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Chapter 296-304 WAC

Last Update: 3/18/14

SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SHIP REPAIRING, SHIPBUILDING AND SHIPBREAKING

WAC Sections

Scope and application.
Definitions.
Reference specifications, standards, and codes.
Fire protection in shipyards.
Fire safety plan.
Precautions for hot work.
Fire watches.
Fire response.
Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.
Land-side fire protection systems.
Training.
Competent person.
Appendix A—Model fire safety plan.
Confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres in shipyard employment.
Reserved.
Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.
Cleaning and other cold work.
Hot work.
Maintenance of safe conditions.
Warning signs and labels.
Appendix B—Compliance assistance guidelines for confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.
Appendix C—Confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres in shipyard employment.
Surface preparation and preservation—Scope and application.
Toxic cleaning solvents.
Chemical paint and preservative removers.
Mechanical paint removers.
Painting.
Flammable liquids.
Welding, cutting and heating—Scope and application.
Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting and heating.
Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.
Welding, cutting and heating of hollow metal containers and structures not covered by WAC 296-304-02003.
Gas welding and cutting.
Arc welding and cutting.
Uses of fissionable material in ship-breaking, shipbuilding and ship repairing.
Scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces—Scope and application.
Scaffolds or staging.
Ladders.
Guarding of deck openings and edges.
Access to vessels.
Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.
Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.
Working surfaces.
General working conditions—Scope and application.
Housekeeping.
Sanitation.
Illumination.
Utilities.
Work in confined or isolated spaces.
Work on or in the vicinity of radar and radio.
Work in or on lifeboats.
Hazardous materials.
First aid.
Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tags-plus).
Retention of DOT markings, placards, and labels.
Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation, and maintenance.
Gear and equipment for rigging and materials handling—Scope and application.
Inspection.
Ropes, chains and slings.
Shackles and hooks.
Chain falls and pull-lifts.
Hoisting and hauling equipment.
Use of gear.
Qualifications of operators.
Tools and related equipment—Scope and application.
General precautions.
Portable electric tools.
Hand tools.
Abrasive wheels.
Powder-actuated fastening tools.
Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)—General requirements.
Hazard assessment and equipment selection.
Training.
Eye and face protection.
Respiratory protection.
Hearing protection.
Head protection.
Foot protection.
Hand and body protection.
Lifesaving equipment.
Fall protection—General requirement.
Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).
Positioning device systems.
Ship's machinery and piping systems—Scope and application.
Ship's boilers.
Ship's piping systems.
Ship's propulsion machinery.
Ship's deck machinery.
Portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers, other than ship's equipment—Scope and application.
Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Drums and containers.
Electrical machinery—Electrical circuits and distribution boards.
Gear certification—General provisions.
Purpose and scope.
Definitions of terms.
Procedure governing accreditation—Scope and application.
Application for accreditation.
Action upon application.
Duration and renewal of accreditation.
Criteria governing accreditation to certificate vessels' cargo gear.
Voluntary amendment or termination of accreditation.
Suspension or revocation of accreditation.
Reconsideration and review.
Duties of persons accredited to certificate vessels' cargo gear—Scope and application.
General duties—Exemptions.
Recordkeeping and related procedures concerning records in custody of accredited persons.
Recordkeeping and related procedures concerning records in custody of the vessel.
Certification of vessels' cargo gear—Scope and application.
General.
Initial tests of cargo gear and tests after alterations, renewals or repairs.
Periodic tests, examinations and inspections.
Heat treatment.
Exemptions from heat treatment.
Grace periods.
Gear requiring welding.
Damaged components.
Marking and posting of safe working loads.
Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.
Means of derrick attachment.
Limitations on use of wire rope.
Limitations on use of chains.
Certification of vessels—Tests and proof loads—Heat treatment—Competent persons—Scope and application.
Visual inspection before tests.
Unit proof test—Winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.
Unit proof tests—Cranes and gear accessory thereto.
Limitations on safe working loads and proof loads.
Examinations subsequent to unit tests.
Proof tests—Loose gear.
Specially designed blocks and components.
Proof tests—Wire rope.
Proof tests after repairs or alterations.
Order of tests.
Heat treatment.
Competent persons.
Accreditation to certificate shore-based equipment—Scope and application.
Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by chapter 296-56 WAC of the safety and health regulations for longshoring.
Provisions respecting application for accreditation, action upon the application, and related matters.
Duties of persons accredited to certificate shore-based material handling devices—General duties, exemptions.
Certification of shore-based material handling devices—Scope and application.
General provisions.
Unit proof test and examination of cranes.
Annual examination of cranes.
Unit proof test and examination of derricks.
Annual examination of derricks.
Determination of crane or derrick safe working loads and limitations in absence of manufacturer's data.
Safe working load reduction.
Safe working load increase.
Nondestructive examination.
Wire rope.
Heat treatment.
Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.
Documentation.
DISPOSITION OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS CHAPTER
296-304-01005
Fire protection in shipyards. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01005, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-01005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95.] Decodified by WSR 06-08-003, filed 3/23/06, effective 4/23/06. Recodified as § 296-304-01006.
296-304-04003
Fire prevention. [Order 76-7, § 296-304-04003, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-04003, filed 5/7/74.] Repealed by WSR 05-19-086, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.


296-304-010
Scope and application.

(1) The provisions and standards of the general safety and health standards, chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-800 WAC, and such other codes and standards as are promulgated by the department of labor and industries which are applicable to all industries, shall be applicable in the ship repairing, shipbuilding, or shipbreaking industries whenever the employees are covered under the Washington State Industrial Safety and Health Act, chapter 49.17 RCW. The rules of this chapter and the rules of the aforementioned chapters 296-24, 296-62, and 296-800 WAC are applicable to all ship repairing, shipbuilding, and shipbreaking industries and operations, provided that such rules shall not be applicable to those operations under the exclusive safety jurisdiction of the federal government.
(2) The responsibility for compliance with these regulations is placed upon "employers" as defined in WAC 296-304-01001.
(3) It is not the intent of these regulations to place additional responsibilities or duties on owners, operators, agents or masters of vessels unless such persons are acting as employers, nor is it the intent of these regulations to relieve such owners, operators, agents or masters of vessels from responsibilities or duties now placed upon them by law, regulation or custom.
(4) The responsibilities placed upon the competent person herein shall be deemed to be the responsibilities of the employer.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-304-010, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-010, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-22-015, § 296-304-010, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-010, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-304-010, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 75-6, § 296-304-010, filed 3/10/75; Order 74-25, § 296-304-010, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-01001
Definitions.

"Additional safety measure" - A component of the tags-plus system that provides an impediment (in addition to the energy-isolating device) to the release of energy or the energization or start-up of the machinery, equipment, or system being serviced. Examples of additional safety measures include, but are not limited to, removing an isolating circuit element; blocking a controlling switch; blocking, blanking, or bleeding lines; removing a valve handle or wiring it in place; opening an extra disconnecting device.
"Affected employee" - An employee who normally operates or uses the machinery, equipment, or system that is going to be serviced under lockout/tags-plus or who is working in the area where servicing is being performed under lockout/tags-plus. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when the employer assigns the employee to service any machine, equipment, or system under a lockout/tags-plus application.
"Alarm" - A signal or message from a person or device that indicates that there is a fire, medical emergency, or other situation that requires emergency response or evacuation. At some shipyards, this may be called an "incident" or a "call for service."
"Alarm system" - A system that warns employees at the worksite of danger.
"Anchorage" - A secure point to attach lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.
"Authorized employee"
(1) An employee who performs one or more of the following lockout/tags-plus responsibilities:
(a) Executes the lockout/tags-plus procedures;
(b) Installs a lock or tags-plus system on machinery, equipment, or systems; or
(c) Services any machine, equipment, or system under lockout/tags-plus application.
(2) An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when the employer assigns the employee to service any machine, equipment, or system under a lockout/tags-plus application.
"Body belt" - A strap with means to both secure it around the waist and to attach it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device. Body belts may be used only in fall restraint or positioning device systems and may not be used for fall arrest. Body belts must be at least one and five-eighths inches (4.13 cm) wide.
"Body harness" - Straps to secure around an employee so that fall arrest forces are distributed over at least the thighs, shoulders, chest and pelvis with means to attach it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
"Capable of being locked out" - An energy-isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a locking mechanism built into it, or it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed. Other energy-isolating devices are capable of being locked out if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energy-isolating device or permanently alter its energy-control capability.
"Class II standpipe system" - A one and one-half inch (3.8 cm) hose system which provides a means for the control or extinguishment of incipient stage fires.
"Cold work" - Work that does not involve riveting, welding, burning, or other fire-producing or spark-producing operations.
"Contract employer" - An employer, such as a painter, joiner, carpenter, or scaffolding subcontractor, who performs work under contract to the host employer or to another employer under contract to the host employer at the host employer's worksite. This excludes employers who provide incidental services that are not directly related to shipyard employment (such as mail delivery or office supply and food vending services).
"Competent person" - A person who can recognize and evaluate employee exposure to hazardous substances or to other unsafe conditions and can specify the necessary protection and precautions necessary to ensure the safety of employees as required by these standards.
"Confined space" - A small compartment with limited access such as a double bottom tank, cofferdam, or other small, confined space that can readily create or aggravate a hazardous exposure.
"Connector" - A device used to connect parts of a personal fall arrest system or parts of a positioning device system together. It may be:
• An independent component of the system (such as a carabiner); or
• An integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or D-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness or a snaphook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
"Dangerous atmosphere" - An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, injury, acute illness, or impairment of ability to self-rescue (i.e., escape unaided from a confined or enclosed space).
"Deceleration device" - A mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self-retracting lifeline/lanyard, that serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or to limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
"Deceleration distance" - The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured from the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, to the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
"Designated area" - An area established for hot work after an inspection that is free of fire hazards.
"Director" - The director of the department of labor and industries or a designated representative.
"Drop test" - A method utilizing gauges to ensure the integrity of an oxygen fuel gas burning system. The method requires that the burning torch is installed to one end of the oxygen and fuel gas lines and then the gauges are attached to the other end of the hoses. The manifold or cylinder supply valve is opened and the system is pressurized. The manifold or cylinder supply valve is then closed and the gauges are watched for at least sixty seconds. Any drop in pressure indicates a leak.
"Dummy load" - A device used in place of an antenna to aid in the testing of a radio transmitter that converts transmitted energy into heat to minimize energy radiating outward or reflecting back to its source during testing.
"Emergency operations" - Activities performed by fire response organizations that are related to: Rescue, fire suppression, emergency medical care, and special operations or activities that include responding to the scene of an incident and all activities performed at that scene.
"Employee" - Any person engaged in ship repairing, ship building, or ship breaking or related employment as defined in these standards.
"Employer" - An employer with employees who are employed, in whole or in part, in ship repair, ship building and ship breaking, or related employment as defined in these standards.
"Enclosed space" - A space, other than a confined space, that is enclosed by bulkheads and overhead. It includes cargo holds, tanks, quarters, and machinery and boiler spaces.
"Energy-isolating device" - A mechanical device that, when utilized or activated, physically prevents the release or transmission of energy. Energy-isolating devices include, but are not limited to, manually operated electrical circuit breakers; disconnect switches; line valves; blocks; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Control-circuit devices (for example, push buttons, selector switches) are not considered energy isolating devices.
"Equivalent" - Alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the method or item specified in the standard.
"Fire hazard" - A condition or material that may start or contribute to the spread of fire.
"Fire protection" - Methods of providing fire prevention, response, detection, control, extinguishment, and engineering.
"Fire response" - The activity taken by the employer at the time of an emergency incident involving a fire at the worksite, including fire suppression activities carried out by internal or external resources or a combination of both, or total or partial employee evacuation of the area exposed to the fire.
"Fire response employee" - A shipyard employee who carries out the duties and responsibilities of shipyard firefighting in accordance with the fire safety plan.
"Fire response organization" - An organized group knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in shipyard firefighting operations that responds to shipyard fire emergencies, including: Fire brigades, shipyard fire departments, private or contractual fire departments, and municipal fire departments.
"Fire suppression" - The activities involved in controlling and extinguishing fires.
"Fire watch" - The activity of observing and responding to the fire hazards associated with hot work in shipyard employment and the employees designated to do so.
"Fixed extinguishing system" - A permanently installed fire protection system that either extinguishes or controls fire occurring in the space it protects.
"Flammable liquid" - Means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4°F (93°C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:
(a) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below 95°F (35°C).
(b) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point above 95°F (35°C).
(c) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4°F (23°C) and at or below 140°F (60°C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(d) Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140°F (60°C) and at or below 199.4°F (93°C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
(e) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
"Free fall" - To fall before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
"Free fall distance" - The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before the device operates and fall arrest forces occur.
"Gangway" - A ramp-like or stair-like means to board or leave a vessel including accommodation ladders, gangplanks and brows.
"Hazardous energy" - Any energy source, including mechanical (for example, power transmission apparatus, counterbalances, springs, pressure, gravity), pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical, chemical, and thermal (for example, high or low temperature) energies, that could cause injury to employees.
"Hazardous substance" - A substance likely to cause injury, illness or disease, or otherwise harm an employee because it is explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful.
"Health care professional" - A physician or any other health care professional whose legally permitted scope of practice allows the provider to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the advice or consultation this subpart requires.
"Hose systems" - Fire protection systems consisting of a water supply, approved fire hose, and a means to control the flow of water at the output end of the hose.
"Host employer" - An employer who is in charge of coordinating work or who hires other employers to perform work at a multiemployer workplace.
"Hot work" - Riveting, welding, burning or other fire or spark producing operations.
"Incident management system" - A system that defines the roles and responsibilities to be assumed by personnel and the operating procedures to be used in the management and direction of emergency operations; the system is also referred to as an "incident command system (ICS)."
"Incipient stage fire" - A fire, in the initial or beginning stage, which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose systems without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.
"Inerting" - The displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible. This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
"Interior structural firefighting operations" - The physical activity of fire response, rescue, or both involving a fire beyond the incipient stage inside of buildings, enclosed structures, vessels, and vessel sections.
"Isolated location" - An area in which employees are working alone or with little assistance from others due to the type, time, or location of their work. Such locations include remote locations or other work areas where employees are not in close proximity to others.
"Lanyard" - A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
"Lifeline" - A component consisting of a flexible line to connect to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or to connect to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
"Lock" - A device that utilizes a positive means, either a key or combination lock, to hold an energy isolating device in a "safe" position that prevents the release of energy and the start-up or energization of the machinery, equipment, or system to be serviced.
"Lockout" - The placement of a lock on an energy-isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, thereby ensuring that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lock is removed.
"Lockout/tags-plus coordinator" - An employee whom the employer designates to coordinate and oversee all lockout and tags-plus applications on vessels or vessel sections and at landside work areas when employees are performing multiple servicing operations on the same machinery, equipment, or systems at the same time, and when employees are servicing multiple machinery, equipment, or systems on the same vessel or vessel section at the same time. The lockout/tags-plus coordinator also maintains the lockout/tags-plus log.
"Lockout/tags-plus materials and hardware" - Locks, chains, wedges, blanks, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware used for isolating, blocking, or securing machinery, equipment, or systems to prevent the release of energy or the start-up or energization of machinery, equipment, or systems to be serviced.
"Lower levels" - Those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include but are not limited to ground levels, floors, ramps, tanks, materials, water, excavations, pits, vessels, structures, or portions thereof.
"Motor vehicle" - Any motor-driven vehicle operated by an employee that is used to transport employees, material, or property. For the purposes of this subpart, motor vehicles include passenger cars, light trucks, vans, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, small utility trucks, powered industrial trucks, and other similar vehicles. Motor vehicles do not include boats, or vehicles operated exclusively on a rail or rails.
"Motor vehicle safety equipment" - Systems and devices integral to or installed on a motor vehicle for the purpose of effecting the safe operation of the vehicle, and consisting of such systems or devices as safety belts, airbags, headlights, tail lights, emergency/hazard lights, windshield wipers, defogging or defrosting devices, brakes, horns, mirrors, windshields and other windows, and locks.
"Multiemployer workplace" - A workplace where there is a host employer and at least one contract employer.
"Normal production operations" - The use of machinery or equipment, including, but not limited to, punch presses, bending presses, shears, lathes, keel press rollers, and automated burning machines, to perform a shipyard-employment production process.
"Personal alert safety system (PASS)" - A device that sounds a loud signal if the wearer becomes immobilized or is motionless for thirty seconds or more.
"Personal fall arrest system" - A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, body harness and may include a lanyard, a deceleration device, a lifeline, or a suitable combination.
"Physical isolation" - The elimination of a fire hazard by removing the hazard from the work area (at least thirty-five feet for combustibles), by covering or shielding the hazard with a fire-resistant material, or physically preventing the hazard from entering the work area.
"Physically isolated" - Positive isolation of the supply from the distribution piping of a fixed extinguishing system. Examples of ways to physically isolate include: Removing a spool piece and installing a blank flange; providing a double block and bleed valve system; or completely disconnecting valves and piping from all cylinders or other pressure vessels containing extinguishing agents.
"Portable toilet" - A nonsewered portable facility for collecting and containing urine and feces. A portable toilet may be either flushable or nonflushable. For purposes of this section, portable toilets do not include privies.
"Portable unfired pressure vessel" - A pressure container or vessel used aboard ship, other than the ship's equipment, containing liquids or gases under pressure. This does not include pressure vessels built to Department of Transportation regulations under 49 C.F.R. Part 178, Subparts C and H.
"Positioning device system" - A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported at an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window, and to be able to work with both hands free while leaning.
"Potable water" - Water that meets the standards for drinking purposes of the state or local authority having jurisdiction, or water that meets the quality standards prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Primary Water Regulations (40 C.F.R. part 141).
"Powder actuated fastening tool" - A tool or machine that drives a stud, pin, or fastener by means of an explosive charge.
"Protected space" - Any space into which a fixed extinguishing system can discharge.
"Proximity firefighting" - Specialized firefighting operations that require specialized thermal protection and may include the activities of rescue, fire suppression, and property conservation at incidents involving fires producing very high levels of conductive, convective, and radiant heat such as aircraft fires, bulk flammable gas fires, and bulk flammable liquid fires. Proximity firefighting operations usually are exterior operations but may be combined with structural firefighting operations. Proximity firefighting is not entry firefighting.
"Qualified person" - A person who has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter and work by possessing a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience.
"Readily accessible/available" - Capable of being reached quickly enough to ensure, for example, that emergency medical services and first-aid intervention are appropriate or that employees can reach sanitation facilities in time to meet their health and personal needs.
"Related employment" - Any employment related to or performed in conjunction with ship repairing, ship building or ship breaking work, including, but not limited to, inspecting, testing, and serving as a watchman.
"Rescue" - Locating endangered persons at an emergency incident, removing those persons from danger, treating the injured, and transporting the injured to an appropriate health care facility.
"Restraint (tether) line" - A line from an anchorage, or between anchorages, to which the employee is secured so as to prevent the employee from walking or falling off an elevated work surface.
Note:
A restraint line is not necessarily designed to withstand forces resulting from a fall.
"Rope grab" - A deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually uses the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking or both.
"Sanitation facilities" - Facilities, including supplies, maintained for employee personal and health needs such as potable drinking water, toilet facilities, hand-washing and hand-drying facilities, showers (including quick-drenching or flushing) and changing rooms, eating and drinking areas, first-aid stations, and on-site medical-service areas. Sanitation supplies include soap, waterless cleaning agents, single-use drinking cups, drinking water containers, toilet paper, and towels.
"Serviceable condition" - The state or ability of supplies or goods, or of a tool, machine, vehicle, or other device, to be used or to operate in the manner prescribed by the manufacturer.
"Servicing" - Workplace activities that involve the construction, installation, adjustment, inspection, modification, testing, or repair of machinery, equipment, or systems. Servicing also includes maintaining machines, equipment, or systems when performing these activities would expose the employee to harm from the start-up or energization of the system being serviced, or the release of hazardous energy.
"Sewered toilet" - A fixture maintained for the purpose of urination and defecation that is connected to a sanitary sewer, septic tank, holding tank (bilge), or on-site sewage-disposal treatment facility, and that is flushed with water.
"Shall" or "must" - Mandatory.
"Shield" - To install a covering, protective layer, or other effective measure on or around steam hoses or temporary steam-piping systems, including metal fittings and couplings, to protect employees from contacting hot surfaces or elements.
"Ship breaking" - Breaking down a vessel's structure to scrap the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment or any component part of a vessel.
"Ship building" - Construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment.
"Ship repairing" - Repair of a vessel including, but not limited to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance.
"Shipyard firefighting" - The activity of rescue, fire suppression, and property conservation involving buildings, enclosed structures, vehicles, vessels, aircraft, or similar properties involved in a fire or emergency situation.
"Short bight" - A loop created in a line or rope that is used to tie back or fasten objects such as hoses, wiring, and fittings.
"Small hose system" - A system of hoses ranging in diameter from 5/8" (1.6 cm) up to 1 1/2" (3.8 cm) which is for the use of employees and which provides a means for the control and extinguishment of incipient stage fires.
"Standpipe" - A fixed fire protection system consisting of piping and hose connections used to supply water to approved hose lines or sprinkler systems. The hose may or may not be connected to the system.
"Tag" - A prominent warning device that includes a means of attachment that can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device in accordance with an established procedure to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled must not be operated until the tag is removed by an authorized employee.
"Tags-plus system" - A system to control hazardous energy that consists of an energy-isolating device with a tag affixed to it, and at least one additional safety measure.
"Verification of isolation" - The means necessary to detect the presence of hazardous energy, which may involve the use of a test instrument (for example, a voltmeter), and, for other than electric shock protection, a visual inspection, or a deliberate attempt to start-up the machinery, equipment, or system.
"Vermin" - Insects, birds, and other animals, such as rodents, that may create safety and health hazards for employees.
"Vessel" - Every watercraft for use as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for or used as a means of transportation on water.
"Vessel section" - A subassembly, module, or other component of a vessel being built or repaired.
"Walkway" - Any surface, whether vertical, slanted, or horizontal, on which employees walk, including areas that employees pass through, to perform their job tasks. Walkways include, but are not limited to, access ways, designated walkways, aisles, exits, gangways, ladders, ramps, stairs, steps, passageways, and scaffolding. If an area is, or could be, used to gain access to other locations, it is to be considered a walkway.
"Work area" - A specific area, such as a machine shop, engineering space, or fabrication area, where one or more employees are performing job tasks.
"Working surface" - Any surface where work is occurring, or areas where tools, materials, and equipment are being staged for performing work.
"Worksite" - A general work location where one or more employees are performing work, such as a shipyard, pier, barge, vessel, or vessel section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-304-01001, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-01001, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-01001, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01001, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05; WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-01001, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-01001, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-01001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, § 296-304-01001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-01001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-01003
Reference specifications, standards, and codes.

