Chapter 468-58 WAC

Last Update: 11/14/03

LIMITED ACCESS HIGHWAYS

WAC Sections

468-58-010Definitions.
468-58-020Revision to limited access highway facilities.
468-58-030Limited access highways—Policies on commercial approaches, common carrier and school bus stops, mail box locations and pedestrian crossings.
468-58-050Prohibition of nonmotorized traffic on fully controlled limited access highways.
468-58-060Regulations for bicyclists traveling in a group or caravan on partially controlled limited access highways.
468-58-080Guides for control of access on crossroads and interchange ramps.
468-58-090Guides for application of access control of state highways.
468-58-100Guides for the application of modified access control on existing state highways.
DISPOSITION OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS TITLE
468-58-040Use of space beneath structures on limited access highways. [Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-040, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-040, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-035.] Repealed by WSR 81-19-052 (Order 65), filed 9/11/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.01.101(5) and 47.12.120.
468-58-070Stalled or disabled vehicles as a danger to safety—Removal. [Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-070, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-045.] Repealed by WSR 90-01-100 (Order 69), filed 12/20/89, effective 1/20/90. Statutory Authority: Chapter 34.05 RCW.
468-58-110State Route 5. [Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution 13), § 468-58-110, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-34A-030.] Repealed by WSR 84-05-044 (Order 88), filed 2/21/84. Statutory Authority: RCW 34.04.010.


468-58-010
Definitions.

The following definitions shall designate limited access highways and shall indicate the control of access to be exercised by each:
(1) "Fully controlled limited access highway" is a highway where the right of owner or occupants of abutting land or other persons to access, light, air, or view in connection with the highway is controlled to give preference to through traffic by providing access connections with selected public roads only, and by prohibiting crossings or direct private driveway connections at grade, with the exception of Type C and F approaches, where no other reasonable means of access exists as solely determined by the department.
(2) "Partially controlled limited access highway" is a highway where the right of owner or occupants of abutting land or other persons to access, light, air, or view in connection with the highway is controlled to give preference to through traffic to a degree that, in addition to access connections with selected public roads, there may be some crossings and some private driveway connections at grade. Commercial approaches to partially controlled limited access highways are allowed only to frontage roads or by means of public road intersections. A partially controlled limited access highway may be designed to provide for separation of a part or all road crossings and the elimination of a part or all direct private driveway connections under a stage plan of future construction.
(3) "Modified controlled limited access highway" is a highway where the right of owner or occupants of abutting land or other persons to access, light, air, or view in connection with the highway is controlled to give preference to through traffic to such a degree that most approaches, including commercial approaches, existing and in use at the time of the establishment, may be allowed.
(4) "An expressway limited access highway" is a partially controlled limited access highway of four or more traffic lanes with the opposing lanes of travel separated by a median strip of arbitrary width.
(5) "A freeway limited access highway" is a fully controlled limited access highway of four or more traffic lanes with the opposing traffic lanes separated by a median strip of arbitrary width.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.027. WSR 03-23-048, § 468-58-010, filed 11/14/03, effective 12/15/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-010, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-010, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-010.]



468-58-020
Revision to limited access highway facilities.

Subject to the requirements for public hearings, the transportation commission may adopt revisions to duly established limited access highway facilities, or may delegate authority for such revisions to the secretary of transportation. The secretary, at his discretion, may further delegate such authority.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.133, 47.52.145, 47.52.210 and chapter 95, Laws of 1981. WSR 81-19-088 (Order 27, Resolution No. 123), § 468-58-020, filed 9/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-020, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-020, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-020.]



468-58-030
Limited access highways—Policies on commercial approaches, common carrier and school bus stops, mail box locations and pedestrian crossings.

