursuant to the provisions of section 61 of the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. Sec. 209) to be source material; or (b) ores containing one or more of the foregoing materials, in such concentration as the commission may by regulation determine from time to time.
(9) "Special nuclear material" means (a) plutonium, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its successor, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. Sec. 2071), determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or (b) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.

NOTES:

Reviser's note: The definitions in this section have been alphabetized pursuant to RCW 1.08.015(2)(k).
Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.
ConstructionConflict with federal requirements1983 1st ex.s. c 19: See RCW 43.200.900 and 43.200.901.



State radiation control agency.

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(1) The department of health is designated as the state radiation control agency, hereinafter referred to as the agency, and shall be the state agency having sole responsibility for administration of the regulatory, licensing, and radiation control provisions of this chapter.
(2) The secretary of health shall be director of the agency, hereinafter referred to as the secretary, who shall perform the functions vested in the agency pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.
(3) The agency shall appoint a state radiological control officer, and in accordance with the laws of the state, fix his or her compensation and prescribe his or her powers and duties.
(4) The agency shall for the protection of the occupational and public health and safety:
(a) Develop programs for evaluation of hazards associated with use of ionizing radiation;
(b) Develop a statewide radiological baseline beginning with the establishment of a baseline for the Hanford reservation;
(c) Implement an independent statewide program to monitor ionizing radiation emissions from radiation sources within the state;
(d) Develop programs with due regard for compatibility with federal programs for regulation of by-product, source, and special nuclear materials;
(e) Conduct environmental radiation monitoring programs which will determine the presence and significance of radiation in the environment and which will verify the adequacy and accuracy of environmental radiation monitoring programs conducted by the federal government at its installations in Washington and by radioactive materials licensees at their installations;
(f) Formulate, adopt, promulgate, and repeal codes, rules, and regulations relating to control of sources of ionizing radiation;
(g) Advise, consult, and cooperate with other agencies of the state, the federal government, other states and interstate agencies, political subdivisions, and with groups concerned with control of sources of ionizing radiation;
(h) Have the authority to accept and administer loans, grants, or other funds or gifts, conditional or otherwise, in furtherance of its functions, from the federal government and from other sources, public or private;
(i) Encourage, participate in, or conduct studies, investigations, training, research, and demonstrations relating to control of sources of ionizing radiation, including the collection of statistical data and epidemiological research, where available, on diseases that result from exposure to sources of ionizing radiation;
(j) Collect and disseminate information relating to control of sources of ionizing radiation; including:
(i) Maintenance of a file of all license applications, issuances, denials, amendments, transfers, renewals, modifications, suspensions, and revocations;
(ii) Maintenance of a file of registrants possessing sources of ionizing radiation requiring registration under the provisions of this chapter and any administrative or judicial action pertaining thereto; and
(iii) Maintenance of a file of all rules and regulations relating to regulation of sources of ionizing radiation, pending or promulgated, and proceedings thereon;
(k) Collect and disseminate information relating to nonionizing radiation, including:
(i) Maintaining a state clearinghouse of information pertaining to sources and effects of nonionizing radiation with an emphasis on electric and magnetic fields;
(ii) Maintaining current information on the status and results of studies pertaining to health effects resulting from exposure to nonionizing radiation with an emphasis on studies pertaining to electric and magnetic fields;
(iii) Serving as the lead state agency on matters pertaining to electric and magnetic fields and periodically informing state agencies of relevant information pertaining to nonionizing radiation;
(l) In connection with any adjudicative proceeding as defined by RCW 34.05.010 or any other administrative proceedings as provided for in this chapter, have the power to issue subpoenas in order to compel the attendance of necessary witnesses and/or the production of records or documents.
(5) In order to avoid duplication of efforts, the agency may acquire the data requested under this section from public and private entities that possess this information.

NOTES:

Finding1990 c 173: "The legislature finds that concern has been raised over possible health effects resulting from exposure to nonionizing radiation, and specifically exposure to electric and magnetic fields. The legislature further finds that there is no clear responsibility in state government for following this issue and that this responsibility is best suited for the department of health." [ 1990 c 173 § 1.]
Effective date1989 c 175: See note following RCW 34.05.010.
Severability1985 c 372: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 1985 c 372 § 5.]
Effective dateSeverability1970 ex.s. c 18: See notes following RCW 43.20A.010.



Rules and regulationsLicensing requirements and procedureNotice of license applicationObjectionsNotice upon granting of licenseRegistration of sources of ionizing radiationExemptions from registration or licensing.