Specifications, standards, and codes of agencies of the U.S. government, to the extent specified in the text, form a part of these regulations. In addition, the specifications, standards, and codes of organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. government, in effect on the date of the promulgation of these regulations as listed below, to the extent specified in the text, form a part of these standards:
National Fire Protection Association, 60 Batterymarch Street, Boston, Mass.02110,
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Ill.60611,
United States of America Standard Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, A14.1-1975, United States of America Standards Institute, Inc., 10 East 40th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016,
United States of America Standard Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders, A14.2-1972, United States of America Standards Institute, Inc., 10 East 40th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016,
United States of America Standard Safety Code for Head, Eye, and Respiratory Protection, Z2.1-1959, United States of America Standards Institute, Inc., 10 East 40th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017,
Threshold Limit Values, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202,
United States of America Standards Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1964, United States of America Standards Institute, Inc., 10 East 40th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-01003, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-01003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-01006
Fire protection in shipyards.

(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to require employers to protect all employees from fire hazards in shipyard employment, including employees engaged in fire response activities.
(2) Scope. This section covers employers with employees engaged in shipyard employment aboard vessels and vessel sections, and on land-side operations regardless of geographic location.
(3) Employee participation. The employer must provide ways for employees or employee representatives, or both to participate in developing and periodically reviewing programs and policies adopted to comply with this section.
(4) Multiemployer worksites.
(a) Host employer responsibilities. The host employer's responsibilities are to:
(i) Inform all employers at the worksite about the content of the fire safety plan including hazards, controls, fire safety and health rules, and emergency procedures;
(ii) Make sure the safety and health responsibilities for fire protection are assigned as appropriate to other employers at the worksite; and
(iii) If there is more than one host employer, each host employer must communicate relevant information about fire-related hazards to other host employers. When a vessel owner or operator (temporarily) becomes a host shipyard employer by directing the work of ships' crews on repair or modification of the vessel or by hiring other contractors directly, the vessel owner or operator must also comply with these provisions for host employers.
(b) Contract employer responsibilities. The contract employer's responsibilities are to:
(i) Make sure that the host employer knows about the fire-related hazards associated with the contract employer's work and what the contract employer is doing to address them; and
(ii) Advise the host employer of any previously unidentified fire-related hazards that the contract employer identifies at the worksite.
[WSR 06-08-003, recodified as § 296-304-01006, filed 3/23/06, effective 4/23/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01005, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-01005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95.]



296-304-01007
Fire safety plan.

(1) Employer responsibilities. The employer must develop and implement a written fire safety plan that covers all the actions that employers and employees must take to ensure employee safety in the event of a fire. (See Appendix A to this section for a model fire safety plan.)
(2) Plan elements. The employer must include the following information in the fire safety plan:
(a) Identification of the significant fire hazards;
(b) Procedures for recognizing and reporting unsafe conditions;
(c) Alarm procedures;
(d) Procedures for notifying employees of a fire emergency;
(e) Procedures for notifying fire response organizations of a fire emergency;
(f) Procedures for evacuation;
(g) Procedures to account for all employees after an evacuation; and
(h) Names, job titles, or departments for individuals who can be contacted for further information about the plan.
(3) Reviewing the plan with employees. The employer must review the plan with each employee at the following times:
(a) By March 1, 2006, for employees who are currently working;
(b) Upon initial assignment for new employees; and
(c) When the actions the employee must take under the plan change because of a change in duties or a change in the plan.
(4) Additional employer requirements. The employer also must:
(a) Keep the plan accessible to employees, employee representatives, and WISHA;
(b) Review and update the plan whenever necessary, but at least annually;
(c) Document that affected employees have been informed about the plan as required by this subsection; and
(d) Ensure any outside fire response organization that the employer expects to respond to fires at the employer's worksite has been given a copy of the current plan.
(5) Contract employers. Contract employers in shipyard employment must have a fire safety plan for their employees, and this plan must comply with the host employer's fire safety plan.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-01007, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07; WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-01007, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01007, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01009
Precautions for hot work.

(1) General requirements.
(a) Designated areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops, and subassembly areas that are free of fire hazards.
(b) Nondesignated areas.
(i) Before authorizing hot work in a nondesignated area, the employer must visually inspect the area where hot work is to be performed, including adjacent spaces, to ensure the area is free of fire hazards, unless a marine chemist's certificate or shipyard competent person's log is used for authorization.
(ii) The employer shall authorize employees to perform hot work only in areas that are free of fire hazards, or that have been controlled by physical isolation, fire watches, or other positive means.
Note:
The requirements of (b) of this subsection apply to all hot work operations in shipyard employment except those covered by WAC 296-304-02007.
(2) Specific requirements.
(a) Maintaining fire hazard-free conditions. The employer must keep all hot work areas free of new hazards that may cause or contribute to the spread of fire. Unexpected energizing and energy release are covered by WAC 296-304-120. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants; chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records; and WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication.
(b) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines and torches. The employer must make sure that:
(i) No unattended fuel gas and oxygen hose lines or torches are in confined spaces;
(ii) No unattended charged fuel gas and oxygen hose lines or torches are in enclosed spaces for more than fifteen minutes;
(iii) All fuel gas and oxygen hose lines are disconnected at the supply manifold at the end of each shift; and
(iv) All disconnected fuel gas and oxygen hose lines are rolled back to the supply manifold or to open air to disconnect the torch; or extended fuel gas and oxygen hose lines are not reconnected at the supply manifold unless the lines are given a positive means of identification when they were first connected and the lines are tested using a drop test or other positive means to ensure the integrity of fuel gas and oxygen burning system.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-304-01009, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-05-062, § 296-304-01009, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01009, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01011
Fire watches.

(1) Written fire watch policy. The employer must create and keep current a written policy that specifies the following requirements for employees performing fire watch in the workplace:
(a) The training employees must be given (WAC 296-304-01019(3) contains detailed fire watch training requirements);
(b) The duties employees are to perform;
(c) The equipment employees must be given; and
(d) The personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by WAC 296-304-090.
(2) Posting fire watches. The employer must post a fire watch if during hot work any of the following conditions are present:
(a) Slag, weld splatter, or sparks might pass through an opening and cause a fire;
(b) Fire-resistant guards or curtains are not used to prevent ignition of combustible materials on or near decks, bulkheads, partitions, or overheads;
(c) Combustible material closer than thirty-five feet (10.7 m) to the hot work in either the horizontal or vertical direction cannot be removed, protected with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains;
(d) The hot work is carried out on or near insulation, combustible coatings, or sandwich-type construction that cannot be shielded, cut back, or removed, or in a space within a sandwich-type construction that cannot be inerted;
(e) Combustible materials adjacent to the opposite sides of bulkheads, decks, overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;
(f) The hot work is close enough to cause ignition through heat radiation or conduction on the following:
(i) Insulated pipes, bulkheads, decks, partitions, or overheads; or
(ii) Combustible materials and/or coatings;
(g) The work is close enough to unprotected combustible pipe or cable runs to cause ignition; or
(h) A marine chemist, a Coast Guard-authorized person, or a shipyard competent person, as defined in WAC 296-304-020, requires that a fire watch be posted.
(3) Assigning employees to fire watch duty.
(a) The employer must not assign other duties to a fire watch while the hot work is in progress.
(b) Employers must ensure that employees assigned to fire watch duty:
(i) Have a clear view of and immediate access to all areas included in the fire watch;
(ii) Are able to communicate with workers exposed to hot work;
(iii) Are authorized to stop work if necessary and restore safe conditions within the hot work area;
(iv) Remain in the hot work area for at least thirty minutes after completion of the hot work, unless the employer or its representative surveys the exposed area and makes a determination that there is no further fire hazard;
(v) Are trained to detect fires that occur in areas exposed to the hot work;
(vi) Attempt to extinguish any incipient stage fires in the hot work area that are within the capability of available equipment and within the fire watch's training qualifications, as defined in WAC 296-304-01019;
(vii) Alert employees of any fire beyond the incipient stage; and
(viii) If unable to extinguish fire in the areas exposed to the hot work, activate the alarm.
(c) The employer must ensure that employees assigned to fire watch are physically capable of performing these duties.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01011, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01013
Fire response.

(1) Employer responsibilities. The employer must:
(a) Decide what type of response will be provided and who will provide it; and
(b) Create, maintain, and update a written policy that:
(i) Describes the internal and outside fire response organizations that the employer will use; and
(ii) Defines what evacuation procedures employees must follow, if the employer chooses to require a total or partial evacuation of the worksite at the time of a fire.
(2) Required written policy information.
(a) Internal fire response. If an internal fire response is to be used, the employer must include the following information in the employer's written policy:
(i) The basic structure of the fire response organization;
(ii) The number of trained fire response employees;
(iii) The fire response functions that may need to be carried out;
(iv) The minimum number of fire response employees necessary, the number and types of apparatuses, and a description of the fire suppression operations established by written standard operating procedures for each type of fire response at the employer's facility;
(v) The type, amount, and frequency of training that must be given to fire response employees; and
(vi) The procedures for using protective clothing and equipment.
(b) Outside fire response. If an outside fire response organization is used, the employer must include the following information in the written policy:
(i) The types of fire suppression incidents to which the fire response organization is expected to respond at the employer's facility or worksite;
(ii) The liaisons between the employer and the outside fire response organizations; and
(iii) A plan for fire response functions that:
(A) Addresses procedures for obtaining assistance from the outside fire response organization;
(B) Familiarizes the outside fire response organization with the layout of the employer's facility or worksite, including access routes to controlled areas, and site-specific operations, occupancies, vessels or vessel sections, and hazards; and
(C) Sets forth how hose and coupling connection threads are to be made compatible and includes where the adapter couplings are kept; or
(D) States that the employer will not allow the use of incompatible hose connections.
(c) A combination of internal and outside fire response. If a combination of internal and outside fire response is to be used, the employer must include the following information, in addition to the requirements in (a) and (b) of this subsection, in the written policy:
(i) The basic organizational structure of the combined fire response;
(ii) The number of combined trained fire responders;
(iii) The fire response functions that may need to be carried out;
(iv) The minimum number of fire response employees necessary, the number and types of apparatuses, and a description of the fire suppression operations established by written standard operating procedures for each particular type of fire response at the worksite; and
(v) The type, amount, and frequency of joint training with outside fire response organizations if given to fire response employees.
(d) Employee evacuation. The employer must include the following information in the employer's written policy:
(i) Emergency escape procedures;
(ii) Procedures to be followed by employees who may remain longer at the worksite to perform critical shipyard employment operations during the evacuation;
(iii) Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation is completed;
(iv) The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies; and
(v) Names or job titles of the employees or departments to be contacted for further information or explanation of duties.
(e) Rescue and emergency response. The employer must include the following information in the employer's written policy:
(i) A description of the emergency rescue procedures; and
(ii) Names or job titles of the employees who are assigned to perform them.
(3) Medical requirements for shipyard fire response employees. The employer must ensure that:
(a) All fire response employees receive medical examinations to assure that they are physically and medically fit for the duties they are expected to perform;
(c) Each fire response employee has an annual medical examination; and
(d) The medical records of fire response employees are kept in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records.
(4) Organization of internal fire response functions. The employer must:
(a) Organize fire response functions to ensure enough resources to conduct emergency operations safely;
(b) Establish lines of authority and assign responsibilities to ensure that the components of the internal fire response are accomplished;
(c) Set up an incident management system to coordinate and direct fire response functions, including:
(i) Specific fire emergency responsibilities;
(ii) Accountability for all fire response employees participating in an emergency operation; and
(iii) Resources offered by outside organizations; and
(d) Provide the information required in this subsection to the outside fire response organization to be used.
(5) Personal protective clothing and equipment for fire response employees.
(a) General requirements. The employer must:
(i) Supply to all fire response employees, at no cost, the appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment they may need to perform expected duties; and
(ii) Ensure that fire response employees wear the appropriate personal protective clothing and use the equipment, when necessary, to protect them from hazardous exposures.
(b) Thermal stability and flame resistance. The employer must:
(i) Ensure that each fire response employee exposed to the hazards of flame does not wear clothing that could increase the extent of injury that could be sustained; and
(ii) Prohibit wearing clothing made from acetate, nylon, or polyester, either alone or in blends, unless it can be shown that:
(A) The fabric will withstand the flammability hazard that may be encountered; or
(B) The clothing will be worn in such a way to eliminate the flammability hazard that may be encountered.
(c) Respiratory protection. The employer must:
(i) Provide self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to all fire response employees involved in an emergency operation in an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH), potentially IDLH, or unknown;
(ii) Provide SCBA to fire response employees performing emergency operations during hazardous chemical emergencies that will expose them to known hazardous chemicals in vapor form or to unknown chemicals;
(iii) Provide fire response employees who perform or support emergency operations that will expose them to hazardous chemicals in liquid form either:
(A) SCBA; or
(B) Respiratory protective devices certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 C.F.R. Part 84 as suitable for the specific chemical environment;
(iv) Ensure that additional outside air supplies used in conjunction with SCBA result in positive pressure systems that are certified by NIOSH under 42 C.F.R. Part 84;
(v) Provide only SCBA that meet the requirements of NFPA 1981-2002 Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus for the Fire Service (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003); and
(vi) Ensure that the respiratory protection program and all respiratory protection equipment comply with chapter 296-842 WAC, Respiratory protection.
(d) Interior structural firefighting operations. The employer must:
(i) Supply at no cost to all fire response employees exposed to the hazards of shipyard fire response, a helmet, gloves, footwear, and protective hoods, and either a protective coat and trousers or a protective coverall; and
(ii) Ensure that this equipment meets the applicable recommendations in NFPA 1971-2000 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Firefighting (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
(e) Proximity firefighting operations. The employer must provide, at no cost, to all fire response employees who are exposed to the hazards of proximity firefighting, appropriate protective proximity clothing that meets the applicable recommendations in NFPA 1976-2000 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Proximity Firefighting (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
(f) Personal alert safety system (PASS) devices. The employer must:
(i) Provide each fire response employee involved in firefighting operations with a PASS device; and
(ii) Ensure that each PASS device meets the recommendations in NFPA 1982-1998 Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS) (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
(g) Life safety ropes, body harnesses, and hardware. The employer must ensure that:
(i) All life safety ropes, body harnesses, and hardware used by fire response employees for emergency operations meet the applicable recommendations in NFPA 1983-2001, Standard on Fire Service Life Safety Rope and System Components (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003);
(ii) Fire response employees use only Class I body harnesses to attach to ladders and aerial devices; and
(iii) Fire response employees use only Class II and Class III body harnesses for fall arrest and rappelling operations.
(6) Equipment maintenance.
(a) Personal protective equipment. The employer must inspect and maintain personal protective equipment used to protect fire response employees to ensure that it provides the intended protection.
(b) Fire response equipment. The employer must:
(i) Keep fire response equipment in a state of readiness;
(ii) Standardize all fire hose coupling and connection threads throughout the facility and on vessels and vessel sections by providing the same type of hose coupling and connection threads for hoses of the same or similar diameter; and
(iii) Ensure that either all fire hoses and coupling connection threads are the same within a facility or vessel or vessel section as those used by the outside fire response organization, or supply suitable adapter couplings if such an organization is expected to use the fire response equipment within a facility or vessel or vessel section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-01013, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07; WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01013, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01015
Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

(1) Employer responsibilities. The employer must comply with the provisions of this section whenever employees are exposed to fixed extinguishing systems that could create a dangerous atmosphere when activated in vessels and vessel sections, regardless of geographic location.
(2) Requirements for automatic and manual systems. Before any work is done in a space equipped with fixed extinguishing systems, the employer must either:
(a) Physically isolate the systems or use other positive means to prevent the systems' discharge; or
(b) Ensure employees are trained to recognize:
(i) Systems' discharge and evacuation alarms and the appropriate escape routes; and
(ii) Hazards associated with the extinguishing systems and agents including the dangers of disturbing system components and equipment such as piping, cables, linkages, detection devices, activation devices, and alarm devices.
(3) Sea and dock trials. During trials, the employer must ensure that all systems shall remain operational.
(4) Doors and hatches. The employer must:
(a) Take protective measures to ensure that all doors, hatches, scuttles, and other exit openings remain working and accessible for escape in the event the systems are activated; and
(b) Ensure that all inward opening doors, hatches, scuttles, and other potential barriers to safe exit are removed, locked open, braced, or otherwise secured so that they remain open and accessible for escape if the systems' activation could result in a positive pressure in the protected spaces sufficient to impede escape.
(5) Testing the system.
(b) When testing a fixed extinguishing system does not involve a total discharge of the system's extinguishing medium, the employer must make sure that the system's extinguishing medium is physically isolated and that all employees not directly involved in the testing are evacuated from the protected space.
(6) Conducting system maintenance. Before conducting maintenance on a fixed extinguishing system, the employer must ensure that the system is physically isolated.
(7) Using fixed manual extinguishing systems for fire protection. If fixed manual extinguishing systems are used to provide fire protection for spaces in which the employees are working, the employer must ensure that:
(a) Only authorized employees are allowed to activate the system;
(b) Authorized employees are trained to operate and activate the systems; and
(c) All employees are evacuated from the protected spaces, and accounted for, before the fixed manual extinguishing system is activated.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01015, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01017
Land-side fire protection systems.