(1) Fully controlled limited access highways:
(a) No commercial approaches shall be permitted direct access to main roadway but only to frontage roads when these are provided in the access plan or to the crossroads of interchanges outside the limits of full access control.
(b) No common carrier bus stops other than required by law shall be permitted except at locations provided by the state on the interchanges or, in exceptional cases, along the main roadway where pedestrian separation is available.
(c) School bus stops shall not be permitted except as in subparagraph (b) of this subsection.
(d) No mail boxes shall be permitted except on frontage roads.
(e) Pedestrian crossings shall not be permitted at grade.
(2) Partially controlled limited access highways:
(a) No commercial approaches shall be permitted except on frontage roads provided in the access plan or at intersections.
(b) Bus stops for both common carriers and school buses shall not be permitted other than as required by law on either two or four lane highways, except as follows:
(i) At locations of intersections, with necessary lanes to be constructed by the state;
(ii) Where shoulder widening has been provided for mail delivery service;
(iii) For a designated school bus loading zone on the traveled lane or adjacent thereto which has been approved by the department of transportation.
(c) Pedestrian grade crossings will be permitted only where a grade crossing is provided, except that pedestrian crossings will be permitted on two lane highways at mail box locations or at points designated for school children to cross as provided in subparagraph (d) of this subsection.
(d) Pedestrian crossings are prohibited in the immediate vicinity of school bus loading zones which are located adjacent to the traveled way. Pedestrian crossings may be permitted:
(i) On two lane highways not less than one hundred feet from a school bus loading zone adjacent to the traveled lane, if school district and department of transportation personnel determine that stopping in the traveled lane is hazardous.
(ii) On two lane highways at the school bus when stopped on the traveled lane to load or unload passengers and the proper sign and signal lights displayed.
(e) School bus loading zones on partially controlled access highways shall be posted with school bus loading zone signs, in accordance with the latest edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
(f) The list of designated school bus loading zones approved by the department of transportation will be kept on file and maintained by the headquarters traffic engineer.
(g) Mail boxes shall be located on frontage roads or at intersections, with the following exceptions for properties which are served by Type A or B approaches:
(i) Mail boxes for Type A or B approaches on a four lane highway shall be located only on the side of the highway on which the approach is provided;
(ii) Mail boxes for Type A or B approaches on a two lane highway shall all be located on that side of the highway which is on the right in the direction of the mail delivery.
(3) Modified control limited access highways:
(a) Commercial approaches to modified controlled limited access highways may be permitted only where and in the manner specifically authorized at the time the plan is established and access rights are obtained.
(b) Bus stops and pedestrian crossings may be permitted as follows:
(i) In rural areas, bus stops and pedestrian crossings shall be subject to the same restrictions as on partial controlled limited access highways.
(ii) In urban areas bus stops for both commercial carriers and school buses may be permitted without restrictions other than those required by law.
(c) Mail boxes may be located adjacent to or opposite all authorized approaches as follows:
(i) Mail boxes on a four-lane highway shall be located only on the side of the highway on which the approach is provided.
(ii) Mail boxes on a two-lane highway shall all be located on that side of the highway which is on the right in the direction of the mail delivery.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-030, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.36.050. WSR 79-08-060 (Order 33), § 468-58-030, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-030, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-030.]



468-58-050
Prohibition of nonmotorized traffic on fully controlled limited access highways.

(1) All nonmotorized traffic shall be prohibited on state highways which have been established and constructed as fully controlled limited access facilities, and signs giving notice of such prohibition shall be posted upon all such highways.
(2) This prohibition of nonmotorized traffic on fully controlled limited access highways shall not apply to:
(a) Pedestrian overcrossings and undercrossings or other facilities provided specifically for the use of such traffic.
(b) Bicycles utilizing the right-hand shoulders; except where the secretary of transportation or his designee has prohibited such use. Signs giving notice of such prohibition shall be posted for those sections where such usage is prohibited.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.025 and 46.61.160. WSR 82-01-029 (Order 70), § 468-58-050, filed 12/14/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.36.050. WSR 80-05-027 (Order 53), § 468-58-050, filed 4/15/80. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-050, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-040.]



468-58-060
Regulations for bicyclists traveling in a group or caravan on partially controlled limited access highways.

(1) Riding single file on the usable shoulder is encouraged.
(2) Care and caution as well as compliance with rules of the road and traffic control devices - signs, signals and markings shall be exercised by bicycle operators when traveling upon state highways.
(3) No person operating a bicycle shall stop on a bridge or other structure, except on a sidewalk or other area not less than three feet wide separated from the traveled roadway by a painted stripe or a physical barrier.
(4) When traveling in a large group, caravan or expedition, the size of travel units shall be limited to a maximum of six bicyclists per unit.
(5) The maximum number of units in a group, caravan or expedition shall not exceed twenty-five.
(6) Travel units of bicyclists shall maintain a minimum spacing between travel units of 500 feet to provide passing opportunities for motor vehicle operators.
[Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-060, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-060.]