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(1) The agency shall provide by rule or regulation for general or specific licensing of by-product, source, special nuclear materials, or devices or equipment utilizing such materials, or other radioactive material occurring naturally or produced artificially. Such rule or regulation shall provide for amendment, suspension, or revocation of licenses. Such rule or regulation shall provide that:
(a) Each application for a specific license shall be in writing and shall state such information as the agency, by rule or regulation, may determine to be necessary to decide the technical, insurance, and financial qualifications, or any other qualification of the applicant as the agency may deem reasonable and necessary to protect the occupational and public health and safety. The agency may at any time after the filing of the application, and before the expiration of the license, require further written statements and shall make such inspections as the agency deems necessary in order to determine whether the license should be granted or denied or whether the license should be modified, suspended, or revoked. In no event shall the agency grant a specific license to any applicant who has never possessed a specific license issued by a recognized state or federal authority until the agency has conducted an inspection which insures that the applicant can meet the rules, regulations and standards adopted pursuant to this chapter. All applications and statements shall be signed by the applicant or licensee. The agency may require any applications or statements to be made under oath or affirmation;
(b) Each license shall be in such form and contain such terms and conditions as the agency may by rule or regulation prescribe;
(c) No license issued under the authority of this chapter and no right to possess or utilize sources of ionizing radiation granted by any license shall be assigned or in any manner disposed of; and
(d) The terms and conditions of all licenses shall be subject to amendment, revision, or modification by rules, regulations or orders issued in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
(2) Before the agency issues a license to an applicant under this section, it shall give notice of such application to the chief executive officer of the incorporated city or town, if the application is for a license within an incorporated city or town, or to the county legislative authority, if the application is for a license outside the boundaries of incorporated cities or towns. The incorporated city or town, through the official or employee selected by it, or the county legislative authority or the official or employee selected by it, shall have the right to file with the agency within twenty days after date of transmittal of such notice, written objections against the applicant or against the activity for which the license is sought, and shall include with such objections a statement of all facts upon which such objections are based, and in case written objections are filed, may request and the agency may in its discretion hold a formal hearing under chapter 34.05 RCW. Upon the granting of a license under this section the agency shall send a duplicate of the license or written notification to the chief executive officer of the incorporated city or town in which the license is granted, or to the county legislative authority if the license is granted outside the boundaries of incorporated cities or towns.
This subsection shall not apply to activities conducted within the boundaries of the Hanford reservation.
(3) The agency may require registration of all sources of ionizing radiation.
(4) The agency may exempt certain sources of ionizing radiation or kinds of uses or users from the registration or licensing requirements set forth in this section when the agency makes a finding after approval of the technical advisory board that the exemption of such sources of ionizing radiation or kinds of uses or users will not constitute a significant risk to the health and safety of the public.
(5) In promulgating rules and regulations pursuant to this chapter the agency shall, insofar as practical, strive to avoid requiring dual licensing, and shall provide for such recognition of other state or federal licenses as the agency shall deem desirable, subject to such registration requirements as the agency may prescribe.



User permit systemFeesIndemnify and hold state harmlessAdoption of rules.

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(1) The agency is empowered to administer a user permit system and issue site use permits for generators, packagers, or brokers to use the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The agency may issue a site use permit consistent with the requirements of this chapter and the rules adopted under it and the requirements of the Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management under chapter 43.145 RCW. The agency may deny an application for a site use permit or modify, suspend, or revoke a site use permit in any case in which it finds that the permit was obtained by fraud or there is or has been a failure, refusal, or inability to comply with the requirements of this chapter or rules adopted under this chapter or the requirements of the Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management under chapter 43.145 RCW. The agency may also deny or suspend a site use permit for failure to comply with RCW 43.200.230.
(2) Any permit issued by the department of ecology for a site use permit pursuant to chapter 43.200 RCW is valid until the first expiration date that occurs after July 1, 2012.
(3) The agency shall collect a fee from the applicants for site use permits that is sufficient to fund the costs to the agency to administer the user permit system. The site use permit fee must be set at a level that is also sufficient to fund state participation in activities related to the Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management under chapter 43.145 RCW. The site use permit fees must be deposited in the site closure account established in RCW 43.200.080(2). Appropriations to the department of health or the department of ecology are required to permit expenditures using site use permit fee funds from the site closure account.
(4) The agency shall collect a surveillance fee as an added charge on each cubic foot of low-level radioactive waste disposed of at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site in this state which shall be set at a level that is sufficient to fund completely the radiation control activities of the agency directly related to the disposal site, including but not limited to the management, licensing, monitoring, and regulation of the site. The fee shall also provide funds to the Washington state patrol for costs incurred from inspection of low-level radioactive waste shipments entering this state. Disbursements for this purpose shall be by authorization of the secretary of the department of health or the secretary's designee.
(5) The agency shall require that any person who holds or applies for a permit under this chapter indemnify and hold harmless the state from claims, suits, damages, or expenses on account of injuries to or death of persons and property damage, arising or growing out of any operations and activities for which the person holds the permit, and any necessary or incidental operations.
(6) The agency may adopt such rules as are necessary to carry out its responsibilities under this section.