(1) Employer responsibilities. The employer must ensure all fixed and portable fire protection systems needed to meet WISHA standards for employee safety or employee protection from fire hazards in land-side facilities, including, but not limited to, buildings, structures, and equipment, meet the requirements of this section.
(2) Portable fire extinguishers and hose systems.
(b) The employer is permitted to use Class II or Class III hose systems, in accordance with NFPA 10-2002, as portable fire extinguishers if the employer selects, installs, inspects, maintains, and tests those systems according to the specific recommendations in NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
(3) General requirements for fixed extinguishing systems. The employer must:
(a) Ensure that any fixed extinguishing system component or extinguishing agent is approved by an OSHA nationally recognized testing laboratory for use on the specific hazards the employer expects it to control or extinguish;
(b) Notify employees and take the necessary precautions to ensure employees are safe from fire if for any reason a fire extinguishing system stops working, until the system is working again;
(c) Ensure all repairs to fire extinguishing systems and equipment are done by a qualified technician or mechanic;
(d) Provide and ensure employees use proper personal protective equipment when entering discharge areas in which the atmosphere remains hazardous to employee safety or health, or provide safeguards to prevent employees from entering those areas. See WAC 296-304-02003 for additional requirements applicable to safe entry into spaces containing dangerous atmospheres;
(e) Post hazard warning or caution signs at both the entrance to and inside of areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems that use extinguishing agents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety or health; and
(f) Select, install, inspect, maintain, and test all automatic fire detection systems and emergency alarms according to NFPA 72-2002 National Fire Alarm Code (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
(4) Fixed extinguishing systems. The employer must select, install, maintain, inspect, and test all fixed systems required by WISHA as follows:
(a) Standpipe and hose systems according to NFPA 14-2003 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003);
(b) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, and either NFPA 13-2002 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems or NFPA 750-2003 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003);
(c) Fixed extinguishing systems that use water or foam as the extinguishing agent according to NFPA 15-2001 Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection; NFPA 11-2005 Standard for Low, Medium, and High-Expansion Foam Systems; (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003);
(d) Fixed extinguishing systems using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent according to NFPA 17-2002 Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003); and
(e) Fixed extinguishing systems using gas as the extinguishing agent according to NFPA 12-2005 Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems; NFPA 12A-2004 Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems; and NFPA 2001-2004 Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems (incorporated by reference, see WAC 296-304-01003).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-01017, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07; WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01017, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01019
Training.

(1) The employer must train employees in the applicable requirements of this section:
(a) By March 1, 2006, for employees currently working;
(b) Upon initial assignment for new employees; and
(c) When necessary to maintain proficiency for employees previously trained.
(2) Employee training. The employer must ensure that all employees are trained on:
(a) The emergency alarm signals, including system discharge alarms and employee evacuation alarms; and
(b) The primary and secondary evacuation routes that employees must use in the event of a fire in the workplace. While all vessels and vessel sections must have a primary evacuation route, a secondary evacuation route is not required when impracticable.
(3) Additional training requirements for employees expected to fight incipient stage fires. The employer must ensure that employees expected to fight incipient stage fires are trained on the following:
(a) The general principles of using fire extinguishers or hose lines, the hazards involved with incipient firefighting, and the procedures used to reduce these hazards;
(b) The hazards associated with fixed and portable fire protection systems that employees may use or to which they may be exposed during discharge of those systems; and
(c) The activation and operation of fixed and portable fire protection systems that the employer expects employees to use in the workplace.
(4) Additional training requirements for shipyard employees designated for fire response. The employer must:
(a) Have a written training policy stating that fire response employees must be trained and capable of carrying out their duties and responsibilities at all times;
(b) Keep written standard operating procedures that address anticipated emergency operations and update these procedures as necessary;
(c) Review fire response employee training programs and hands-on sessions before they are used in fire response training to make sure that fire response employees are protected from hazards associated with fire response training;
(d) Provide training for fire response employees that ensures they are capable of carrying out their duties and responsibilities under the employer's standard operating procedures;
(e) Train new fire response employees before they engage in emergency operations;
(f) At least quarterly, provide training on the written operating procedures to fire response employees who are expected to fight fires;
(g) Use qualified instructors to conduct the training;
(i) Conduct semiannual drills according to the employer's written procedures for fire response employees that cover site-specific operations, occupancies, buildings, vessels and vessel sections, and fire-related hazards; and
(j) Prohibit the use of smoke generating devices that create a dangerous atmosphere in training exercises.
(5) Additional training requirements for fire watch duty.
(a) The employer must ensure that each fire watch is trained by an instructor with adequate fire watch knowledge and experience to cover the items as follows:
(i) Before being assigned to fire watch duty;
(ii) Whenever there is a change in operations that presents a new or different hazard;
(iii) Whenever the employer has reason to believe that the fire watch's knowledge, skills, or understanding of the training previously provided is inadequate; and
(iv) Annually.
(b) The employer must ensure that each employee who stands fire watch duty is trained in:
(i) The basics of fire behavior, the different classes of fire and of extinguishing agents, the stages of fire, and methods for extinguishing fires;
(ii) Extinguishing live fire scenarios whenever allowed by local and federal law;
(iii) The recognition of the adverse health effects that may be caused by exposure to fire;
(iv) The physical characteristics of the hot work area;
(v) The hazards associated with fire watch duties;
(vi) The personal protective equipment (PPE) needed to perform fire watch duties safely;
(vii) The use of PPE;
(viii) The selection and use of any fire extinguishers and fire hoses likely to be used by a fire watch in the work area;
(ix) The location and use of barriers;
(x) The means of communication designated by the employer for fire watches;
(xi) When and how to start fire alarm procedures; and
(xii) The employer's evacuation plan.
(c) The employer must ensure that each fire watch is trained to alert others to exit the space whenever:
(i) The fire watch perceives an unsafe condition;
(ii) The fire watch perceives that a worker performing hot work is in danger;
(iii) The employer or a representative of the employer orders an evacuation; or
(iv) An evacuation signal, such as an alarm, is activated.
(6) Records. The employer must keep records that demonstrate that employees have been trained as required by subsections (1) through (5) of this section.
(a) The employer must ensure that the records include the employee's name; the trainer's name; the type of training; and the date(s) on which the training took place.
(b) The employer must keep each training record for one year from the time it was made or until it is replaced with a new training record, whichever is shorter, and make it available for inspection and copying by WISHA on request.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01019, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01021
Competent person.

(1) Application. This section applies to shipyard employment.
(2) Designation.
Exception:
The employer may designate any person who meets the applicable portions of the criteria set forth in subsection (3) of this section as a competent person who is limited to performing testing to the following situations:
 
(i) Repair work on small craft in boat yards where only combustible gas indicator tests are required for fuel tank leaks or when using flammable paints below decks;
 
(ii) Building of wooden vessels where only knowledge of the precautions to be taken when using flammable paints is required;
 
(iii) The breaking of vessels where there is no fuel oil or other flammable hazard; and
 
(iv) Tests and inspections performed to comply with WAC 296-304-03007 (2)(h) and 296-304-03009 (1)(e).
(b) The employer shall maintain either a roster of designated competent persons or a statement that a marine chemist will perform the tests or inspections which require a competent person.
(c) The employer shall make the roster of designated persons or the statement available to employees, the employee's representative, or the director upon request.
(d) The roster shall contain, as a minimum, the following:
(i) The employer's name;
(ii) The designated competent person's name(s); and
(iii) The date the employee was trained as a competent person.
(3) Criteria. The employer shall ensure that each designated competent person has the following skills and knowledge:
(a) Ability to understand and carry out written or oral information or instructions left by marine chemists, Coast Guard-authorized persons and certified industrial hygienists;
(b) Knowledge of WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-02011, WAC 296-304-030 through 296-304-03009, WAC 296-304-040 through 296-304-04013, and WAC 296-304-080 through 296-304-08011;
(c) Knowledge of the structure, location, and designation of spaces where work is done;
(d) Ability to calibrate and use testing equipment including, but not limited to, oxygen indicators, combustible gas indicators, carbon monoxide indicators, and carbon dioxide indicators, and to interpret accurately the test results of that equipment;
(e) Ability to perform all required tests and inspections which are or may be performed by a competent person as set forth in WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-02011, WAC 296-304-030 through 296-304-03009, WAC 296-304-040 through 296-304-04013, and WAC 296-304-080 through 296-304-08011;
(f) Ability to inspect, test, and evaluate spaces to determine the need for further testing by a marine chemist or a certified industrial hygienist; and
(g) Ability to maintain records required by this section.
(4) Recordkeeping.
(a) When tests and inspections are performed by a competent person, marine chemist, or certified industrial hygienist as required by any provisions of WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-02011, WAC 296-304-030 through 296-304-03009, WAC 296-304-040 through 296-304-04013, or WAC 296-304-080 through 296-304-08011, the employer shall ensure that the person performing the test and inspection records the location, time, date, location of inspected spaces, and the operations performed, as well as the test results and any instructions.
(b) The employer shall ensure that the records are posted in the immediate vicinity of the affected operations while work in the spaces is in progress. The records shall be kept on file for a period of at least three months from the completion date of the specific job for which they were generated.
(c) The employer shall ensure that the records are available for inspection by the director, and employees and their representatives.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-19-086, § 296-304-01021, filed 9/20/05, effective 12/1/05.]



296-304-01023
Appendix A—Model fire safety plan.

Note:
This appendix is nonmandatory and provides guidance to assist employers in establishing a fire safety plan as required in WAC 296-304-01007.
Table of Contents
1. Purpose.
2. Worksite fire hazards and how to properly control them.
3. Alarm systems and how to report fires.
4. How to evacuate in different emergency situations.
5. Employee awareness.
1. Purpose
The purpose of this fire safety plan is to inform our employees of how we will control and reduce the possibility of fire in the workplace and to specify what equipment employees may use in case of fire.
2. Work site fire hazards and how to properly control them
(a) Measures to contain fires.
(b) Teaching selected employees how to use fire protection equipment.
(c) What to do if you discover a fire.
(d) Potential ignition sources for fires and how to control them.
(e) Types of fire protection equipment and systems that can control a fire.
(f) The level of firefighting capability present in the facility, vessel, or vessel section.
(g) Description of the personnel responsible for maintaining equipment, alarms, and systems that are installed to prevent or control fire ignition sources, and to control fuel source hazards.
3. Alarm systems and how to report fires
(a) A demonstration of alarm procedures, if more than one type exists.
(b) The worksite emergency alarm system.
(c) Procedures for reporting fires.
4. How to evacuate in different emergency situations
(a) Emergency escape procedures and route assignments.
(b) Procedures to account for all employees after completing an emergency evacuation.
(c) What type of evacuation is needed and what the employee's role is in carrying out the plan.
(d) Helping physically impaired employees.
5. Employee awareness
Names, job titles, or departments of individuals who can be contacted for further information about this plan.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-01023, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07.]



296-304-020
Confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres in shipyard employment.

Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subsection:
(1) Scope and application. This section applies to work in confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres in shipyard employment, including vessels, vessel sections, and on land-side operations regardless of geographic location.
(2) Definitions applicable to this section:
Adjacent spaces means those spaces bordering a subject space in all directions, including all points of contact, corners, diagonals, decks, tank tops, and bulkheads.
Certified industrial hygienist (CIH) means an industrial hygienist who is certified by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.
Coast Guard authorized person means an individual who meets the requirement of WAC 296-304-02015, Appendix C, for tank vessels, for passenger vessels, and for cargo and miscellaneous vessels.
Dangerous atmosphere means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (i.e., escape unaided from a confined or enclosed space), injury, or acute illness.
Director means the director of the department of labor and industries or his/her designated representative.
Enter with restrictions denotes a space where entry for work is permitted only if engineering controls, personal protective equipment, clothing, and time limitations are as specified by the marine chemist, certified industrial hygienist, or the shipyard competent person.
Entry means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.
Hot work means any activity involving riveting, welding, burning, the use of powder-actuated tools or similar fire-producing operations. Grinding, drilling, abrasive blasting, or similar spark-producing operations are also considered hot work except when such operations are isolated physically from any atmosphere containing more than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit of a flammable or combustible substance.
Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life or that is likely to result in acute or immediate severe health effects.
Inert or inerted atmosphere means an atmospheric condition where:
(a) The oxygen content of the atmosphere in the space is maintained at a level equal to or less than 8.0 percent by volume or at a level at or below 50 percent of the amount required to support combustion, whichever is less; or
(b) The space is flooded with water and the vapor concentration of flammable or combustible materials in the free space atmosphere above the water line is less than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit for the flammable or combustible material.
Labeled means identified with a sign, placard, or other form of written communication, including pictograms, that provides information on the status or condition of the work space to which it is attached.
Lower explosive limit (LEL) means the minimum concentration of vapor in air below which propagation of a flame does not occur in the presence of an ignition source.
Marine chemist means an individual who possesses a current marine chemist certificate issued by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
NFPA means National Fire Protection Association.
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) means an organization recognized by OSHA, in accordance with Appendix A of 29 C.F.R. 1910.7, which tests for safety and lists or labels or accepts equipment and materials that meet all the criteria found in Section 1910.7 (b)(1) through (b)(4)(ii).
Not safe for hot work denotes a space where hot work may not be performed because the conditions do not meet the criteria for "safe for hot work."
Not safe for workers denotes a space where an employee may not enter because the conditions do not meet the criteria for "safe for workers."
Oxygen-deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere having an oxygen concentration of less than 19.5 percent by volume.
Oxygen-enriched atmosphere means an atmosphere that contains 22.0 percent or more oxygen by volume.
Safe for hot work denotes a space that meets all of the following criteria:
(a) The oxygen content of the atmosphere does not exceed 22.0 percent by volume;
(b) The concentration of flammable vapors in the atmosphere is less than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit;
(c) The residues or materials in the space are not capable of producing a higher concentration than permitted in (a) or (b) of the above, under existing atmospheric conditions in the presence of hot work and while maintained as directed by the marine chemist or competent person; and
(d) All adjacent spaces have been cleaned, or inerted, or treated sufficiently to prevent the spread of fire.
Safe for workers denotes a space that meets the following criteria:
(a) The oxygen content of the atmosphere is at least 19.5 percent and below 22.0 percent by volume;
(b) The concentration of flammable vapors is below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL);
(c) Any toxic materials in the atmosphere associated with cargo, fuel, tank coatings, or inerting media are within permissible concentrations at the time of the inspection; and
(d) Any residues or materials associated with the work authorized by the marine chemist, certified industrial hygienist, or competent person will not produce uncontrolled release of toxic materials under existing atmospheric conditions while maintained as directed.
Space means an area on a vessel or vessel section or within a shipyard such as, but not limited to: Cargo tanks or holds; pump or engine rooms; storage lockers; tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids, gases, or solids; rooms within buildings; crawl spaces; tunnels; or accessways. The atmosphere within a space is the entire area within its bounds.
Upper explosive limit (UEL) means the maximum concentration of flammable vapor in air above which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition.
Vessel section means a subassembly, module, or other component of a vessel being built, repaired, or broken.
Visual inspection means the physical survey of the space, its surroundings and contents to identify hazards such as, but not limited to, restricted accessibility, residues, unguarded machinery, and piping or electrical systems.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-020, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-020, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-304-020, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93; Order 74-25, § 296-304-020, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02001
Reserved.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, § 296-304-02001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02003
Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.