468-58-080
Guides for control of access on crossroads and interchange ramps.

(1) Fully controlled highways, including interstate.
(a) There shall be no connections to abutting property or local service or frontage roads within the full length of any "off" or "on" interchange ramp from a fully controlled limited access highway. Such ramp shall be considered to terminate at its intersection with the local road which undercrosses or overcrosses the limited access facility, provided that in urban areas "off" and "on" ramps may be terminated at local streets other than crossroads where necessary to service existing local traffic.
(b) There shall be no direct connections from the limited access facility in rural areas to local service or frontage roads except through interchanges.
(c) In both urban and rural areas access control on a fully controlled highway shall be established along the crossroad at an interchange for a minimum distance of three hundred feet beyond the centerline of the ramp or terminus of transition taper. If a frontage road or local road is located in a generally parallel position within three hundred fifty feet of a ramp, access control should be established along the crossroad and in addition for a minimum distance of one hundred thirty feet in all directions from the center of the intersection of the parallel road and crossroad.
(d) Full control of access should be provided along the crossroad from the centerline of a ramp or terminus of a transition taper for a minimum distance of three hundred feet. Upon determination by the department, full control of access may be provided for the first one hundred thirty feet from the centerline of the ramp or terminus of a transition taper and partial control or modified control of access may be provided for the remainder of the distance to the frontage road or local road for a total minimum distance for the two types of control of three hundred feet. Type A, B, C, D, E, and F road approaches, as defined hereafter under subsection (3) of this section, "general," may be permitted on that portion of the crossroad on which partial or modified control of access is established.
(2) Partially controlled highways.
(a) There shall be no connections to abutting property or local service or frontage roads within the full length of any "off" or "on" interchange ramp from a partially controlled limited access highway. Such ramp shall be considered to terminate at its intersection with the local road which undercrosses or overcrosses the limited access facility, provided that in urban areas "off" and "on" ramps may be terminated at local streets other than crossroads where necessary to service existing local traffic.
(b) In both urban and rural areas access control on a partially controlled highway shall be established along the crossroad at an interchange for a minimum distance of three hundred feet beyond the centerline of the ramp or terminus of transition taper. If a frontage road or local road is located in a generally parallel position within three hundred fifty feet of a ramp, access control should be established along the crossroad and in addition for a minimum distance of one hundred thirty feet in all directions from the center of the intersection of the parallel road and crossroad.
(c) Access control limits at the crossroads on a partially controlled highway should be established along the crossroad at a grade intersection for a minimum distance of three hundred feet from the centerline of the nearest directional roadway. If a parallel road is located within three hundred fifty feet of said grade intersection, access control should be established along the crossroad and in addition for a minimum distance of one hundred thirty feet in all directions from the center of the intersection of the parallel road and crossroad. Type D, E, and F approaches may be permitted closer than one hundred thirty feet from the center of the intersection only when they already exist and cannot reasonably be relocated.
(d) Access control limits at intersections on modified control highways should be established along the cross road for a minimum distance of one hundred thirty feet from the centerline of a two-lane highway or for a minimum of one hundred thirty feet from centerline of the nearest directional roadway of a four-lane highway. Type D, E, and F approaches should be allowed within this area only when no other reasonable alternative is available.
(3) General.
(a) Access control may be increased or decreased beyond or under the minimum requirements to fit local conditions if so determined by the department.