NOTES:

Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.



Inspection.

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The agency or its duly authorized representative shall have the power to enter at all reasonable times upon any private or public property for the purpose of determining whether or not there is compliance with or violation of the provisions of this chapter and rules and regulations issued thereunder.

NOTES:

Severability1985 c 372: See note following RCW 70.98.050.



Financial assuranceNoncompliance.

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(1) The radiation control agency may require any person who applies for, or holds, a license under this chapter to demonstrate that the person has financial assurance sufficient to assure that liability incurred as a result of licensed operations and activities can be fully satisfied. Financial assurance may be in the form of insurance, cash deposits, surety bonds, corporate guarantees, letters of credit, or other financial instruments or guarantees determined by the agency to be acceptable financial assurance. The agency may require financial assurance in an amount determined by the secretary pursuant to RCW 70.98.098.
(2) The radiation control agency may require site use permit holders to demonstrate financial assurance in an amount that is adequate to protect the state and its citizens from all claims, suits, losses, damages, or expenses on account of injuries to persons and property damage arising or growing out of the transportation or disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste. The financial assurance may be in the form of insurance, cash deposits, surety bonds, corporate guarantees, and other acceptable instruments or guarantees determined by the secretary to be acceptable evidence of financial assurance. The agency may require financial assurance in an amount determined by the secretary pursuant to RCW 70.98.098.
(3) The radiation control agency shall refuse to issue a license or permit or suspend the license or permit of any person required by this section to demonstrate financial assurance who fails to demonstrate compliance with this section. The license or permit shall not be issued or reinstated until the person demonstrates compliance with this section.
(4) The radiation control agency shall require (a) that any person required to demonstrate financial assurance, maintain with the agency current copies of any insurance policies, certificates of insurance, letters of credit, surety bonds, or any other documents used to comply with this section, (b) that the agency be notified of any changes in the financial assurance or financial condition of the person, and (c) that the state be named as an insured party on any insurance policy used to comply with this section.

NOTES:

Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.
Construction1986 c 191: See RCW 43.200.905.



Financial assuranceGenerally.

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(1) In making the determination of the appropriate level of financial assurance, the secretary shall consider: (a) Any report prepared by the department of ecology pursuant to RCW 43.200.200; (b) the potential cost of decontamination, treatment, disposal, decommissioning, and cleanup of facilities or equipment; (c) federal cleanup and decommissioning requirements; and (d) the legal defense cost, if any, that might be paid from the required financial assurance.
(2) The secretary may establish different levels of required financial assurance for various classes of permit or license holders.
(3) The secretary shall establish by rule the instruments or mechanisms by which a person may demonstrate financial assurance as required by RCW 70.98.095.
(4) To the extent that money in the site closure account together with the amount of money identified for repayment to the site closure account pursuant to RCW 43.200.080 equals or exceeds the cost estimate approved by the department of health for closure and decommissioning of the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, the money in the site closure account together with the amount of money identified for repayment to the site closure account shall constitute adequate financial assurance for purposes of the department of health financial assurance requirements under RCW 70.98.095.

NOTES:

Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.



Records.

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(1) The agency shall require each person who possesses or uses a source of ionizing radiation to maintain necessary records relating to its receipt, use, storage, transfer, or disposal and such other records as the agency may require which will permit the determination of the extent of occupational and public exposure from the radiation source. Copies of these records shall be submitted to the agency on request. These requirements are subject to such exemptions as may be provided by rules.
(2) The agency may by rule and regulation establish standards requiring that personnel monitoring be provided for any employee potentially exposed to ionizing radiation and may provide for the reporting to any employee of his or her radiation exposure record.



Federal-state agreementsAuthorizedEffect as to federal licenses.

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(1) The governor, on behalf of this state, is authorized to enter into agreements with the federal government providing for discontinuance of certain of the federal government's responsibilities with respect to sources of ionizing radiation and the assumption thereof by this state pursuant to this chapter.
(2) Any person who, on the effective date of an agreement under subsection (1) above, possesses a license issued by the federal government shall be deemed to possess the same pursuant to a license issued under this chapter which shall expire either ninety days after the receipt from the state radiation control agency of a notice of expiration of such license or on the date of expiration specified in the federal license, whichever is earlier.



Inspection agreements and training programs.

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(1) The agency is authorized to enter into an agreement or agreements with the federal government, other states, or interstate agencies, whereby this state will perform on a cooperative basis with the federal government, other states, or interstate agencies, inspections or other functions relating to control of sources of ionizing radiation.
(2) The agency may institute training programs for the purpose of qualifying personnel to carry out the provisions of this chapter and may make said personnel available for participation in any program or programs of the federal government, other states, or interstate agencies in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter.