The employer shall ensure that atmospheric testing is performed in the following sequence: Oxygen content, flammability, toxicity.
(1) Oxygen content.
(a) The employer shall ensure that the following spaces are visually inspected and tested by a competent person to determine the atmosphere's oxygen content prior to initial entry into the space by an employee:
(i) Spaces that have been sealed, such as, but not limited to, spaces that have been coated and closed up, and nonventilated spaces that have been freshly painted;
(ii) Spaces and adjacent spaces that contain or have contained combustible or flammable liquids or gases;
(iii) Spaces and adjacent spaces that contain or have contained liquids, gases, or solids that are toxic, corrosive, or irritant;
(iv) Spaces and adjacent spaces that have been fumigated; and
(v) Spaces containing materials or residues of materials that create an oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
(b) If the space to be entered contains an oxygen deficient atmosphere, the space shall be labeled "not safe for workers" or, if oxygen-enriched, "not safe for workers—not safe for hot work." If an oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched atmosphere is found, ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the oxygen content is maintained at or above 19.5 percent and below 22.0 percent by volume. The warning label may be removed when the oxygen content is equal to or greater than 19.5 and less than 22.0 percent by volume.
(c) An employee may not enter a space where the oxygen content, by volume, is below 19.5 percent or above 22.0 percent.
Exception: An employee may enter for emergency rescue or for a short duration for installation of ventilation equipment necessary to start work in the space provided:
(i) The atmosphere in the space is monitored for oxygen content, by volume, continuously; and
Note to (a):
Other provisions for work in IDLH atmospheres are located in WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-09007.
(2) Flammable atmospheres.
(a) The employer shall ensure that spaces and adjacent spaces that contain or have contained combustible or flammable liquids or gases are:
(i) Inspected visually by the competent person to determine the presence of combustible or flammable liquids; and
(ii) Tested by a competent person prior to entry by an employee to determine the concentration of flammable vapors and gases within the space.
(b) If the concentration of flammable vapors or gases in the space to be entered is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit, the space shall be labeled "not safe for workers" and "not safe for hot work." Ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the concentration of flammable vapors is maintained below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit. The warning labels may be removed when the concentration of flammable vapors is below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit.
(c) An employee may not enter a space where the concentration of flammable vapors or gases is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit.
Exception: An employee may enter for emergency rescue or for a short duration for installation of ventilation equipment necessary to start work in the space, provided:
(i) No ignition sources are present;
(ii) The atmosphere in the space is monitored continuously;
(iii) Atmospheres at or above the upper explosive limit are maintained; and
(iv) Respiratory protection and other appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing are provided in accordance with WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-09007.
Note 1 to (2):
Additional provisions for work in IDLH atmospheres are located in WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-09007.
Note 2 to (2):
Additional provisions for work in spaces containing a flammable substance which also has a permissible exposure limit, are located in subsection (3) of this section and chapter 296-841 WAC.
(3) Toxic, corrosive, irritant or fumigated atmospheres and residues.
(a) The employer shall ensure that spaces or adjacent spaces that contain or have contained liquids, gases, or solids that are toxic, corrosive or irritant are:
(i) Inspected visually by the competent person to determine the presence of toxic, corrosive, or irritant residue contaminants; and
(ii) Tested by a competent person prior to initial entry by an employee to determine the air concentration of toxics, corrosives, or irritants within the space.
(b) If a space contains an air concentration of a material which exceeds a chapter 296-841 WAC, permissible exposure limit (PEL) or is IDLH, the space shall be labeled "not safe for workers." Ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates which will ensure that air concentrations are maintained within the PEL or, in the case of contaminants for which there is no established PEL, below the IDLH. The warning label may be removed when the concentration of contaminants is maintained within the PEL or below IDLH level.
(c) If a space cannot be ventilated to within the PELs or is IDLH, a marine chemist or CIH must retest until the space can be certified "enter with restrictions" or "safe for workers."
(d) An employee may not enter a space whose atmosphere exceeds a PEL or is IDLH.
Exception: An employee may enter for emergency rescue, or for a short duration for installation of ventilation equipment provided:
(i) The atmosphere in the space is monitored continuously;
(ii) Respiratory protection and other necessary and appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing are provided in accordance with WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-09007.
Note to (3):
Other provisions for work in IDLH atmospheres are located in WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-9007.
(4) Training of employees entering confined and enclosed spaces or other dangerous atmospheres.
(a) The employer shall ensure that each employee that enters a confined or enclosed space and other areas with dangerous atmospheres is trained to perform all required duties safely.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each employee who enters a confined space, enclosed space, or other areas with dangerous atmospheres is trained to:
(i) Recognize the characteristics of the confined space;
(ii) Anticipate and be aware of the hazards that may be faced during entry;
(iii) Recognize the adverse health effects that may be caused by the exposure to a hazard;
(iv) Understand the physical signs and reactions related to exposures to such hazards;
(v) Know what personal protective equipment is needed for safe entry into and exit from the space;
(vi) Use personal protective equipment; and
(vii) Where necessary, be aware of the presence and proper use of barriers that may be needed to protect an entrant from hazards.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each entrant into confined or enclosed spaces or other dangerous atmospheres is trained to exit the space or dangerous atmosphere whenever:
(i) The employer or his or her representative orders evacuation;
(ii) An evacuation signal such as an alarm is activated; or
(iii) The entrant perceives that he or she is in danger.
(d) The employer shall provide each employee with training:
(i) Before the entrant begins work addressed by this chapter; and
(ii) Whenever there is a change in operations or in an employee's duties that presents a hazard about which the employee has not previously been trained.
(e) The employer shall certify that the training required by (a) through (d) of this subsection has been accomplished.
(i) The certification shall contain the employee's name, the name of the certifier, and the date(s) of the certification.
(ii) The certification shall be available for inspection by the director, employees, and their representatives.
(5) Rescue teams. The employer shall either establish a shipyard rescue team or arrange for an outside rescue team which will respond promptly to a request for rescue service.
(a) Shipyard rescue teams shall meet the following criteria:
(i) Each employee assigned to the shipyard team shall be provided with and trained to use the personal protective equipment he or she will need, including respirators and any rescue equipment necessary for making rescues from confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.
(ii) Each employee assigned to the shipyard rescue team shall be trained to perform his or her rescue functions including confined and enclosed and other dangerous atmosphere entry.
(iii) Shipyard rescue teams shall practice their skills at least once every 12 months. Practice drills shall include the use of mannequins and rescue equipment during simulated rescue operations involving physical facilities that approximate closely those facilities from which rescue may be needed.
Note to (5)(a)(iii):
If the team performs an actual rescue during the 12 month period, an additional practice drill for that type of rescue is not required.
(iv) At least one person on each rescue team shall maintain current certification in basic first aid which includes maintenance of an airway, control of bleeding, maintenance of circulation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills.
(b) The employer shall inform outside rescue teams of the hazards that the team may encounter when called to perform confined and enclosed space or other dangerous atmosphere rescue at the employer's facility so that the rescue team can be trained and equipped.
Note to (5):
The criteria for in-house rescue, listed in (5)(a) can be used by the employer in evaluating outside rescue services.
(6) Exchanging hazard information between employers. Each employer whose employees work in confined and enclosed spaces or other dangerous atmospheres shall ensure that all available information on the hazards, safety rules, and emergency procedures concerning those spaces and atmospheres is exchanged with any other employer whose employees may enter the same spaces.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-02003, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-22-015, § 296-304-02003, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02003, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-02003, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, § 296-304-02003, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02005
Cleaning and other cold work.

(1) Locations covered by this section. The employer shall ensure that manual cleaning and other cold work are not performed in the following spaces unless the conditions of subsection (2) of this section have been met:
(a) Spaces containing or having last contained bulk quantities of combustible or flammable liquids or gases; and
(b) Spaces containing or having last contained bulk quantities of liquids, gases or solids that are toxic, corrosive or irritating.
(2) Requirements for performing cleaning or cold work.
(a) Liquid residues of hazardous materials shall be removed from work spaces as thoroughly as practicable before employees start cleaning operations or cold work in a space. Special care shall be taken to prevent the spilling or the draining of these materials into the water surrounding the vessel, or for shore-side operations, onto the surrounding work area.
(b) Testing shall be conducted by a competent person to determine the concentration of flammable, combustible, toxic, corrosive, or irritant vapors within the space prior to the beginning of cleaning or cold work.
(c) Continuous ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the concentration(s) of:
(i) Flammable vapor is maintained below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit; and
Note to (2)(c)(i):
Spaces containing highly volatile residues may require additional ventilation to keep the concentration of flammable vapors below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit and within the permissible exposure limit.
(ii) Toxic, corrosive, or irritant vapors are maintained within the permissible exposure limits and below IDLH levels.
(d) Testing shall be conducted by the competent person as often as necessary during cleaning or cold work to assure that air concentrations are below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit and within the PELs and below IDLH levels. Factors such as, but not limited to, temperature, volatility of the residues and other existing conditions in and about the spaces are to be considered in determining the frequency of testing necessary to assure a safe atmosphere.
Note to (2)(d):
See WAC 296-304-02013—Appendix B, for additional information on frequency of testing.
(e) Spills or other releases of flammable, combustible, toxic, corrosive, and irritant materials shall be cleaned up as work progresses.
(f) An employee may not enter a confined or enclosed space or other dangerous atmosphere if the concentration of flammable or combustible vapors in work spaces exceeds 10 percent of the lower explosive limit.
Exception: An employee may enter for emergency rescue or for a short duration for installation of ventilation equipment provided:
(i) No ignition sources are present;
(ii) The atmosphere in the space is monitored continuously;
(iii) The atmosphere in the space is maintained above the upper explosive limit; and
Note to (2)(f):
Other provisions for work in IDLH and other dangerous atmospheres are located in WAC 296-304-090 through 296-304-09007.
(g) A competent person shall test ventilation discharge areas and other areas where discharged vapors may collect to determine if vapors discharged from the spaces being ventilated are accumulating in concentrations hazardous to employees.
(h) If the tests required in (g) of this subsection indicate that concentrations of exhaust vapors that are hazardous to employees are accumulating, all work in the contaminated area shall be stopped until the vapors have dissipated or been removed.
(i) Only explosion-proof, self-contained portable lamps, or other electric equipment approved by a National Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) for the hazardous location shall be used in spaces described in subsection (1) of this section, until such spaces have been certified as "safe for workers."
Note to (2)(i):
Battery-fed, portable lamps or other electric equipment bearing the approval of a NRTL for the class, and division of the location in which they are used are deemed to meet the requirements of (i) of this subsection.
(j) The employer shall prominently post signs that prohibit sources of ignition within or near a space that has contained flammable or combustible liquids or gases in bulk quantities:
(i) At the entrance to those spaces;
(ii) In adjacent spaces; and
(iii) In the open area adjacent to those spaces.
(k) All air moving equipment and its component parts, including duct work, capable of generating a static electric discharge of sufficient energy to create a source of ignition, shall be bonded electrically to the structure of a vessel or vessel section or, in the case of land-side spaces, grounded to prevent an electric discharge in the space.
(l) Fans shall have nonsparking blades, and portable air ducts shall be of nonsparking materials.
Note to (2):
See WAC 296-304-02003(3) and applicable requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, general occupational health standards, for other provisions affecting cleaning and cold work.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-02005, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02007
Hot work.

(1) Hot work requiring testing by a marine chemist or Coast Guard authorized person.
(a) The employer shall ensure that hot work is not performed in or on any of the following confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres, boundaries of spaces or pipelines until the work area has been tested and certified by a marine chemist or a U.S. Coast Guard authorized person as "safe for hot work":
(i) Within, on, or immediately adjacent to spaces that contain or have contained combustible or flammable liquids or gases.
(ii) Within, on, or immediately adjacent to fuel tanks that contain or have last contained fuel; and
(iii) On pipelines, heating coils, pump fittings or other accessories connected to spaces that contain or have last contained fuel.
(iv) Exception: On dry cargo, miscellaneous and passenger vessels and in the landside operations within spaces which meet the standards for oxygen, flammability and toxicity in WAC 296-304-02003, but are adjacent to spaces containing flammable gases or liquids, as long as the gases or liquids with a flash point below 150 deg. F (65.6 deg. C) when the distance between such spaces and the work is 25 feet (7.62 m) or greater.
Note:
For flammable liquids with flash points above 150 deg. F (65.6 deg. C), see subsection (2) of this section.
Note to (1)(a):
The criteria for "safe for hot work" is located in the definition section, WAC 296-304-020(2).
(b) The certificate issued by the marine chemist or Coast Guard authorized person shall be posted in the immediate vicinity of the affected operations while they are in progress and kept on file for a period of at least three months from the date of the completion of the operation for which the certificate was generated.
(2) Hot work requiring testing by a competent person.
(a) Hot work is not permitted in or on the following spaces or adjacent spaces or other dangerous atmospheres until they have been tested by a competent person and determined to contain no concentrations of flammable vapors equal to or greater than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit:
(i) Dry cargo holds;
(ii) The bilges;
(iii) The engine room and boiler spaces for which a marine chemist or a Coast Guard authorized person certificate is not required under subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section; and
(iv) Vessels and vessel sections for which a marine chemist or Coast Guard authorized person certificate is not required under subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section; and
(v) Land-side confined and enclosed spaces or other dangerous atmospheres not covered by subsection (1)(a) of this section.
(b) If the concentration of flammable vapors or gases is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit in the space or an adjacent space where the hot work is to be done, then the space shall be labeled "not safe for hot work" and ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the concentration of flammable vapors or gases is below 10 percent by volume of the lower explosive limit. The warning label may be removed when the concentration of flammable vapors and gases are below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit.
Note to
WAC 296-304-02007:
See WAC 296-304-02013—Appendix B, for additional information relevant to performing hot work safely.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-02007, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07; WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-02007, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-22-015, § 296-304-02007, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, § 296-304-02007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02009
Maintenance of safe conditions.

(1) Preventing hazardous materials from entering. Pipelines that could carry hazardous materials into spaces that have been certified "safe for workers" or "safe for hot work" shall be disconnected, blanked off, or otherwise blocked by a positive method to prevent hazardous materials from being discharged into the space.
Note to (2):
Examples of changes that would warrant the stoppage of work include: The opening of manholes or other closures or the adjusting of a valve regulating the flow of hazardous materials.
(3) Tests to maintain the conditions of a marine chemist's or Coast Guard authorized person's certificates. A competent person shall visually inspect and test each space certified as "safe for workers" or "safe for hot work," as often as necessary to ensure that atmospheric conditions within that space are maintained within the conditions established by the certificate after the certificate has been issued.
(4) Change in the conditions of a marine chemist's or Coast Guard authorized person's certificate. If a competent person finds that the atmospheric conditions within a certified space fail to meet the applicable requirements of WAC 296-304-02003, 296-304-02005, and 296-304-02007, work in the certified space shall be stopped and may not be resumed until the space has been retested by a marine chemist or Coast Guard authorized person and a new certificate issued in accordance with WAC 296-304-02007(1).
(5) Tests to maintain a competent person's findings. After a competent person has conducted a visual inspection and tests required in WAC 296-304-02003, 296-304-02005, and 296-304-02007 and determined a space to be safe for an employee to enter, he or she shall continue to test and visually inspect spaces as often as necessary to ensure that the required atmospheric conditions within the tested space are maintained.
(6) Changes in conditions determined by competent person's findings. After the competent person has determined initially that a space is safe for an employee to enter and he or she finds subsequently that the conditions within the tested space fail to meet the requirements of WAC 296-304-02003, 296-304-02005, and 296-304-02007, as applicable, work shall be stopped until the conditions in the tested space are corrected to comply with WAC 296-304-02003, 296-304-02005, and 296-304-02007, as applicable.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-02009, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-22-015, § 296-304-02009, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02009, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, § 296-304-02009, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02011
Warning signs and labels.

(1) Employee comprehension of signs and labels. The employer shall ensure that each sign or label posted to comply with the requirements of this section is presented in a manner that can be perceived and understood by all employees.
(2) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by subsection (1) of this section need not be posted at an individual tank, compartment or work space within a work area if the entire work area has been tested and certified: "Not safe for workers," "not safe for hot work," and if the sign or label to this effect is posted conspicuously at each means of access to the work area.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02011, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 74-25, § 296-304-02011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-02013
Appendix B—Compliance assistance guidelines for confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.

This appendix is a nonmandatory set of guidelines provided to assist employers in complying with the requirements of WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-02011. This appendix neither creates additional obligations nor detracts from obligations otherwise contained in this chapter. It is intended to provide explanatory information and educational material to employers and employees to foster understanding of, and compliance with, this chapter.
WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-02011. These standards are minimum safety standards for entering and working safely in vessel tanks and compartments.
WAC 296-304-020(2) Definition of "Hot work." There are several instances in which circumstances do not necessitate that grinding, drilling, abrasive blasting be regarded as hot work. Some examples are:
(1) Abrasive blasting of the external surface of the vessel (the hull) for paint preparation does not necessitate pumping and cleaning the tanks of a vessel.
(2) Prior to hot work on any hollow structure, the void space should be tested and appropriate precautions taken.
WAC 296-304-020(2) Definition of "Lower explosive limit." The terms lower flammable limit (LFL) and lower explosive limit (LEL) are used interchangeably in fire science literature.
WAC 296-304-020(2) Definition of "Upper explosive limit." The terms upper flammable limit (UFL) and upper explosive limit (UEL) are used interchangeably in fire science literature.
WAC 296-304-02003(1) After a tank has been properly washed and ventilated, the tank should contain 20.8 percent oxygen by volume. This is the same amount found in our normal atmosphere at sea level. However, it is possible that the oxygen content will be lower. When this is the case, the reasons for this deficiency should be determined and corrective action taken.
An oxygen content of 19.5 percent can support life and is adequate for entry. However, any oxygen level less than 20.8 percent and greater than 19.5 percent level should also alert the competent person to look for the causes of the oxygen deficiency and to correct them prior to entry.
WAC 296-304-02003(2) Flammable atmospheres. Atmospheres with a concentration of flammable vapors at or above 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) are considered hazardous when located in confined spaces. However, atmospheres with flammable vapors below 10 percent of the LEL are not necessarily safe.
Such atmospheres are too lean to burn. Nevertheless, when a space contains or produces measurable flammable vapors below the 10 percent LEL, it might indicate that flammable vapors are being released or introduced into the space and could present a hazard in time. Therefore, the cause of the vapors should be investigated and, if possible, eliminated prior to entry.
Some situations that have produced measurable concentrations of flammable vapors that could exceed 10 percent of the LEL in time are:
(1) Pipelines that should have been blanked or disconnected have opened, allowing product into the space.
(2) The vessel may have shifted, allowing product not previously cleaned and removed during washing to move into other areas of the vessel.
(3) Residues may be producing the atmosphere by releasing flammable vapor.
WAC 296-304-02003(2) Flammable atmospheres that are toxic. An atmosphere with a measurable concentration of a flammable substance below 10 percent of the LEL may be above the WISHA permissible exposure limit for that substance. In that case, refer to WAC 296-304-02003 (3)(b), (c), and (d).
WAC 296-304-02005 (2)(d), 296-304-02009(3), and 296-304-02009(5). The frequency with which a tank is monitored to determine if atmospheric conditions are being maintained is a function of several factors that are discussed below:
(1) Temperature. Higher temperatures will cause a combustible or flammable liquid to vaporize at a faster rate than lower temperatures. This is important since hotter days may cause tank residues to produce more vapors and that may result in the vapors exceeding 10 percent of the LEL or an overexposure to toxic contaminants.
(2) Work in the tank. Any activity in the tank could change the atmospheric conditions in that tank. Oxygen from a leaking oxyfuel hose or torch could result in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere that would more easily propagate a flame. Some welding operations use inert gas, and leaks can result in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Manual tank cleaning with high pressure spray devices can stir up residues and result in exposures to toxic contaminants. Simple cleaning or mucking out, where employees walk through and shovel residues and sludge, can create a change in atmospheric conditions.
(3) Period of time elapsed. If a period of time has elapsed since a marine chemist or Coast Guard authorized person has certified a tank as safe, the atmospheric condition should be rechecked by the competent person prior to entry and starting work.
(4) Unattended tanks or spaces. When a tank or space has been tested and declared safe, then subsequently left unattended for a period of time, it should be retested prior to entry and starting work. For example, when barges are left unattended at night, unidentified products from another barge are sometimes dumped into their empty tanks. Since this would result in a changed atmosphere, the tanks should be retested prior to entry and starting work.
(5) Work break. When workers take a break or leave at the end of the shift, equipment sometimes is inadvertently left in the tanks. At lunch or work breaks and at the end of the shift are the times when it is most likely someone will leave a burning or cutting torch in the tank, perhaps turned on and leaking oxygen or an inert gas. Since the former can produce an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and the latter an oxygen-deficient atmosphere, tanks should be checked for equipment left behind, and atmosphere, monitored if necessary prior to reentering and resuming work. In an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, the flammable range is severely broadened. This means that an oxygen-enriched atmosphere can promote very rapid burning.
(6) Ballasting or trimming. Changing the position of the ballast, or trimming or in any way moving the vessel so as to expose cargo that had been previously trapped, can produce a change in the atmosphere of the tank. The atmosphere should be retested after any such move and prior to entry or work.
WAC 296-304-02007 (1) and (2) hot work. This is a reminder that other sections of the WISHA shipyard safety and health standards in chapter 296-304 WAC should be reviewed prior to starting any hot work. Most notably, WAC 296-304-040 through 296-304-04013, welding, cutting and heating, places additional restrictions on hot work: The requirements of WAC 296-304-04001 and 296-304-04005 must be met before hot work is begun on any metal that is toxic or is covered by a preservative coating respectively; the requirements of WAC 296-304-04007 must be met before welding, cutting, or heating is begun on any structural voids.
WAC 296-304-02003 (1)(b). During hot work, more than 20.8 percent oxygen by volume can be unsafe since it extends the normal flammable range. The standard permits the oxygen level to reach 22.0 percent by volume in order to account for instrument error. However, the cause of excess oxygen should be investigated and the source removed.
WAC 296-304-02011(2). If the entire vessel has been found to be in the same condition, then employers shall be considered to be in compliance with this requirement when signs using appropriate warning language in accordance with WAC 296-304-02011(1) are posted at the gangway and at all other means of access to the vessel.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-304-02013, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-02013, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02013, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95.]