(b) Type A, B, C, D, E, and F approaches are defined as follows:
(i) Type A approach. Type A approach is an off and on approach in legal manner, not to exceed thirty feet in width, for sole purpose of serving a single family residence. It may be reserved by abutting owner for specified use at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
(ii) Type B approach. Type B approach is an off and on approach in legal manner, not to exceed fifty feet in width, for use necessary to the normal operation of a farm, but not for retail marketing. It may be reserved by abutting owner for specified use at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
(iii) Type C approach. Type C approach is an off and on approach in legal manner, for special purpose and width to be agreed upon. It may be specified at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
(iv) Type D approach is an off and on approach in a legal manner not to exceed fifty feet in width for use necessary to the normal operation of a commercial establishment. It may be specified at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
(v) Type E approach is a separated off and on approach in a legal manner, with each opening not exceeding thirty feet in width, for use necessary to the normal operations of a commercial establishment. It may be specified at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
(vi) Type F approach is an off and on approach in a legal manner, not to exceed thirty feet in width, for the sole purpose of serving a wireless communication site. It may be specified at a point satisfactory to the state at or between designated highway stations.
The state shall only authorize such approach by the issuance of a nonassignable permit. The permit allows site access for the normal construction, operation and maintenance of the wireless communication site for the permit holder and its contractors but not its subtenants. If a sale or merger occurs that affects an existing wireless communication site, the new wireless communication provider will be authorized to utilize said approach upon the state's receipt of written notice of the sale or merger action. The wireless communication site access permit may be canceled upon written notice for reasons specified in the wireless communication site access permit general provisions. The permit will only be issued if it meets all state criteria, including, but not limited to, design and safety standards.
Only one wireless communication site access user per permit shall be allowed, but more than one permit may be issued for a single Type F approach.
Each permitted access user shall be required to pay to the state five hundred dollars annually in compensation for use of the state-owned access rights, at the time of the issuance of the permit and each year thereafter.
Since the state is the owner of the access, Type F approach permits shall not be issued pursuant to chapter 47.50 RCW and shall not confer a property right upon the permittee(s). An applicant for a Type F approach permit shall pay a nonrefundable access application fee when application is made in the amount of five hundred dollars for investigating, handling and granting the permit.
An application for wireless communication site access permit shall receive a response from the department of transportation within thirty working days from date of receipt of said application.
(c) Under no circumstances will a change in location or width of an approach be permitted unless approved by the secretary. Noncompliance or violation of these conditions will result in the immediate closure of the approach.
(d) Commercial approaches shall not be permitted within the limits of access control except where modified access control has been approved by the department.
(e) All access control shall be measured from the centerline of the ramps, crossroads or parallel roads or from the terminus of transition tapers. On multiple lane facilities measurement shall be from the centerline of the nearest directional roadway.
access control for typical roundabout
access control limits at intersections
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.027. WSR 03-11-076, § 468-58-080, filed 5/20/03, effective 6/20/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.01.101(5). WSR 87-15-021 (Order 109), § 468-58-080, filed 7/8/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-080, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-080, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-051.]



