9A.82.090  <<  9A.82.100 >>   9A.82.110

RCW 9A.82.100

Remedies and procedures.

(1)(a) A person who sustains injury to his or her person, business, or property by an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or by an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or by a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 may file an action in superior court for the recovery of damages and the costs of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(b) The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may file an action: (i) On behalf of those persons injured or, respectively, on behalf of the state or county if the entity has sustained damages, or (ii) to prevent, restrain, or remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(c) An action for damages filed by or on behalf of an injured person, the state, or the county shall be for the recovery of damages and the costs of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(d) In an action filed to prevent, restrain, or remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, the court, upon proof of the violation, may impose a civil penalty not exceeding two hundred fifty thousand dollars, in addition to awarding the cost of the suit, including reasonable investigative and attorney's fees.
(2) The superior court has jurisdiction to prevent, restrain, and remedy a pattern of criminal profiteering, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 after making provision for the rights of all innocent persons affected by the violation and after hearing or trial, as appropriate, by issuing appropriate orders.
(3) Prior to a determination of liability, orders issued under subsection (2) of this section may include, but are not limited to, entering restraining orders or prohibitions or taking such other actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, in connection with any property or other interest subject to damages, forfeiture, or other restraints pursuant to this section as the court deems proper. The orders may also include attachment, receivership, or injunctive relief in regard to personal or real property pursuant to Title 7 RCW. In shaping the reach or scope of receivership, attachment, or injunctive relief, the superior court shall provide for the protection of bona fide interests in property, including community property, of persons who were not involved in the violation of this chapter, except to the extent that such interests or property were acquired or used in such a way as to be subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f).
(4) Following a determination of liability, orders may include, but are not limited to:
(a) Ordering any person to divest himself or herself of any interest, direct or indirect, in any enterprise.
(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions on the future activities or investments of any person, including prohibiting any person from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise engaged in, the activities of which affect the laws of this state, to the extent the Constitutions of the United States and this state permit.
(c) Ordering dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.
(d) Ordering the payment of actual damages sustained to those persons injured by a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, or an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering, and in the court's discretion, increasing the payment to an amount not exceeding three times the actual damages sustained.
(e) Ordering the payment of all costs and expenses of the prosecution and investigation of a pattern of criminal profiteering, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, activity or a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080, civil and criminal, incurred by the state or county, including any costs of defense provided at public expense, as appropriate to the state general fund or the antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county.
(f) Ordering forfeiture first as restitution to any person damaged by an act of criminal profiteering that is part of a pattern of criminal profiteering, or by an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, then to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, to the extent not already ordered to be paid in other damages, of the following:
(i) Any property or other interest acquired or maintained in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 to the extent of the investment of funds, and any appreciation or income attributable to the investment, from a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(ii) Any property, contractual right, or claim against property used to influence any enterprise that a person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(iii) All proceeds traceable to or derived from an offense included in the pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, and other things of value significantly used or intended to be used significantly to facilitate commission of the offense.
(g) Ordering payment to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, of an amount equal to the gain a person has acquired or maintained through an offense included in the definition of criminal profiteering.
(5) In addition to or in lieu of an action under this section, the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may file an action for forfeiture to the state general fund or antiprofiteering revolving fund of the county, as appropriate, to the extent not already ordered paid pursuant to this section, of the following:
(a) Any interest acquired or maintained by a person in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 to the extent of the investment of funds obtained from a violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080 and any appreciation or income attributable to the investment.
(b) Any property, contractual right, or claim against property used to influence any enterprise that a person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of RCW 9A.82.060 or 9A.82.080.
(c) All proceeds traceable to or derived from an offense included in the pattern of criminal profiteering activity, or an offense defined in RCW 9A.40.100, 9.68A.100, 9.68A.101, or 9A.88.070, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, and other things of value significantly used or intended to be used significantly to facilitate the commission of the offense.
(6) A defendant convicted in any criminal proceeding is precluded in any civil proceeding from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense proven in the criminal trial in which the defendant was convicted. For the purposes of this subsection, a conviction shall be deemed to have occurred upon a verdict, finding, or plea of guilty, notwithstanding the fact that appellate review of the conviction and sentence has been or may be sought. If a subsequent reversal of the conviction occurs, any judgment that was based upon that conviction may be reopened upon motion of the defendant.
(7) The initiation of civil proceedings under this section shall be commenced within three years after discovery of the pattern of criminal profiteering activity or after the pattern should reasonably have been discovered or, in the case of an offense that is defined in RCW 9A.40.100, within three years after the final disposition of any criminal charges relating to the offense, whichever is later.
(8) The attorney general or county prosecuting attorney may, in a civil action brought pursuant to this section, file with the clerk of the superior court a certificate stating that the case is of special public importance. A copy of that certificate shall be furnished immediately by the clerk to the presiding chief judge of the superior court in which the action is pending and, upon receipt of the copy, the judge shall immediately designate a judge to hear and determine the action. The judge so designated shall promptly assign the action for hearing, participate in the hearings and determination, and cause the action to be expedited.
(9) The standard of proof in actions brought pursuant to this section is the preponderance of the evidence test.
(10) A person other than the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney who files an action under this section shall serve notice and one copy of the pleading on the attorney general within thirty days after the action is filed with the superior court. The notice shall identify the action, the person, and the person's attorney. Service of the notice does not limit or otherwise affect the right of the state to maintain an action under this section or intervene in a pending action nor does it authorize the person to name the state or the attorney general as a party to the action.
(11) Except in cases filed by a county prosecuting attorney, the attorney general may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under this section if the attorney general certifies that in the attorney general's opinion the action is of special public importance. Upon intervention, the attorney general may assert any available claim and is entitled to the same relief as if the attorney general had instituted a separate action.
(12) In addition to the attorney general's right to intervene as a party in any action under this section, the attorney general may appear as amicus curiae in any proceeding in which a claim under this section has been asserted or in which a court is interpreting RCW 9A.82.010, 9A.82.080, 9A.82.090, 9A.82.110, or 9A.82.120, or this section.
(13) A private civil action under this section does not limit any other civil or criminal action under this chapter or any other provision. Private civil remedies provided under this section are supplemental and not mutually exclusive.
(14) Upon motion by the defendant, the court may authorize the sale or transfer of assets subject to an order or lien authorized by this chapter for the purpose of paying actual attorney's fees and costs of defense. The motion shall specify the assets for which sale or transfer is sought and shall be accompanied by the defendant's sworn statement that the defendant has no other assets available for such purposes. No order authorizing such sale or transfer may be entered unless the court finds that the assets involved are not subject to possible forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f). Prior to disposition of the motion, the court shall notify the state of the assets sought to be sold or transferred and shall hear argument on the issue of whether the assets are subject to forfeiture under RCW 9A.82.100(4)(f). Such a motion may be made from time to time and shall be heard by the court on an expedited basis.
(15) In an action brought under subsection (1)(a) and (b)(i) of this section, either party has the right to a jury trial.
NOTES:
PurposeEffective date2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.
Application1989 c 271 §§ 101-111: See note following RCW 9.94A.510.
Severability1989 c 271: See note following RCW 9.94A.510.
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