296-304-02015
Appendix C—Confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres in shipyard employment.

(1) Title 46 C.F.R. 35.01-1 (a) through (c) covering hot work on tank vessels reads as follows:
(a) The provisions of "Standard for the Control of Gas Hazards on Vessels to be Repaired," NFPA No. 306, published by National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, shall be used as a guide in conducting the inspections and issuance of certificates required by this chapter.
(b) Until an inspection has been made to determine that such operation can be undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made:
(i) Within or on the boundaries of cargo tanks that have been used to carry flammable or combustible liquid or chemicals in bulk, or within spaces adjacent to such cargo tanks; or
(ii) Within or on the boundaries of fuel tanks; or
(iii) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to such cargo or fuel tanks.
(c) Such inspections shall be made and evidenced as follows:
(i) In ports or places in the United States or its territories and possessions, the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection Association; however, if the services of such certified marine chemists are not reasonably available, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, upon the recommendation of the vessel owner and his/her contractor or their representative, shall select a person who, in the case of an individual vessel, shall be authorized to make such inspection.
(ii) If the inspection indicates that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate setting forth the fact in writing and qualified as may be required, shall be issued by the certified marine chemist or the authorized person before the work is started.
(iii) Such qualifications shall include any requirements as may be deemed necessary to maintain, insofar as can reasonably be done, the safe conditions in the spaces certified, throughout the operation and shall include such additional tests and certifications as considered required.
(iv) Such qualifications and requirements shall include precautions necessary to eliminate or minimize hazards that may be present from protective coatings or residues from cargoes.
(2) Title 46 C.F.R. 71.60(c)(1) covering hot work on passenger vessels reads as follows:
(a) The provisions of "Standard for the Control of Gas Hazards on Vessels to be Repaired," NFPA No. 306, published by National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, shall be used as a guide in conducting the inspections and issuance of certificates required by this chapter.
(b) Until an inspection has been made to determine that such operation can be undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made:
(i) Within or on the boundaries of cargo tanks which have been used to carry flammable or combustible liquid or chemicals in bulk, or within spaces adjacent to such cargo tanks; or
(ii) Within or on the boundaries of fuel tanks; or
(iii) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to such cargo or fuel tanks.
(c) Such inspections shall be made and evidenced as follows:
(i) In ports or places in the United States or its territories and possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection Association; however, if the services of such certified marine chemist are not reasonably available, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, upon the recommendation of the vessel owner and his/her contractor or their representative, shall select a person who, in the case of an individual vessel, shall be authorized to make such inspection.
(ii) If the inspection indicated that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate setting forth the fact in writing and qualified as may be required, shall be issued by the certified marine chemist or the authorized person before the work is started.
(iii) Such qualifications shall include any requirements as may be deemed necessary to maintain, insofar as can reasonably be done, the safe conditions in the spaces certified throughout the operation and shall include such additional tests and certifications as considered required.
(iv) Such qualifications and requirements shall include precautions necessary to eliminate or minimize hazards that may be present from protective coatings or residues from cargoes.
(3) Title 46 C.F.R. 91.50-1(c)(1) covering hot work on cargo and miscellaneous vessels as follows:
(a) The provisions of "Standard for the Control of Gas Hazards on Vessels to be Repaired," NFPA No. 306, published by National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, shall be used as a guide in conducting the inspections and issuance of certificates required by this chapter.
(b) Until an inspection has been made to determine that such operation can be undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made:
(i) Within or on the boundaries of cargo tanks which have been used to carry flammable or combustible liquid or chemicals in bulk, or within spaces adjacent to such cargo tanks; or,
(ii) Within or on the boundaries of fuel tanks; or,
(iii) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to such cargo or fuel tanks.
(c) Such inspections shall be made and evidenced as follows:
(i) In ports or places in the United States or its territories and possessions the inspection shall be made by a marine chemist certificated by the National Fire Protection Association; however, if the services of such certified marine chemist are not reasonably available, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, upon the recommendation of the vessel owner and his/her contractor or their representative, shall select a person who, in the case of an individual vessel, shall be authorized to make such inspection.
(ii) If the inspection indicated that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate setting forth the fact in writing and qualified as may be required, shall be issued by the certified marine chemist or the authorized person before the work is started.
(iii) Such qualifications shall include any requirements as may be deemed necessary to maintain, insofar as can reasonably be done, the safe conditions in the spaces certified throughout the operation and shall include such additional tests and certifications as considered required.
(iv) Such qualifications and requirements shall include precautions necessary to eliminate or minimize hazards that may be present from protective coatings or residues from cargoes.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-17-034, § 296-304-02015, filed 8/7/07, effective 12/1/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-02015, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95.]



296-304-030
Surface preparation and preservation—Scope and application.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-030, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-03001
Toxic cleaning solvents.

(1) When toxic solvents are used, the employer shall employ one or more of the following measures to safeguard the health of employees exposed to these solvents.
(a) The cleaning operation shall be completely enclosed to prevent the escape of vapor into the working space.
(b) Either natural ventilation or mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be used to remove the vapor at the source and to dilute the concentration of vapors in the working space to a concentration which is safe for the entire work period.
(c) The employer must ensure that employees are protected against:
• Exposure of skin and eyes to contact with toxic solvents and their vapors by suitable clothing and equipment.
(2) The principles in the threshold limit values to which attention is directed in WAC 296-304-02005 and applicable sections in chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC will be used by the department of labor and industries in enforcement proceedings in defining a safe concentration of air contaminants.
(3) When flammable solvents are used, precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-03001, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-03001, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-03001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-03001, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, § 296-304-03001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-03001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-03003
Chemical paint and preservative removers.

(1) The employer must ensure that employees are protected against:
• Skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers; and
(2) When using flammable paint and preservative removers precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.
(3) When using chemical paint and preservative removers which contain volatile and toxic solvents, such as benzol, acetone and amyl acetate, the provisions of WAC 296-304-03001 shall be applicable.
(4) The employer must ensure that employees using paint and rust removers containing strong acids or alkalies are protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the face and neck according to the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2).
(5) The employer must ensure that all employees working within range of a steam gun blast are protected by suitable face shields according to the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2). Metal parts of the steam gun itself must be insulated to protect the operator against heat burns.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-03003, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-03003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-03005
Mechanical paint removers.

(1) Power tools.
(b) All portable rotating tools used for the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts or other coatings shall be adequately guarded to protect both the operator and nearby workers from flying missiles.
(c) Portable electric tools shall be grounded in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-08003 (1) and (2).
(d) In a confined space, the employer must provide mechanical exhaust ventilation sufficient to keep the dust concentration to a minimum, or must protect employees by respiratory protective equipment that meets the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(2) Flame removal.
(a) The employer must ensure that when hardened preservative coatings are removed by flame in enclosed spaces, the employees exposed to fumes are protected by air line respirators that meet the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC. Employees performing this operation in the open air, and those exposed to the resulting fumes, must be protected by a fume filter respirator that meets the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(b) Flame or heat shall not be used to remove soft and greasy preservative coatings.
(3) Abrasive blasting.
(a) Equipment. Hoses and fittings used for abrasive blasting shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Hoses. Hose of a type to prevent shocks from static electricity shall be used.
(ii) Hose couplings. Hose lengths shall be joined by metal couplings secured to the outside of the hose to avoid erosion and weakening of the couplings.
(iii) Nozzles. Nozzles shall be attached to the hose by fittings that will prevent the nozzle from unintentionally becoming disengaged. Nozzle attachments shall be of metal and shall fit onto the hose externally.
(iv) Dead man control. A dead man control device shall be provided at the nozzle end of the blasting hose either to provide direct cutoff or to signal the pot tender by means of a visual and audible signal to cut off the flow, in the event the blaster loses control of the hose. The pot tender shall be available at all times to respond immediately to the signal.
(b) Replacement. Hoses and all fittings used for abrasive blasting shall be inspected frequently to insure timely replacement before an unsafe amount of wear has occurred.
(c) Personal protective equipment.
(i) The employer must ensure that abrasive blasters working in enclosed spaces are protected by abrasive blasting respirators that meet the requirements of chapter 296-818 WAC, Abrasive blasting and chapter 296-842 WAC.
(ii) The employer must ensure that abrasive blasters working in the open are protected as required in subsection (1) of this section.
Exception:
When synthetic abrasives containing less than one percent free silica are used, the employer may substitute particulate or dust filter respirators that are approved by the National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) and used according to chapter 296-842 WAC.
(iii) The employer must ensure that employees, including machine tenders and abrasive recovery workers, working in areas where unsafe concentrations of abrasive materials and dusts are present are protected by eye and respiratory protective equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2) and chapter 296-842 WAC.
Exception:
This requirement does not apply to blasters.
(iv) The employer must ensure that a blaster is protected against injury from exposure to the blast by appropriate protective clothing, including gloves that meet the requirements of WAC 296-304-09015(1).
(v) A surge from a drop in pressure in the hose line can throw a blaster off the staging. To protect against this hazard, the employer must ensure that a blaster is protected by a personal fall arrest system, that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09021. The personal fall arrest system must be tied off to the ship or other structure during blasting from elevations where adequate fall protection cannot be provided by railings.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 06-12-074, § 296-304-03005, filed 6/6/06, effective 9/1/06; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-03005, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-304-03005, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-03005, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-03005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-03005, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, § 296-304-03005, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-03005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-03007
Painting.

(1) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents.
(a) When employees spray paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents, the employer must ensure that the following conditions are met:
(i) In confined spaces, employees continuously exposed to spraying are protected by air line respirators.
(ii) In tanks or compartments, employees continuously exposed to spraying are protected by air line respirators. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, employees are protected by respirators.
(iii) In large and well ventilated areas, employees exposed to spraying are protected by respirators.
(b) The employer must ensure that where employees apply by brush paints with toxic solvents in confined spaces or other areas where lack of ventilation creates a hazard, the employees are protected by filter respirators.
(c) When flammable paints or vehicles are used, precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.
(d) The metallic parts of air moving devices, including fans, blowers, and jet-type air movers, and all duct work shall be electrically bonded to the vessel's structure.
(2) Paints and tank coatings dissolved in highly volatile, toxic and flammable solvents. Several organic coatings, adhesives and resins are dissolved in highly toxic, flammable and explosive solvents with flash points below 80°F. Work involving such materials shall be done only when all of the following special precautions have been taken:
(a) Sufficient exhaust ventilation shall be provided to keep the concentration of solvent vapors below ten percent of the lower explosive limit. Frequent tests shall be made by a competent person to ascertain the concentration.
(b) If the ventilation fails or if the concentration of solvent vapors reaches or exceeds ten percent of the lower explosive limit, painting shall be stopped and the compartment shall be evacuated until the concentration again falls below ten percent of the lower explosive limit. If the concentration does not fall when painting is stopped, additional ventilation to bring the concentration down to ten percent of the lower explosive limit shall be provided.
(c) Ventilation shall be continued after the completion of painting until the space or compartment is gas free. The final determination as to whether the space or compartment is gas free shall be made after the ventilating equipment has been shut off for a least ten minutes.
(d) Exhaust ducts shall discharge clear of working areas and away from sources of possible ignition. Periodic tests shall be made to ensure that the exhausted vapors are not accumulating in other areas within or around the vessel or dry dock.
(e) All motors and control equipment shall be of the explosion-proof type. Fans shall have nonferrous blades. Portable air ducts shall also be of nonferrous materials. All motors and associated control equipment shall be properly maintained and grounded.
(f) Only nonsparking paint buckets, spray guns and tools shall be used. Metal parts of paint brushes and rollers shall be insulated. Staging shall be erected in a manner which ensures that it is nonsparking.
(g) Only explosion proof lights, approved by the Underwriters' Laboratories for use in Class I, Group D atmospheres, or approved as permissible by the U.S. Bureau of Mines or the U.S. Coast Guard, shall be used.
(h) A competent person shall inspect all power and lighting cables to ensure that the insulation is in excellent condition, free of all cracks and worn spots, that there are no connections within fifty feet of the operation, that lines are not overloaded, and that they are suspended with sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing.
(i) The face, eyes, head, hands and all other exposed parts of the bodies of employees handling highly volatile paints must be protected according to WAC 296-304-090. All footwear must be nonsparking, such as rubbers, rubber boots or rubber soled shoes without nails. Coveralls or other outer clothing must be made of cotton. Rubber gloves, instead of plastic gloves, must be used to protect against the danger of static sparks.
(j) No matches, lighted cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, and no cigarette lighters or ferrous articles shall be taken into the area where work is being done.
(k) All solvent drums taken into the compartment shall be placed on nonferrous surfaces and shall be grounded to the vessel. Metallic contact shall be maintained between containers and drums when materials are being transferred from one to another.
(l) Spray guns, paint pots, and metallic parts of connecting tubing shall be electrically bonded, and the bonded assembly shall be grounded to the vessel.
(m) The employer must ensure that all employees continuously in a compartment in which such painting is performed, are protected by air line respirators and by suitable protective clothing. Employees entering such compartments for a limited time must be protected by filter cartridge type respirators.
(n) The employer must ensure that all employees doing exterior paint spraying with such paints are protected by suitable filter cartridge type respirators and by suitable protective clothing.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-03007, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05;03-04-099, § 296-304-03007, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-03007, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-03007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-03007, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, § 296-304-03007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-03007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-03009
Flammable liquids.

(1) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and preservative removers, paints or vehicles, other than those covered by WAC 296-304-03007(2), are capable of producing a flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) Smoking, open flames, arcs and spark-producing equipment shall be prohibited in the area.
(b) Ventilation shall be provided in sufficient quantities to keep the concentration of vapors below ten percent of their lower explosive limit. Frequent tests shall be made by a competent person to ascertain the concentration.
(c) Scrapings and rags soaked with these materials shall be kept in a covered metal container.
(d) Only explosion proof lights, approved by the Underwriters' Laboratories for use in Class I, Group D atmospheres, or approved as permissible by the U.S. Bureau of Mines or the U.S. Coast Guard, shall be used.
(e) A competent person shall inspect all power and lighting cables to ensure that the insulation is in excellent condition, free of all cracks and worn spots, that there are no connections within fifty feet of the operation, that lines are not overloaded, and that they are suspended with sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing.
(f) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be immediately available in the work area and shall be maintained in a state of readiness for instant use.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-03009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-040
Welding, cutting and heating—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-040 in the section number apply to welding, cutting and heating.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 06-16-106, § 296-304-040, filed 8/1/06, effective 9/1/06; Order 74-25, § 296-304-040, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04001
Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting and heating.

(1) Mechanical ventilation requirements.
(a) For the purposes of this section, mechanical ventilation shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Mechanical ventilation shall consist of either general mechanical ventilation systems or local exhaust systems.
(ii) General mechanical ventilation shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to produce the number of air changes necessary to maintain welding fumes and smoke within safe limits.
(iii) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder or burner as close as practicable to the work. This system shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to remove fumes and smoke at the source and keep the concentration of them in the breathing zone within safe limits.
(iv) Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged into the open air or otherwise clear of the source of intake air.
(v) All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable.
(vi) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust or dirt from clothing, or for cleaning the work area.
(2) Welding, cutting and heating in confined spaces.
(a) Except as provided in WAC 296-304-04001 (2)(c) and (3)(b), either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of (1) of this section shall be provided whenever welding, cutting or heating is performed in a confined space.
(c) When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained without blocking the means of access, employees in the confined space shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC, and an employee on the outside of such a confined space shall be assigned to maintain communication with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency.
(3) Welding, cutting or heating of metals of toxic significance.
(a) Welding, cutting or heating in any enclosed spaces aboard the vessel involving the metals specified in this subsection shall be performed with either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of (1) of this section.
(i) Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials.
(ii) Lead base metals.
(iii) Cadmium-bearing filler materials.
(iv) Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
(b) Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces aboard the vessel involving the metals specified in this subsection shall be performed with local exhaust ventilation in accordance with the requirements of (1) of this section or employees shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(i) Metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or metals coated with lead-bearing materials.
(ii) Cadmium-bearing or cadmium coated base metals.
(iii) Metals coated with mercury-bearing metals.
(iv) Beryllium-containing base or filler metals. Because of its high toxicity, work involving beryllium shall be done with both local exhaust ventilation and air line respirators.
(c) Employees performing such operations in the open air shall be protected by filter type respirators in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-09003, except that employees performing such operations on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(d) Other employees exposed to the same atmosphere as the welders or burners shall be protected in the same manner as the welder or burner.
(4) Inert-gas metal-arc welding.
(a) Since the inert-gas metal-arc welding process involves the production of ultraviolet radiation of intensities of 5 to 30 times that produced during shielded metal-arc welding, the decomposition of chlorinated solvents by ultraviolet rays, and the liberation of toxic fumes and gases, employees shall not be permitted to engage in, or be exposed to the process until the following special precautions have been taken:
(i) The use of chlorinated solvents shall be kept at least two hundred feet from the exposed arc, and surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is permitted on such surfaces.
(ii) Helpers and other employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening as provided in WAC 206-304-04011(5) shall be protected by filter lenses meeting the requirements of Tables I-1A and B (see below). When two or more welders are exposed to each other's arc, filter lens goggles of a suitable type meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09001 (1) and (3) shall be worn under welding helmets or hand shields to protect the welder against flashes and radiant energy when either the helmet is lifted or the shield is removed.
(iii) Welders and other employees who are exposed to radiation shall be suitably protected so that the skin is covered completely to prevent burns and other damage by ultraviolet rays. Welding helmets and hand shields shall be free of leaks and openings, and free of highly reflective surfaces.
(iv) When inert-gas metal-arc welding is being performed on stainless steel, the requirements of (3)(b) of this section shall be met to protect against dangerous concentrations of nitrogen dioxide.
(5) General welding, cutting and heating.
(a) Welding, cutting and heating not involving conditions or materials described in (2), (3) or (4) of this section may normally be done without mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment, but where, because of unusual physical or atmospheric conditions, an unsafe accumulation of contaminants exists, suitable mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment shall be provided.
(b) Employees performing any type of welding, cutting or heating shall be protected by suitable eye protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of Tables I-1A and B (see below).
(6) Residues and cargos of metallic ores.
Residues and cargos of metallic ores of toxic significance shall be removed from the area or protected from the heat before welding, cutting or heating is begun.
TABLE I-1A
FILTER LENSES FOR PROTECTION AGAINST
RADIANT ENERGY
OPERATIONS
ELECTRODE
SIZE 1/32 IN
ARC
CURRENT
MINIMUM
PROTECTIVE
SHADE
Shielded metal arc welding
Less than 3
3-5
5-8
More than 8
Less than 60
60-160
160-250
250-550
7
8
10
11
 
Gas metal arc
welding and flux
cored arc welding
 
Less than 60
60-160
160-250
250-550
7
10
10
10
 
Gas Tungsten arc
welding
 
Less than 50
50-150
150-500
8
8
10
 
Air carbon arc cutting
(Light)
(Heavy)
Less than 500
500-1000
10
11
 
Plasma arc welding
 
Less than 20
20-100
100-400
400-800
6
8
10
11
 
Plasma arc cutting
(Light)**
(Medium)**
(Heavy)**
Less than 300
300-400
400-800
8
9
10
 
Torch brazing
3
 
Torch soldering
2
 
Carbon Arc welding
14
 
**
These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workplace.
TABLE I-1B
FILTER LENSES FOR PROTECTION AGAINST
RADIANT ENERGY
OPERATIONS
PLATE
THICKNESS...
INCHES
PLATE
THICKNESS...
MM
MINIMUM*
PROTECTIVE
SHADE
Gas welding
Light
Medium
Heavy
Under 1/8
1/8 - 1/2
Over 1/2
Under 3.2
3.2 - 12.7
Over 12.7
4
5
6
Oxygen cutting
Light
Medium
Heavy
Under 1
1 - 6
Over 6
Under 25
25 - 100
Over 150
3
4
5
*
As rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the viable light of the (spectrum) operation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-04001, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-04001, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-04001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-04001, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 74-25, § 296-304-04001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04005
Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.