468-58-090
Guides for application of access control of state highways.

(1) Fully controlled limited access highways:
(a) All interstate highways shall require full access control.
(b) All principal arterial highways requiring four or more through traffic lanes within a twenty-year design period, shall require full control of access, unless approved for partial or modified access control on existing highways by the secretary of transportation or his designee.
(2) Partially controlled limited access highways:
(a) Principal arterial highways requiring two through traffic lanes where the estimated traffic volumes exceed three thousand average daily traffic within a twenty-year design period shall require partial control of access, unless approved for modified access control on existing highways by the secretary of transportation or his designee.
(b) Rural minor arterial highways on both new and existing location and urban minor arterial highways on new location, requiring four or more through traffic lanes within a twenty- year design period, or requiring only two through traffic lanes where the estimated traffic volumes exceed three thousand average daily traffic within a twenty-year design period, shall require partial control of access; however, modified access control may be applied on existing location when approved by the secretary of transportation or his designee.
(c) Collector highways on new location requiring four or more through traffic lanes in a twenty-year design period shall require partial control of access.
(d) Other rural minor arterial highways with only two lanes may be considered for partial or modified control of access if the control can be acquired at a reasonable cost; if the route connects two highways of a higher classification; if the potential land development would result in numerous individual approaches such as may be encountered in a recreational area; or if the highway traverses publicly owned lands where access control seems desirable.
(e) Partial access control will not normally be used in urban areas, or inside corporate limits on existing principal arterial or minor arterial highways where traffic volumes are less than seven hundred design hour volume if required levels of urban service, including operating speeds, can be maintained for the estimated traffic under existing and estimated future conditions, including traffic engineering operational improvements. If not, the route should be relocated or reconstructed in accordance with the modified or partial access control standards.
(f) Existing collector highways will normally be considered for access control only where all of the following conditions apply:
(i) The highway serves an area which is not directly served by a higher class of highway.
(ii) Existing or planned development will result in traffic volumes significantly higher than the warrants for access control on minor arterials.
(iii) Partial or modified access control may be established without a major impact on development of abutting properties within the constraints of zoning established at the time access control is proposed.
(g) Termini of access control sections should be at apparent logical points of design change.
(3) Modified access control - Access control on existing highways:
(a) Modified access control may be established on existing highways. The degree of control applied will be such that most approaches, including commercial approaches, existing and in use at the time of the establishment, may be allowed. Commercial approaches for future development may also be considered in order to avoid economic land locking. No commercial approaches will be allowed other than those included in the plan at the time access control is established and access rights are acquired.
(b) Selection of facilities on which modified access control will be applied, will be based upon a design analysis considering but not limited to traffic volumes, level of service, route continuity, population density, local land use planning predicted growth rate established by the planning agency having jurisdiction, economic analysis, and safety. A comparison of these factors based on modified access control versus full or partial control shall be the basis of the decision by the secretary of transportation or his designee to establish modified access control on a section or sections of highway.
(c) Where modified access control is to be established on existing highways, commercial areas may be excepted from control when all or most of the abutting property is developed to the extent that few, if any, additional road approaches would be required with full development of the area. Such exceptions will not normally extend to corporate limits or to urban area boundaries.
Nothing in this policy should be construed to prevent short sections of full, partial, or modified control of access where unusual topographic, land use, or traffic conditions exist. Special design problems should be dealt with on the basis of sound engineering-economic principles.
Because specific warrants cannot be logically or economically applied in every circumstance, exceptions may be considered upon presentation to the secretary of transportation or his designee of justification for reasonable deviation from this policy.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-090, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-090, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-080.]



468-58-100
Guides for the application of modified access control on existing state highways.

(1) Definitive standards for road approaches on modified access controlled highways shall be as follows:
(a) The type of approach for each parcel shall be commensurate with the present and potential land use and be based on appraisals which consider the following:
(i) Local comprehensive plans, zoning and land use ordinances.
(ii) Property covenants and/or agreements.
(iii) City or county ordinances.
(iv) The highest and best use of the property.
(v) Highest use and best use of adjoining lands.
(vi) Change in use by merger of adjoining ownerships.
(vii) All other factors bearing upon proper land use of the parcel.
(b) The type of approaches* to be considered are:
(i) Type A (residential).
(ii) Type B (farm).
(iii) Type C (special use).
(iv) Type D (commercial single 50 feet width).
(v) Type E (commercial double 30 feet width).
(c) Once established, the type, size and location of the approach may be modified by the secretary of transportation or his designee.
(d) When Type D or E approaches have been established, interim use of Type A or B approaches will be allowed.
(2) Design. The number and location of approaches on a modified access control highway shall be carefully planned to provide a safe highway compatible with present and potential land use. The following will be applied:
(a) Parcels which have access to another public road or street as well as frontage on the highway will not normally be allowed direct access to the highway.
(b) Approaches located in areas where sight limitations create undue hazard shall be relocated or closed.
(c) The number of access openings shall be held to a minimum. Access openings are limited to one approach for each parcel of land with the exception of extensive frontages where one approach is unreasonable or for Type E approaches which feature separate off and on approaches.
(d) Joint use of access approaches shall be considered, where feasible.
(e) New approaches will be considered at the time of plan adoption to prevent a physical "landlock" by reason of access taking.
(f) Existing access points not meeting the test of these rules as described in this section, will be closed.
*Refer to WAC 468-58-080 for definitions.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 47.52.020. WSR 79-08-061 (Order 34), § 468-58-100, filed 7/23/79. Statutory Authority: 1977 ex.s. c 151. WSR 79-01-033 (DOT Order 10 and Comm. Order 1, Resolution No. 13), § 468-58-100, filed 12/20/78. Formerly WAC 252-20-090.]