Department of ecology to seek federal funding for environmental radiation monitoring.

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The department of ecology shall seek federal funding, such as is available under the clean air act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 1857 et seq.) and the nuclear waste policy act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 10101 et seq.) to carry out the purposes of *RCW 70.98.050(4)(c).

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: "(c)" in this reference has been redesignated "(c)[(e)]" in the published version of RCW 70.98.050.
Severability1985 c 372: See note following RCW 70.98.050.



Federal assistance to be sought for high-level radioactive waste program.

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(1) The agency shall seek federal financial assistance as authorized by the nuclear waste policy act of 1982, P.L. 97-425 section 116(c), for activities related to the high-level radioactive waste program in the state of Washington. The activities for which federal funding is sought shall include, but are not limited to, the development of a radiological baseline for the Hanford reservation; the implementation of a program to monitor ionizing radiation emissions on the Hanford reservation; the collection of statistical data and epidemiological research, where available, on diseases that result from exposure to sources of ionizing radiation on the Hanford reservation.
(2) In the event the federal government refuses to grant financial assistance for the activities under subsection (1) of this section, the agency is directed to investigate potential legal action.



Administrative procedure.

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(1) In any proceeding under this chapter for the issuance or modification or repeal of rules relating to control of sources of ionizing radiation, the agency shall comply with the requirements of chapter 34.05 RCW, the administrative procedure act.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, whenever the agency finds that an emergency exists requiring immediate action to protect the public health, safety, or general welfare, the agency may, in accordance with RCW 34.05.350 without notice or hearing, adopt a rule reciting the existence of such emergency and require that such action be taken as is necessary to meet the emergency. As specified in RCW 34.05.350, such rules are effective immediately.
(3) In any case in which the department denies, modifies, suspends, or revokes a license or permit, RCW 43.70.115 governs notice of the action and provides the right to an adjudicative proceeding to the applicant or licensee or permittee. Such an adjudicative proceeding is governed by chapter 34.05 RCW.

NOTES:

Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.
Effective date1989 c 175: See note following RCW 34.05.010.



Injunction proceedings.

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Notwithstanding the existence or use of any other remedy, whenever any person has engaged in, or is about to engage in, any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order issued thereunder, the attorney general upon the request of the agency, after notice to such person and opportunity to comply, may make application to the appropriate court for an order enjoining such acts or practices, or for an order directing compliance, and upon a showing by the agency that such person has engaged in, or is about to engage in, any such acts or practices, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order may be granted.



Prohibited uses.

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It shall be unlawful for any person to use, manufacture, produce, transport, transfer, receive, acquire, own, or possess any source of ionizing radiation unless licensed by or registered with, or exempted by the agency in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.



Impounding of materials.

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The agency shall have the authority in the event of an emergency to impound or order the impounding of sources of ionizing radiation in the possession of any person who is not equipped to observe or fails to observe the provisions of this chapter or any rules or regulations issued thereunder.



ProhibitionFluoroscopic X-ray shoefitting devices.

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The operation or maintenance of any X-ray, fluoroscopic, or other equipment or apparatus employing roentgen rays, in the fitting of shoes or other footwear or in the viewing of bones in the feet is prohibited. This prohibition does not apply to any licensed physician, surgeon, *podiatrist, or any person practicing a licensed healing art, or any technician working under the direct and immediate supervision of such persons.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: The term "podiatrist" was changed to "podiatric physician and surgeon" by 1990 c 147.



Exemptions.

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This chapter shall not apply to the following sources or conditions:
(1) Radiation machines during process of manufacture, or in storage or transit: PROVIDED, That this exclusion shall not apply to functional testing of such machines.
(2) Any radioactive material while being transported in conformity with regulations adopted by any federal agency having jurisdiction therein, and specifically applicable to the transportation of such radioactive materials.
(3) No exemptions under this section are granted for those quantities or types of activities which do not comply with the established rules and regulations promulgated by the Atomic Energy Commission, or any successor thereto.



Professional uses.

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Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit the kind or amount of radiation that may be intentionally applied to a person for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes by or under the immediate direction of a licensed practitioner of the healing arts acting within the scope of his or her professional license.



Penalties.

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Any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter or rules, regulations, or orders in effect pursuant thereto shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor.



Adoption of rules for administering site use permit program.

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The agency shall adopt rules for administering a site use permit program under RCW 70.98.085.

NOTES:

Effective date2012 c 19: See note following RCW 43.200.015.



Effective date1961 c 207.

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The provisions of this act relating to the control of by-product, source and special nuclear materials shall become effective on the effective date of the agreement between the federal government and this state as authorized in RCW 70.98.110. All other provisions of this act shall become effective on the 30th day of June, 1961.



Section headings not part of law.

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Section headings as used in this chapter do not constitute any part of the law.