(1) Before welding, cutting or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
(2) Precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. When coatings are determined to be highly flammable they shall be stripped from the area to be heated to prevent ignition. A 1 1/2-inch or larger fire hose with fog nozzle, which has been uncoiled and placed under pressure, shall be immediately available for instant use in the immediate vicinity, consistent with avoiding freezing of the hose.
(3) Protection against toxic preservative coatings.
(b) In the open air employees shall be protected by a filter type respirator in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.
(4) Before welding, cutting or heating is commenced in enclosed spaces on metals covered by soft and greasy preservatives, the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) A competent person shall test the atmosphere in the space to ensure that it does not contain explosive vapors, since there is a possibility that some soft and greasy preservatives may have flash points below temperatures which may be expected to occur naturally. If such vapors are determined to be present, no hot work shall be commenced until such precautions have been taken as will ensure that the welding, cutting or heating can be performed in safety.
(b) The preservative coatings shall be removed for a sufficient distance from the area to be heated to ensure that the temperature of the unstripped metal will not be appreciably raised. Artificial cooling of the metal surrounding the heated area may be used to limit the size of the area required to be cleaned. The prohibition contained in WAC 296-304-03005 (2)(b) shall apply.
(5) Immediately after welding, cutting or heating is commenced in enclosed spaces on metal covered by soft and greasy preservatives, and at frequent intervals thereafter, a competent person shall make tests to ensure that no flammable vapors are being produced by the coatings. If such vapors are determined to be present, the operation shall be stopped immediately and shall not be resumed until such additional precautions have been taken as are necessary to ensure that the operation can be resumed safely.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-04005, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-04005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-04005, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 74-25, § 296-304-04005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04007
Welding, cutting and heating of hollow metal containers and structures not covered by WAC
296-304-02003.

(1) Drums, containers, or hollow structures which have contained toxic or flammable substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is undertaken on them, either be filled with water or thoroughly cleaned of such substances and ventilated and tested.
(2) Before heat is applied to a drum, container, or hollow structure, a vent or opening shall be provided for the release of any built-up pressure during the application of heat.
(3) Before welding, cutting, heating or brazing is begun on structural voids such as skegs, bilge keels, fair waters, masts, booms, support stanchions, pipe stanchions or railings, a competent person shall inspect the object and, if necessary, test it for the presence of flammable liquids or vapors. If flammable liquids or vapors are present, the object shall be made safe.
(4) Objects such as those listed in (3) of this section shall also be inspected to determine whether water or other nonflammable liquids are present which, when heated, would build up excessive pressure. If such liquids are determined to be present, the object shall be vented, cooled, or otherwise made safe during the application of heat.
(5) Jacketed vessels shall be vented before and during welding, cutting or heating operations in order to release any pressure which may build up during the application of heat.
[Order 76-7, § 296-304-04007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-04007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04009
Gas welding and cutting.

(1) Transporting, moving and storing compressed gas cylinders.
(a) Valve protection caps shall be in place and secure. Oil shall not be used to lubricate protection caps.
(b) When cylinders are hoisted, they shall be secured on a cradle, slingboard or pallet. They shall not be hoisted by means of magnets or choker slings.
(c) Cylinders shall be moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. They shall not be intentionally dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently.
(d) When cylinders are transported by vehicle, they shall be secured in position.
(e) Valve protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. Bars shall not be used under valves or valve protection caps to pry cylinders loose when frozen. Warm, not boiling, water shall be used to thaw cylinders loose.
(f) Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a special carrier intended for this purpose, regulators shall be removed and valve protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved.
(g) A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steadying device shall be used to keep cylinders from being knocked over while in use.
(h) When work is finished, when cylinders are empty or when cylinders are moved at any time, the cylinder valves shall be closed.
(i) Acetylene cylinders shall be secured in an upright position at all times except, if necessary, for short periods of time while cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried.
(2) Placing cylinders.
(a) Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so that sparks, hot slag or flame will not reach them. When this is impractical, fire resistant shields shall be provided.
(b) Cylinders shall be placed where they cannot become part of an electrical circuit. Electrodes shall not be struck against a cylinder to strike an arc.
(c) Fuel gas cylinders shall be placed with valve end up whenever they are in use. They shall not be placed in a location where they would be subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat.
(d) Cylinders containing oxygen or acetylene or other fuel gas shall not be taken into confined spaces.
(3) Treatment of cylinders.
(a) Cylinders, whether full or empty, shall not be used as rollers or supports.
(b) No person other than the gas supplier shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. No one except the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by him shall refill a cylinder. No one shall use a cylinder's contents for purposes other than those intended by the supplier. Only cylinders bearing Interstate Commerce Commission identification and inspection markings shall be used.
(c) No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used.
(4) Use of fuel gas. The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the safe use of fuel gas, as follows:
(a) Before connecting a regulator to a cylinder valve, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame or other possible sources of ignition.
(b) The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. To permit quick closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened more than 1 1/2 turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of emergency. In the case of a manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be available for immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve.
(c) Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices which are equipped with shut-off valves without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to the cylinder valve or manifold.
(d) Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator.
(e) If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a leak around the valve stem, the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the vessel. In the event that fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve rather than from the valve stem and the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed from the vessel. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a leak through the valve seat the cylinder need not be removed from the vessel.
(f) If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder shall be removed from the vessel.
(5) Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds.
(a) Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in letters at least one (1) inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it.
(b) Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall be placed in safe and accessible locations in the open air. They shall not be located within enclosed spaces.
(c) Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold, shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. Adapters shall not be used to permit the interchange of hose. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and oil.
(d) When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped.
(e) Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves.
(6) Hose.
(a) Fuel gas hose and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable from each other. The contrast may be made by different colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses shall not be interchangeable. A single hose having more than one gas passage, a wall failure of which would permit the flow of one gas into the other gas passage, shall not be used.
(b) When parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose are taped together, not more than 4 inches out of 8 inches shall be covered by tape.
(c) All hose carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured fuel gas, or any gas or substance which may ignite or enter into combustion or be in any way harmful to employees, shall be inspected at the beginning of each shift. Defective hose shall be removed from service.
(d) Hose which has been subjected to flashback or which shows evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than two hundred psi. Defective hose or hose in doubtful condition shall not be used.
(e) Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull without rotary motion.
(f) Boxes used for the stowage of gas hose shall be ventilated.
(7) Torches.
(a) Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills or other devices designed for such purpose.
(b) Torches shall be inspected at the beginning of each shift for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used.
(c) Torches shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from hot work.
(8) Pressure regulators. Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators including their related gauges shall be in proper working order while in use.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-04009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04011
Arc welding and cutting.

(1) Manual electrode holders.
(a) Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting and are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the electrodes shall be used.
(b) Any current carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or cutter grips in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, shall be fully insulated against the maximum voltage encountered to ground.
(2) Welding cables and connectors.
(a) All arc welding and cutting cables shall be of the completely insulated, flexible type, capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the duty cycle under which the arc welder or cutter is working.
(b) Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of ten feet from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used, except that cables with standard insulated connectors or with splices whose insulating quality is equal to that of the cable are permitted.
(c) When it becomes necessary to connect or splice lengths of cable one to another, substantial insulated connectors of a capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable shall be used. If connections are effected by means of cable lugs, they shall be securely fastened together to give good electrical contact, and the exposed metal parts of the lugs shall be completely insulated.
(d) Cables in poor repair shall not be used. When a cable, other than the cable lead referred to in (b), becomes worn to the extent of exposing bare conductors, the portion thus exposed shall be protected by means of rubber and friction tapes or other equivalent insulation.
(3) Ground returns and machine grounding.
(a) A ground return cable shall have a safe current carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the specified maximum output capacity of the arc welding or cutting unit which it services. When a single ground return cable services more than one unit, its safe current carrying capacity shall equal or exceed the total specified maximum output capacities of all the units which it services.
(b) Structures or pipe lines, except pipelines containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used as part of the ground return circuit, provided that the pipe or structure has a current carrying capacity equal to that required by (2).
(c) When a structure or pipe line is employed as a ground return circuit, it shall be determined that the required electrical contact exists at all joints. The generation of an arc, sparks or heat at any point shall cause rejection of the structure as a ground circuit.
(d) When a structure or pipe line is continuously employed as a ground return circuit, all joints shall be bonded, and periodic inspections shall be conducted to ensure that no condition of electrolysis or fire hazard exists by virtue of such use.
(e) The frames of all arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current. Grounding circuits, other than by means of the vessel's structure, shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(f) All ground connections shall be inspected to ensure that they are mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current.
(4) Operating instructions. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe means of arc welding and cutting as follows:
(a) When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected that they cannot make electrical contact with employees or conducting objects.
(b) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water, since to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock.
(c) When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened.
(d) Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor.
(5) Shielding. Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded by noncombustible or flame-proof screens which will protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-04011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-04013
Uses of fissionable material in ship-breaking, shipbuilding and ship repairing.

(1) In ship-breaking, shipbuilding and ship repairing and related activities involving the use of and exposure to sources of ionizing radiation not only on conventionally powered but also on nuclear powered vessels, the applicable provisions of the Atomic Energy Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10 C.F.R. Part 20), relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.
(2) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive material, whether or not under license from the Atomic Energy Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.
[Order 76-7, § 296-304-04013, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-04013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-050
Scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-050 in the section number apply to scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-050, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05001
Scaffolds or staging.

(1) General requirements.
(a) All scaffolds and their supports whether of lumber, steel or other material, shall be capable of supporting the load they are designed to carry with a safety factor of not less than four.
(b) All lumber used in the construction of scaffolds shall be spruce, fir, long leaf yellow pine, Oregon pine or wood of equal strength. The use of hemlock, short leaf yellow pine, or short fiber lumber is prohibited.
(c) Lumber dimensions as given are nominal except where given in fractions of an inch.
(d) All lumber used in the construction of scaffolds shall be sound, straight-grained, free from cross grain, shakes and large, loose or dead knots. It shall also be free from dry rot, large checks, worm holes or other defects which impair its strength or durability.
(e) Scaffolds shall be maintained in a safe and secure condition. Any component of the scaffold which is broken, burned or otherwise defective shall be replaced.
(f) Barrels, boxes, cans, loose bricks, or other unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms or for the support of planking intended as scaffolds or working platforms.
(g) No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under the supervision of competent persons.
(h) No welding, burning, riveting or open flame work shall be performed on any staging suspended by means of fiber rope.
(i) Lifting bridles on working platforms suspended from cranes shall consist of four legs so attached that the stability of the platform is assured.
(j) Unless the crane hook has a safety latch or is moused, the lifting bridles on working platforms suspended from cranes shall be attached by shackles to the lower lifting block or other positive means shall be taken to prevent them from becoming accidentally disengaged from the crane hook.
(2) Independent pole wood scaffolds.
(a) All pole uprights shall be set plumb. Poles shall rest on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to distribute the load and to prevent displacement.
(b) In light-duty scaffolds not more than 24 feet in height, poles may be spliced by overlapping the ends not less than 4 feet and securely nailing them together. A substantial cleat shall be nailed to the lower section to form a support for the upper section except when bolted connections are used.
(c) All other poles to be spliced shall be squared at the ends of each splice, abutted, and rigidly fastened together by not less than two cleats securely nailed or bolted thereto. Each cleat shall overlap each pole end by at least 24 inches and shall have a width equal to the face of the pole to which it is attached. The combined cross sectional area of the cleats shall be not less than the cross sectional area of the pole.
(d) Ledgers shall extend over two consecutive pole spaces and shall overlap the poles at each end by not less than 4 inches. They shall be left in position to brace the poles as the platform is raised with the progress of the work. Ledgers shall be level and shall be securely nailed or bolted to each pole and shall be placed against the inside face of each pole.
(e) All bearers shall be set with their greater dimension vertical and shall extend beyond the ledgers upon which they rest.
(f) Diagonal bracing shall be provided between the parallel poles, and cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer poles or from the outer poles to the ground.
(h) Platform planking shall be in accordance with the requirements of (8) of this section.
(i) Backrails and toeboards shall be in accordance with the requirements of (9) of this section.
(3) Independent pole metal scaffolds.
(a) Metal scaffold members shall be maintained in good repair and free of corrosion.
(b) All vertical and horizontal members shall be fastened together with a coupler or locking device which will form a positive connection. The locking device shall be of a type which has no loose parts.
(c) Posts shall be kept plumb during erection and the scaffold shall be subsequently kept plumb and rigid by means of adequate bracing.
(d) Posts shall be fitted with bases supported on a firm foundation to distribute the load. When wooden sills are used, the bases shall be fastened thereto.
(e) Bearers shall be located at each set of posts, at each level, and at each intermediate level where working platforms are installed.
(f) Tubular bracing shall be applied both lengthwise and crosswise as required.
(g) Platform planking shall be in accordance with the requirements of (8) of this section.
(h) Backrails and toeboards shall be in accordance with the requirements of (9) of this section.
(4) Wood trestle and extension trestle ladders.
(a) The use of trestle ladders, or extension sections or base sections of extension trestle ladders longer than 20 feet is prohibited. The total height of base and extension may, however, be more than 20 feet.
(b) The minimum dimensions of the side rails of the trestle ladder, or the base sections of the extension trestle ladder, shall be as follows:
(i) Ladders up to and including those 16 feet long shall have side rails of not less than 1 5/16 x 2 3/4 inch lumber.
(ii) Ladders over 16 feet long and up to and including those 20 feet long shall have side rails of not less than 1 5/16 x 3 inch lumber.
(c) The side rails of the extension section of the extension trestle ladder shall be parallel and shall have minimum dimensions as follows:
(i) Ladders up to and including 12 feet long shall have side rails of not less than 1 5/16 x 2 1/4 inch lumber.
(ii) Ladders over 12 feet long and up to and including those 16 feet long shall have side rails of not less than 1 5/16 x 2 1/2 inch lumber.
(iii) Ladders over 16 feet long and up to and including those 20 feet long shall have side rails of not less than 1 5/16 x 3 inch lumber. (Rev. 2-17-76)
(d) Trestle ladders and base sections of extension trestle ladders shall be so spread that when in an open position the spread of the trestle at the bottom, inside to inside, shall be not less than 5 1/2 inches per foot of the length of the ladder.
(e) The width between the side rails at the bottom of the trestle ladder or of the base section of the extension trestle ladder shall be not less than 21 inches for all ladders and sections 6 feet or less in length. For longer lengths of ladder the width shall be increased at least 1 inch for each additional foot of length. The width between the side rails of the extension section of the trestle ladder shall be not less than 12 inches.
(f) In order to limit spreading, the top ends of the side rails of both the trestle ladder and of the base section of the extension trestle ladder shall be beveled, or of equivalent construction, and shall be provided with a metal hinge.
(g) A metal spreader or locking device to hold the front and back sections in an open position, and to hold the extension section securely in the elevated position, shall be a component of each trestle ladder or extension trestle ladder.
(h) Rungs shall be parallel and level. On the trestle ladder, or on the base section of the extension trestle ladder, rungs shall be spaced not less than 8 inches nor more than 18 inches apart; on the extension section of the extension trestle ladder, rungs shall be spaced not less than 6 inches nor more than 12 inches apart.
(i) Platform planking shall be in accordance with the requirements of (8) of this section, except that the width of the platform planking shall not exceed the distance between the side rails.
(j) Backrails and toeboards shall be in accordance with the requirements of (9) of this section.
(5) Painters' suspended scaffolds.
(a) The supporting hooks of swinging scaffolds shall be constructed to be equivalent in strength to mild steel or wrought iron, shall be forged with care, shall be not less than 7/8 inch in diameter, and shall be secured to a safe anchorage at all times.
(b) The ropes supporting a swinging scaffold shall be equivalent in strength to first-grade 3/4 inch diameter manila rope properly rigged into a set of standard 6 inch blocks consisting of at least one double and one single block.
(c) Manila and wire ropes shall be carefully examined before each operation and thereafter as frequently as may be necessary to ensure their safe condition.
(d) Each end of the scaffold platform shall be supported by a wrought iron or mild steel stirrup or hanger, which in turn is supported by the suspension ropes.
(e) Stirrups shall be constructed so as to be equivalent in strength to wrought iron 3/4 inch in diameter.
(f) The stirrups shall be formed with a horizontal bottom member to support the platform, shall be provided with means to support the guardrail and midrail and shall have a loop or eye at the top for securing the supporting hook on the block.
(g) Two or more swinging scaffolds shall not at any time be combined into one by bridging the distance between them with planks or any other form of platform.
(h) No more than two persons shall be permitted to work at one time on a swinging scaffold built to the minimum specifications contained in this section. Where heavier construction is used, the number of persons permitted to work on the scaffold shall be determined by the size and the safe working load of the scaffold.
(i) Backrails and toeboards shall be in accordance with the requirements of (9) of this section.
(j) The swinging scaffold platform shall be one of the three types described in (k), (l), and (m) of this section.
(k) The ladder-type platform consists of boards upon a horizontal ladder-like structure, referred to herein as the ladder, the side rails of which are parallel. If this type of platform is used the following requirements shall be met:
(i) The width between the side rails shall be no more than 20 inches.
(ii) The side rails of ladders in ladder-type platforms shall be equivalent in strength to a beam of clear straight-grained spruce of the dimensions contained in Table E-2 in WAC 296-304-07011.
(iii) The side rails shall be tied together with tie rods. The tie rods shall be not less than 5/16 inch in diameter, located no more than 5 feet apart, pass through the rails, and be riveted up tight against washers at both ends.
(iv) The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, not less than 1 1/8 inches diameter, with 7/8 inch tenons mortised into the side rails not less than 7/8 inch and shall be spaced no more than 18 inches on centers.
(v) Flooring strips shall be spaced no more than 5/8 inch apart except at the side rails, where 1 inch spacing is permissible.
(vi) Flooring strips shall be cleated on their undersides.
(l) The plank-type platform consists of planks supported on the stirrups or hangers. If this type of platform is used, the following requirements shall be met:
(i) The planks of plank-type platforms shall be not less than 2 x 10 inch lumber.
(ii) The platform shall be no more than 24 inches in width.
(iii) The planks shall be tied together by cleats of not less than 1 x 6 inch lumber, nailed on their undersides at intervals of not more than 4 feet.
(iv) The planks shall extend not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches beyond the supporting stirrups.
(v) A cleat shall be nailed across the platform on the underside at each end outside the stirrup to prevent the platform from slipping off the stirrup.
(vi) Stirrup supports shall be not more than 10 feet apart.
(m) The beam-type platform consists of longitudinal side stringers with cross beams set on edge and spaced not more than 4 feet apart on which longitudinal platform planks are laid. If this type platform is used the following requirements shall be met:
(i) The side stringers shall be of sound, straight-grained lumber, free from knots, and of not less than 2 x 6 inch lumber, set on edge.
(ii) The stringers shall be supported on the stirrups with a clear span between stirrups of not more than 16 feet.
(iii) The stringers shall be bolted to the stirrups by U-bolts passing around the stirrups and bolted through the stringers with nuts drawn up tight on the inside face.
(iv) The ends of the stringers shall extend beyond the stirrups not less than 6 inches nor more than 12 inches at each end of the platform.
(v) The platform shall be supported on cross beams of 2 x 6 inch lumber between the side stringers securely nailed thereto and spaced not more than 4 feet on centers.
(vi) The platform shall be not more than 24 inches wide.
(vii) The platform shall be formed of boards 7/8 inch in thickness by not less than 6 inches in width, nailed tightly together, and extending to the outside face of the stringers.
(viii) The ends of all platform boards shall rest on the top of the cross beams, shall be securely nailed, and at no intermediate points in the length of the platform shall there by any cantilever ends.
(6) Horse scaffolds.
(a) The minimum dimensions of lumber used in the construction of horses shall be in accordance with Table E-3 in WAC 296-304-07011.
(b) Horses constructed of materials other than lumber shall provide the strength, rigidity and security required of horses constructed of lumber.
(c) The lateral spread of the legs shall be equal to not less than one-third of the height of the horse.
(d) All horses shall be kept in good repair, and shall be properly secured when used in staging or in locations where they may be insecure.
(e) Platform planking shall be in accordance with the requirements of (8) of this section.
(f) Backrails and toeboards shall be in accordance with (9) of this section.
(7) Other types of scaffolds.
(a) Scaffolds of a type for which specifications are not contained in this section shall meet the general requirements of (1), (8) and (9) of this section, shall be in accordance with recognized principles of design and shall be constructed in accordance with accepted standards covering such equipment.
(8) Scaffold or platform planking.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in (5)(k) and (m), platform planking shall be of not less than 2 x 10 inch lumber. Platform planking shall be straight-grained and free from large or loose knots and may be either rough or dressed.
(b) Platforms of staging shall be not less than two 10 inch planks in width except in such cases as the structure of the vessel or the width of the trestle ladders make it impossible to provide such a width.
(c) Platform planking shall project beyond the supporting members at either end by at least 6 inches but in no case shall project more than 12 inches unless the planks are fastened to the supporting members.
(d) Table E-4 in WAC 296-304-07011 shall be used as a guide in determining safe loads for scaffold planks.
(9) Backrails and toeboards.
(a) Scaffolding, staging, runways, or working platforms which are supported or suspended more than 5 feet above a solid surface, or at any distance above the water, shall be provided with a railing which has a top rail whose upper surface is from 42 to 45 inches above the upper surface of the staging, platform, or runway and a midrail located halfway between the upper rail and the staging, platform, or runway.
(b) Rails shall be of 2 x 4 inch lumber, flat bar or pipe. When used with rigid supports, taut wire or fiber rope of adequate strength may be used. If the distance between supports is more than 8 feet, rails shall be equivalent in strength to 2 x 4 inch lumber. Rails shall be firmly secured. Where exposed to hot work or chemicals, fiber rope rails shall not be used.
(c) Rails may be omitted where the structure of the vessel prevents their use. When rails are omitted employees working more than 5 feet above solid surfaces shall be protected by safety belts and life lines meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09021(2), and employees working over water shall be protected by personal flotation devices meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09017(1).
(d) Employees working from swinging scaffolds which are triced out of a vertical line below their supports or from scaffolds on paint floats subject to surging, shall be protected against falling toward the vessel by a railing or a safety belt and line attached to the backrail.
(e) When necessary, to prevent tools and materials from falling on men below, toeboards of not less than 1 x 4 inch lumber shall be provided.
(10) Access to staging.
(a) Access from below to staging more than 5 feet above a floor, deck or the ground shall consist of well secured stairways, cleated ramps, fixed or portable ladders meeting the applicable requirements of WAC 296-304-05003 or rigid type noncollapsible trestles with parallel and level rungs.
(b) Ramps and stairways shall be provided with 36-inch handrails with midrails.
(c) Ladders shall be so located or other means shall be taken so that it is not necessary for employees to step more than one foot from the ladder to any intermediate landing or platform.
(d) Ladders forming integral parts of prefabricated staging are deemed to meet the requirements of these regulations.
(e) Access from above to staging more than 3 feet below the point of access shall consist of a straight, portable ladder meeting the applicable requirements of WAC 296-304-05003 or a Jacob's ladder properly secured, meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-05007(4).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-05001, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 76-7, § 296-304-05001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05003
Ladders.

(1) General requirements.
(a) The use of ladders with broken or missing rungs or steps, broken or split side rails, or other faulty or defective construction is prohibited. When ladders with such defects are discovered, they shall be immediately withdrawn from service. Inspection of metal ladders shall include checking for corrosion of interiors of open end, hollow rungs.
(b) When sections of ladders are spliced, the ends shall be abutted, and not fewer than 2 cleats shall be securely nailed or bolted to each rail. The combined cross sectional area of the cleats shall be not less than the cross sectional area of the side rail. The dimensions of side rails for their total length shall be those specified in (2) or (3) of this section.
(c) Portable ladders shall be lashed, blocked or otherwise secured to prevent their being displaced. The side rails of ladders used for access to any level shall extend not less than 36 inches above that level. When this is not practical, grab rails which will provide a secure grip for an employee moving to or from the point of access shall be installed.
(d) Portable metal ladders shall be of strength equivalent to that of wood ladders. Manufactured portable metal ladders provided by the employer shall be in accordance with the provisions of the United States of America Standard Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders, A14.2-1972.
(e) Portable metal ladders shall not be used near electrical conductors nor for electric arc welding operations.
(f) Manufactured portable wood ladders provided by the employer shall be in accordance with the provisions of the United States of America Standard Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, A-14.1-1968.
(2) Construction of portable wood cleated ladders up to 30 feet in length.
(a) Wood side rails shall be made from west coast hemlock, eastern spruce, Sitka spruce, or wood of equivalent strength. Material shall be seasoned, straight-grained wood, and free from shakes, checks, decay or other defects which will impair its strength. The use of low density woods is prohibited.
(b) Side rails shall be dressed on all sides, and kept free of splinters.
(c) All knots shall be sound and hard. The use of material containing loose knots is prohibited. Knots shall not appear on the narrow face of the rail and, when in the side face, shall be not more than 1/2 inch in diameter or within 1/2 inch of the edge of the rail or nearer than 3 inches to a tread or rung.
(d) Pitch pockets not exceeding 1/8 inch in width, 2 inches in length and 1/2 inch in depth are permissible in wood side rails, provided that not more than one such pocket appears in each 4 feet of length.
(e) The width between side rails at the base shall be not less than 11 1/2 inches for ladders 10 feet or less in length. For longer ladders this width shall be increased at least 1/4 inch for each additional 2 feet in length.
(f) Side rails shall be at least 1 5/8 x 3 5/8 inches in cross section.
(g) Cleats (meaning rungs rectangular in cross section with the wide dimension parallel to the rails) shall be of the material used for side rails, straight-grained and free from knots. Cleats shall be mortised into the edges of the side rails 1/2 inch, or filler blocks shall be used on the rails between the cleats. The cleats shall be secured to each rail with three 10d common wire nails or fastened with through bolts or other fasteners of equivalent strength. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced not more than 12 inches apart.
(h) Cleats 20 inches or less in length shall be at least 25/32 x 3 inches in cross section. Cleats over 20 inches but not more than 30 inches in length shall be at least 25/32 x 3 3/4 inches in cross section.
(3) Construction of portable wood cleated ladders from 30 to 60 feet in length.
(a) Ladders from 30 to 60 feet in length shall be in accordance with the specifications of (2) of this section with the following exceptions:
(i) Rails shall be of not less than 2 x 6 inch lumber.
(ii) Cleats shall be of not less than 1 x 4 inch lumber.
(iii) Cleats shall be nailed to each rail with five 10d common wire nails or fastened with through bolts or other fastenings of equivalent strength.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-05003, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-05003, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05005
Guarding of deck openings and edges.

(1) When employees are working in the vicinity of flush manholes and other small openings of comparable size in the deck and other working surfaces, such openings shall be suitably covered or guarded to a height of not less than 30 inches, except where the use of such guards is made impracticable by the work actually in progress.
(2) When employees are working around open hatches not protected by coamings to a height of 24 inches or around other large openings, the edge of the opening shall be guarded in the working area to a height of 36 to 42 inches, except where the use of such guards is made impracticable by the work actually in progress.
(4) When employees are working near the unguarded edges of decks of vessels afloat, they shall be protected by buoyant personal flotation devices, meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09017(1).
(5) Sections of bilges from which floor plates or gratings have been removed shall be guarded by guardrails except where they would interfere with work in progress. If these open sections are in a walkway at least two 10-inch planks placed side by side, or equivalent, shall be laid across the opening to provide a safe walking surface.
(6) Gratings, walkways, and catwalks, from which sections or ladders have been removed, shall be barricaded with adequate guardrails.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-05005, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-05005, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05007
Access to vessels.

"Barge" - An unpowered, flat bottom, shallow draft vessel including scows, carfloats and lighters, but not ship-shaped or deep-draft barges.
"River towboat" - A shallow draft, low free board, self-propelled vessel designed to tow river barges by pushing ahead.
(1) Access to vessels afloat. The employer shall not permit employees to board or leave any vessel, except a barge or river towboat, until the following requirements have been met:
(a) Whenever practicable, a gangway of not less than 20 inches walking surface, of adequate strength, maintained in safe repair and safely secured shall be used. If a gangway is not practicable, a substantial straight ladder, extending at least 36 inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping shall be provided. When conditions are such that neither a gangway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of (4)(a) and (b) of this section may be used.
(b) Each side of such gangway, and the turntable if used, shall have a railing with a minimum height of approximately 33 inches measured perpendicularly from rail to walking surface at the stanchion, with a midrail. Rails shall be of wood, pipe, chain, wire or rope and shall be kept taut at all times.
(c) Gangways on vessels inspected and certificated by the U.S. Coast Guard are deemed to meet the foregoing requirements, except in cases where the vessel's regular gangway is not being used.
(d) The gangway shall be kept properly trimmed at all times.
(e) When a fixed tread accommodation ladder is used, and the angle is low enough to require employees to walk on the edge of the treads, cleated duckboards shall be laid over and secured to the ladder.
(f) When the lower end of a gangway overhangs the water between the ship and the dock in such a manner that there is danger of employees falling between the ship and the dock, a net or other suitable protection shall be rigged at the foot of the gangway in such a manner as to prevent employees from falling from the end of the gangway.
(g) If the foot of the gangway is more than one foot away from the edge of the apron, the space between them shall be bridged by a firm walkway equipped with railings, with a minimum height of approximately 33 inches with midrails on both sides.
(h) Supporting bridles shall be kept clear so as to permit unobstructed passage for employees using the gangway.
(i) When the upper end of the means of access rests on or flush with the top of the bulwark, substantial steps properly secured and equipped with at least one substantial handrail approximately 33 inches in height shall be provided between the top of the bulwark and the deck.
(j) Obstructions shall not be laid on or across the gangway.
(k) The means of access shall be adequately illuminated for its full length.
(l) Unless the construction of the vessel makes it impossible, the means of access shall be so located that drafts of cargo do not pass over it. In any event loads shall not be passed over the means of access while employees are on it.
(2) Access to vessels in drydock or between vessels. Gangways meeting the requirements of (1)(a), (b), (i), (j) and (l) of this section shall be provided for access from wing wall to vessel or, when two or more vessels, other than barges or river towboats, are lying abreast, from one vessel to another.
(3) Access to barges and river towboats.
(a) Ramps for access of vehicles to or between barges shall be of adequate strength, provided with side boards, well maintained and properly secured.
(b) Unless employees can step safely to or from the wharf, float, barge, or river towboat, either a ramp in accordance with the requirements of (a) of this section or a safe walkway in accordance with the requirements of (1)(g) of this section shall be provided. When a walkway is impracticable, a substantial straight ladder, extending at least 36 inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping shall be provided. When conditions are such that neither a walkway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder in accordance with the requirements of (4) of this section may be used.
(c) The means of access shall be in accordance with the requirements of (1)(i), (j) and (k) of this section.
(4) Jacob's ladders.
(a) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained and properly secured.
(b) A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its lashings or be pulled up entirely.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-05007, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05009
Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

(1) A gangway, ramp or permanent stairway of not less than 20 inches walking surface, of adequate strength, maintained in safe repair and securely fastened, shall be provided between a floating dry dock and the pier or bulkhead.
(2) Each side of such gangway, ramp or permanent stairway, including those which are used for access to wing walls from dry dock floors, shall have a railing with a midrail. Such railings on gangways or ramps shall be approximately 42 inches in height; and railings on permanent stairways shall be not less than approximately 30 or more than approximately 34 inches in height. Rails shall be of wood, pipe, chain, wire, or rope and shall be kept taut at all times.
(3) Railings meeting the requirements of (2) of this section shall be provided on the means of access to and from the floors of graving docks.
(4) Railings approximately 42 inches in height, with a midrail, shall be provided on the edges of wing walls of floating dry docks and on the edges of graving docks. Sections of the railings may be temporarily removed where necessary to permit line handling while a vessel is entering or leaving the dock.
(5) When employees are working on the floor of a floating dry dock where they are exposed to the hazard of falling into the water, the end of the dry dock shall be equipped with portable stanchions and 42 inch railings with a midrail. When such a railing would be impracticable or ineffective, other effective means shall be provided to prevent employees from falling into the water.
(7) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than 20 inches wide and shall have on at least one side a guardrail and midrail meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-05001 (9)(a) and (b).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-05009, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05011
Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

(1) Cargo spaces.
(a) There shall be at least one safe and accessible ladder in any cargo space which employees must enter.
(b) When any fixed ladder is visibly unsafe, the employer shall prohibit its use by employees.
(d) When cargo is stowed within 4 inches of the back of ladder rungs, the ladder shall be deemed "unsafe" for the purpose of this section.
(e) Fixed ladders or straight ladders provided for access to cargo spaces shall not be used at the same time that cargo drafts or other loads are entering or leaving the hold. Before using these ladders to enter or leave the hold, the employee shall be required to inform the winchman or crane signalman of his intention.
(2) Confined spaces.
(a) More than one means of access shall be provided to a confined space in which employees are working and in which the work may generate a hazardous atmosphere in the space except where the structure or arrangement of the vessel makes this provision impractical.
(b) When the ventilation ducts required by these regulations must pass through these means of access, the ducts shall be of such a type and so arranged as to permit free passage of an employee through at least two of these means of access.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-05011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-05013
Working surfaces.

(1) When firebox floors present tripping hazards of exposed tubing or of missing or removed refractory, sufficient planking to afford safe footing shall be laid while work is being carried on within the boiler.
(2) The employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection when employees work aloft or elsewhere at elevations more than 5 feet above a solid surface.
(b) Employees must work from scaffolds when visually restricted by:
• Blasting hoods;
• Welding helmets; and
• Burning goggles; except
• For the initial and final welding or burning operation to start or complete a job such as the erection and dismantling of hung scaffolding; or
• Other similar, nonrepetitive jobs of brief duration.
(3) For work performed in restricted quarters, such as behind boilers and in between congested machinery units and piping, work platforms at least 20 inches wide meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-05001 (8)(b) shall be used. Backrails may be omitted if bulkheading, boilers, machinery units, or piping afford proper protection against falling.
(4) When employees are boarding, leaving, or working from small boats or floats, they shall be protected by personal flotation devices meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09017(1).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-05013, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-05013, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 76-7, § 296-304-05013, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-05013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-060
General working conditions—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-060 in the section number apply to general working conditions in shipyard employment, including work on vessels, on vessel sections, and at landside operations.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-060, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-060, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06001
Housekeeping.

(1) Good housekeeping conditions shall be maintained at all times. Adequate aisles and passageways shall be maintained in all work areas. All staging platforms, ramps, stairways, walkways, aisles, and passageways on vessels or dry docks shall be kept clear of all tools, materials, and equipment except that which is in use, and all debris such as welding rod tips, bolts, nuts, and similar material. Hose and electric conductors shall be elevated over or placed under the walkway or working surfaces or covered by adequate crossover planks. While a walkway is being used as a working surface, that portion shall be cordoned off to prevent it from being used as a walkway.
(2) All working areas on vessels and dry docks shall be:
(a) Cleared of tools, materials, and equipment that are not necessary to perform the job in progress;
(b) Cleared of debris, including solid and liquid wastes, at the end of each workshift or job, whichever occurs first;
(3) Slippery conditions on walkways or working surfaces shall be eliminated as they occur. If it is not practicable for the employer to remove slippery conditions, the employer either shall:
(a) Restrict employees to designated walkways and working surfaces where the employer has eliminated slippery conditions; or
(b) Provide slip-resistant footwear in accordance with WAC 296-304-09013.
(4) Free access shall be maintained at all times to all exits and to all fire-alarm boxes or fire-extinguishing equipment.
(5) All oils, paints, thinners, solvents waste, rags, or other flammable substances shall be disposed of or kept in fire resistant covered containers when not in use.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06001, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06002
Sanitation.

(1) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall provide adequate and readily accessible sanitation facilities.
(b) The employer shall establish and implement a schedule for servicing, cleaning, and supplying each facility to ensure it is maintained in a clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition.
(2) Potable water. The employer shall provide potable water for all employee health and personal needs and ensure that only potable water is used for these purposes.
(a) The employer shall provide potable drinking water in amounts that are adequate to meet the health and personal needs of each employee.
(b) The employer shall dispense drinking water from a fountain, a covered container with single-use drinking cups stored in a sanitary receptacle, or single-use bottles. The employer shall prohibit the use of shared drinking cups, dippers, and water bottles.
(3) Nonpotable water.
(a) The employer may use nonpotable water for other purposes such as firefighting and cleaning outdoor premises so long as it does not contain chemicals, fecal matter, coliform, or other substances at levels that may create a hazard for employees.
(b) The employer shall clearly mark nonpotable water supplies and outlets as "not safe for health or personal use."
(4) Toilets.
(a) General requirements. The employer shall ensure that sewered and portable toilets:
(i) Provide privacy at all times. When a toilet facility contains more than one toilet, each toilet shall occupy a separate compartment with a door and walls or partitions that are sufficiently high to ensure privacy; and
(ii) Are separate for each sex, except as provided in (a)(ii)(B) of this subsection;
(A) The number of toilets provided for each sex shall be based on the maximum number of employees of that sex present at the worksite at any one time during a workshift. A single occupancy toilet room shall be counted as one toilet regardless of the number of toilets it contains; and
(B) The employer does not have to provide separate toilet facilities for each sex when they will not be occupied by more than one employee at a time, can be locked from the inside, and contain at least one toilet.
(iii) The employer shall establish and implement a schedule to ensure that each sewered and portable toilet is maintained in a clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition.
(b) Minimum number of toilets. The employer shall provide at least the following number of toilets for each sex. Portable toilets that meet the requirements in (c) of this subsection may be included in the minimum number of toilets.
Table F-1
Minimum Number of Toilets
Number of employees of each sex
Minimum number of toilets per sex
1 to 15
1
 
16 to 35
2
 
36 to 55
3
 
56 to 80
4
 
81 to 110
5
 
111 to 150
6
 
Over 150
1 additional toilet for each additional 40 employees
Note to Table F-1: When toilets will only be used by men, urinals may be provided instead of toilets, except that the number of toilets in such cases shall not be reduced to less than two-thirds of the minimum specified.
(c) Portable toilets.
(i) The employer shall provide portable toilets, pursuant to paragraph (4)(b) of this section and Table F-1, only when the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to provide sewered toilets, or when there is a temporary increase in the number of employees for a short duration of time.
(ii) The employer shall ensure that each portable toilet is vented and equipped, as necessary, with lighting.
(d) Exception for normally unattended worksites and mobile work crews. The requirement to provide toilets does not apply to normally unattended worksites and mobile work crews, provided that the employer ensures that employees have immediately available transportation to readily accessible sanitation facilities that are maintained in a clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition and meet the other requirements of this section.
(5) Handwashing facilities.
(a) The employer shall provide handwashing facilities at or adjacent to each toilet facility.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each handwashing facility:
(i) Is equipped with either hot and cold or lukewarm running water and soap, or with waterless skin-cleansing agents that are capable of disinfecting the skin or neutralizing the contaminants to which the employee may be exposed; and
(ii) If the facility uses soap and water, it is supplied with clean, single-use hand towels stored in a sanitary container and a sanitary means for disposing of them, clean individual sections of continuous cloth toweling, or a hand-drying air blower.
(c) The employer shall inform each employee engaged in the application of paints or coatings or in other operations in which hazardous or toxic substances can be ingested or absorbed about the need for removing surface contaminants from their skin's surface by thoroughly washing their hands and face at the end of the workshift and prior to eating, drinking, or smoking.
(6) Showers.
(a) When showers are required by an OSHA standard, the employer shall provide one shower for each ten, or fraction of ten, employees of each sex who are required to shower during the same workshift.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each shower is equipped with soap, hot and cold water, and clean towels for each employee who uses the shower.
(7) Changing rooms. When an employer provides protective clothing to prevent employee exposure to hazardous or toxic substances, the employer shall provide the following:
(a) Changing rooms that provide privacy for each sex; and
(b) Storage facilities for street clothes, as well as separate storage facilities for protective clothing.
(8) Eating, drinking, and break areas. The employer shall ensure that food, beverages, and tobacco products are not consumed or stored in any area where employees may be exposed to hazardous or toxic substances.
(9) Waste disposal.
(a) The employer shall provide waste receptacles that meet the following requirements:
(i) Each receptacle is constructed of materials that are corrosion resistant, leak-proof, and easily cleaned or disposable;
(ii) Each receptacle is equipped with a solid tight-fitting cover, unless it can be kept in clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition without the use of a cover;
(iii) Receptacles are provided in numbers, sizes, and locations that encourage their use; and
(iv) Each receptacle is emptied as often as necessary to prevent it from overfilling and in a manner that does not create a hazard for employees. Waste receptacles for food shall be emptied at least every day, unless unused.
(b) The employer shall not permit employees to work in the immediate vicinity of uncovered garbage that could endanger their safety and health.
(c) The employer shall ensure that employees working beneath or on the outboard side of a vessel are not contaminated by drainage or waste from overboard discharges.
(10) Vermin control.
(a) To the extent reasonably practicable, the employer shall clean and maintain the workplace in a manner that prevents vermin infestation.
(b) Where vermin are detected, the employer shall implement and maintain an effective vermin-control program.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06002, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12.]



296-304-06003
Illumination.

(1) All means of access and walkways leading to working areas as well as the working areas themselves shall be adequately illuminated.
(a) For landside areas, the employer shall provide illumination that meets the levels set forth in Table F-2.
Table F-2
Minimum Lighting Intensities in Foot-Candles
Lumens (foot-candles)
Area or operation
3
 
General areas on vessels and vessel sections such as accessways, exits, gangways, stairs, and walkways.
5
 
General landside areas such as corridors, exits, stairs, and walkways.
5
 
All assigned work areas on any vessel or vessel section.
5
 
Landside tunnels, shafts, vaults, pumping stations, and underground work areas.
10
 
Landside work areas such as machine shops, electrical equipment rooms, carpenter shops, lofts, tool rooms, warehouses, and outdoor work areas.
10
 
Changing rooms, showers, sewered toilets, and eating, drinking, and break areas.
30
 
First-aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.
Note to Table F-2: The required illumination levels in this table do not apply to emergency or portable lights.
(b) For vessels and vessel sections, the employer shall provide illumination that meets the levels set forth in the table to (a) of this subsection or meet ANSI/IESNA RP-7-01.
(c) When adequate illumination is not obtainable by permanent lighting sources, temporary lighting may be used as supplementation.
(d) The employer shall ensure that neither matches nor open-flame devices are used for lighting.
(2) Temporary lights shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Temporary lights shall be equipped with guards to prevent accidental contact with the bulb, except that guards are not required when the construction of the reflector is such that the bulb is deeply recessed;
(b) Temporary lights shall be equipped with heavy duty electric cords with connections and insulation maintained in safe condition. Temporary lights shall not be suspended by their electric cords unless cords and lights are designed for this means of suspension. Splices must have insulation with a capacity that exceeds that of the original insulation of the cord; and
(c) Cords shall be kept clear of working spaces and walkways or other locations in which they are readily exposed to damage.
(4) Where temporary lighting from sources outside the vessel is the only means of illumination, portable emergency lighting equipment shall be available to provide illumination for safe movement of employees. If natural sunlight provides sufficient illumination, portable or emergency lights are not required.
(5) Employees shall not be permitted to enter dark spaces without a suitable portable light. The use of matches and open flame lights is prohibited. In nongas free spaces, portable lights shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-304-02005 (2)(i).
(6) Temporary lighting stringers or streamers shall be so arranged as to avoid overloading of branch circuits. Each branch circuit shall be equipped with overcurrent protection of capacity not exceeding the rated current carrying capacity of the cord used.
(7) Explosion-proof, self-contained lights. The employer shall provide and ensure that each employee uses only explosion-proof, self-contained temporary and portable lights, approved for hazardous conditions by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL), in any area that the atmosphere is determined to contain a concentration of flammable vapors that are at or above ten percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06003, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-06003, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06005
Utilities.

(1) Steam supply and hoses.
(a) Prior to supplying a vessel with steam from a source outside the vessel, the employer shall ascertain from responsible vessel's representatives, having knowledge of the condition of the plant, the safe working pressure of the vessel's steam system. The employer shall install a pressure gauge and a relief valve of proper size and capacity at the point where the temporary steam hose joins the vessel's steam piping system or systems. The relief valve shall be set and capable of relieving at a pressure not exceeding the safe working pressure of the vessel's system in its present condition, and there shall be no means of isolating the relief valve from the system which it protects. The pressure gauge and relief valve shall be located so as to be visible and readily accessible, and each relief valve is to be positioned so it is not likely to cause injury if steam is released.
(b) Steam hose and fittings shall have a safety factor of not less than five, and shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
(c) When steam hose is hung in a bight or bights, the weight shall be relieved by appropriate lines to reduce tension on the hose and its fittings. The hose shall be protected against chafing.
(d) Steam hose shall be protected from damage and hose and temporary piping shall be so shielded where passing through normal work areas as to prevent accidental contact by employees.
(2) Electric power. When the vessel is supplied with electric power from a source outside the vessel, the following precautions shall be taken prior to energizing the vessel's circuits:
(a) If in dry dock, the vessel shall be adequately grounded.
(b) The employer shall ascertain from responsible vessel's representatives, having a knowledge of the condition of the vessel's electrical system, that all circuits to be energized are in a safe condition.
(c) All circuits to be energized shall be equipped with overcurrent protection of capacity not exceeding the rated current carrying capacity of the cord used.
(3) Infrared electrical heat lamps. All infrared electrical heat lamps shall be equipped with guards that surround the lamps with the exception of the face, to minimize accidental contact with the lamps.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06005, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06007
Work in confined or isolated spaces.

When any work is performed in a confined space, except as provided in WAC 296-304-04001 (2)(c), or when an employee is working alone in an isolated location, the employee shall be checked, by sight or verbal communication:
(1) Throughout each workshift at regular intervals appropriate to the job assignment to ensure the employee's safety and health; and
(2) At the end of the job assignment or at the end of the workshift, whichever occurs first.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06007, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06009
Work on or in the vicinity of radar and radio.

(2) The employer shall secure each vessel's radar and communication system so it is incapable of energizing or emitting radiation before any employee begins work:
(a) On or in the vicinity of the system;
(b) On or in the vicinity of a system equipped with a dummy load; or
(c) Aloft, such as on a mast or king post.
(3) When a vessel's radar or communication system is operated, serviced, repaired, or tested, the employer shall ensure that:
(a) There is no other work in progress aloft; and
(b) No employee is closer to the system's antenna or transmitter than the manufacturer's specified safe minimum distance for the type, model, and power of the equipment.
(4) The employer shall ensure that no employee enters an area designated as hazardous by manufacturers' specifications while a radar or communication system is capable of emitting radiation.
(5) The requirements of this section do not apply when a radar or communication system is incapable of emitting radiation at levels that could injure workers in the vicinity of the system, or if the radar or communication system is incapable of energizing in a manner than could injure workers working on or in the vicinity of the system.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06009, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06011
Work in or on lifeboats.

(1) Before employees are permitted to work in or on a lifeboat, either stowed or in a suspended position, the employer shall ensure that the boat is secured independently of the releasing gear to prevent the boat from falling due to accidental tripping of the releasing gear and movement of the davits or capsizing of a boat in chocks.
(2) Employees shall not be permitted to remain in boats while the boats are being hoisted or lowered, except when the employer demonstrates that it is necessary to conduct operational tests or drills over water, or in the event of an emergency.
(3) Employees shall not be permitted to work on the outboard side of lifeboats stowed on their chocks unless the boats are secured by gripes or otherwise secured to prevent them from swinging outboard.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06011, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06013
Hazardous materials.

"Hazardous material" - A material with one or more of the following characteristics:
• Has a flash point below 140°F, closed cup, or is subject to spontaneous heating;
• Has a threshold limit value below 500 p.p.m. in the case of a gas or vapor, below 500 mg./m.3 for fumes, and below 25 m.p.p.c.f. in case of a dust;
• Has a single dose oral LD50 below 500 mg./kg.;
• Is subject to polymerization with the release of large amounts of energy;
• Is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent;
• Causes first degree burns to skin in short time exposure, or is systematically toxic by skin contact; or
• In the course of normal operations, may produce dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smokes that have one or more of the above characteristics.
(1) No chemical product, such as a solvent or preservative; no structural material, such as cadmium or zinc coated steel, or plastic material; and no process material, such as welding filler metal; which is a hazardous material may be used until the employer has ascertained the potential fire, toxic, or reactivity hazards which are likely to be encountered in the handling, application, or utilization of such a material.
(2) In order to ascertain the hazards, as required by subsection (1) of this section, the employer shall obtain the following items of information which are applicable to a specific product or material to be used:
(a) The name, address, and telephone number of the source of the information specified in this section preferably those of the manufacturer of the product or material.
(b) The trade name and synonyms for a mixture of chemicals, a basic structural material, or for a process material; and the chemical name and synonyms, chemical family, and formula for a single chemical.
(c) Chemical names of hazardous ingredients, including, but not limited to, those in mixtures, such as those in: (i) Paints, preservatives, and solvents; (ii) alloys, metallic coatings, filler metals and their coatings or core fluxes; and (iii) other liquids, solids, or gases (e.g., abrasive materials).
(d) An indication of the percentage, by weight or volume, which each ingredient of a mixture bears to the whole mixture, and of the threshold limit value of each ingredient, in appropriate units.
(e) Physical data about a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals, including boiling point, in degrees Fahrenheit; vapor pressure, in millimeters of mercury; vapor density of gas or vapor (air=1); solubility in water, in percent by weight; specific gravity of material (water=1); percentage volatile, by volume, at 70°F.; evaporation rate for liquids (either butyl acetate or ether may be taken as 1); and appearance and odor.
(f) Fire and explosion hazard data about a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals, including flashpoint, in degrees Fahrenheit; flammable limits, in percent by volume in air; suitable extinguishing media or agents; special firefighting procedures; and unusual fire and explosion hazard information.
(g) Health hazard data, including threshold limit value, in appropriate units, for a single hazardous chemical or for the individual hazardous ingredients of a mixture as appropriate, effects of overexposure; and emergency and first-aid procedures.
(h) Reactivity data, including stability, incompatibility, hazardous decomposition products, and hazardous polymerization.
(i) Procedures to be followed and precautions to be taken in cleaning up and disposing of materials leaked or spilled.
(j) Special protection information, including use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators, eye protection, and protective clothing, and of ventilation, such as local exhaust, general, special, or other types.
(k) Special precautionary information about handling and storing.
(l) Any other general precautionary information.
(3) The pertinent information required by subsection (2) of this section shall be recorded either on United States Department of Labor Form LSB 00S-4, Material Safety Data Sheet, or on an essentially similar form which has been approved by the department of labor and industries. Copies of Form LSB 00S-4 may be obtained at any of the following regional offices of the occupational safety and health administration:
(a) Pacific region. (Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada.)
10353 Federal Building, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, Box 36017, San Francisco, Calif. 94102.
(b) Region X, OSHA, (Alaska, Washington, Idaho, and Oregon), 300 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1280, Seattle, Washington 98104-2397.
A completed SDS form shall be preserved and available for inspection for each hazardous chemical on the worksite.
(4) The employer shall instruct employees who will be exposed to the hazardous materials as to the nature of the hazards and the means of avoiding them.
(6) The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees engaged in the application of paints or coatings or in other operations where contaminants can, by ingestion or absorption, be detrimental to the health of the employees. The employer shall encourage good personal hygiene practices by informing the employees of the need for removing surface contaminants by thorough washing of hands and face prior to eating or smoking.
(7) The employer shall not permit eating or smoking in areas undergoing surface preparation or preservation or where shiprepairing, shipbuilding, or shipbreaking operations produce atmospheric contamination.
(8) The employer shall not permit employees to work in the immediate vicinity of uncovered garbage and shall ensure that employees working beneath or on the outboard side of a vessel are not subject to contamination by drainage or waste from overboard discharges.
(9) Requirements of WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication, will apply to shiprepairing, shipbuilding, and shipbreaking when potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective equipment is applicable to an operation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-304-06013, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06013, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-06013, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-304-06013, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-06013, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-06013, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; WSR 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-304-06013, filed 7/6/88; Order 76-7, § 296-304-06013, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06015
First aid.

(1) The employer shall ensure that emergency medical services and first aid are readily accessible.
(2) The employer shall ensure that health care professionals are readily available for advice and consultation on matters of workplace health.
(3) First-aid providers.
(a) The employer shall ensure that there is an adequate number of employees trained as first-aid providers at each worksite during each workshift unless:
(i) There is an on-site clinic or infirmary with first-aid providers during each workshift; or
(ii) The employer can demonstrate that outside first-aid providers (i.e., emergency medical services) can reach the worksite within five minutes of a report of injury or illness. The employer must take appropriate steps to ascertain that emergency medical assistance will be readily available promptly if an injury or illness occurs.
(b) The employer shall ensure that a first-aid provider is able to reach an injured/ill employee within five minutes of a report of a serious injury, illness, or accident such as one involving cardiac arrest, acute breathing problems, uncontrolled bleeding, suffocation, electrocution, or amputation.
(c) The employer shall use the following factors in determining the number and location of employees who must have first-aid training: Size and location of each worksite; the number of employees at each worksite; the hazards present at each worksite; and the distance of each worksite from hospitals, clinics, and rescue squads.
(d) The employer shall ensure that first-aid providers are trained to render first aid, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
(e) The employer shall ensure that each first-aid provider maintains current first aid and CPR certifications, such as issued by the Red Cross, American Heart Association, or other equivalent organization.
(4) First-aid supplies.
(a) The employer shall provide and maintain adequate first-aid supplies that are readily accessible to each worksite. An employer's on-site infirmary or clinic containing first-aid supplies that are readily accessible to each worksite complies with this requirement.
(b) The employer shall ensure that the placement, content, and amount of first-aid supplies are adequate for the size and location of each worksite, the number of employees at each worksite, the hazards present at each worksite, and the distance of each worksite from hospitals, clinics, and rescue squads.
(c) The employer shall ensure that first-aid supplies are placed in a weatherproof container.
(d) The employer shall maintain first-aid supplies in a dry, sterile, and serviceable condition.
(e) The employer shall replenish first-aid supplies as necessary to ensure that there is an adequate supply when needed.
(f) The employer shall inspect first-aid supplies at sufficient intervals to ensure that they are adequate and in a serviceable condition.
(5) Quick-drenching and flushing facilities. Where the potential exists for an employee to be splashed with a substance that may result in an acute or serious injury, the employer shall provide facilities for quick-drenching or flushing the eyes and body. The employer shall ensure that such a facility is located for immediate emergency use within close proximity to operations where such substances are being used.
(6) Basket stretchers.
(a) The employer shall provide an adequate number of basket stretchers, or the equivalent, readily accessible to where work is being performed on a vessel or vessel section. The employer is not required to provide basket stretchers or the equivalent where emergency response services have basket stretchers or the equivalent that meet the requirements of this subsection (6)(a).
(b) The employer shall ensure each basket stretcher, or the equivalent, is equipped with:
(i) Permanent lifting bridles that enable the basket stretcher, or the equivalent, to be attached to hoisting gear capable of lifting at least five thousand pounds (2,270 kg);
(ii) Restraints that are capable of securely holding the injured/ill employee while the basket stretcher, or the equivalent, is lifted or moved; and
(iii) A blanket or other suitable covering for the injured/ill employee.
(c) The employer shall store basket stretchers, or the equivalent, and related equipment (i.e., restraints, blankets) in a clearly marked location in a manner that prevents damage and protects the equipment from environmental conditions.
(d) The employer shall inspect stretchers, or the equivalent, and related equipment at intervals that ensure the equipment remains in a safe and serviceable condition, but at least once a year.
Appendix A to WAC 296-304-06015 - First-aid kits and automated external defibrillators (nonmandatory)
1. First-aid supplies are required to be adequate and readily accessible under WAC 296-304-06015 (1) and (4). An example of the minimal contents of a generic first-aid kit for workplace settings is described in ANSI/ISEA Z308.1-2009, "Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits and Supplies." The contents of the kit listed in this ANSI standard should be adequate for small worksites. When larger operations or multiple operations are being conducted at the same worksite, employers should determine the need for additional first-aid kits, additional types of first-aid equipment and supplies, and additional quantities and types of supplies and equipment in the first-aid kits.
2. In a similar fashion, employers that have unique or changing first-aid needs at their worksite may need to enhance their first-aid kits. The employer can use the OSHA 300 Log, OSHA 301 Incident Report form, or other reports to identify these unique problems. Consultation from the local fire or rescue department, appropriate health care professional or local emergency room may be helpful to employers in these circumstances. By assessing the specific needs of their worksite, employers can ensure that reasonably anticipated supplies are available. Employers should assess the specific needs of their worksite periodically, and augment first-aid kits appropriately.
4. Employers who provide automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at their workplaces should designate who will use AEDs and train those employees so they know how to correctly use the AEDs. Although a growing number of AEDs are now designed to be used by any person, even without training, training reinforces proper use and promotes the usefulness of AEDs as part of an effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation plan. For AEDs to be effective, employers should:
a. Ensure that AEDs are located so they can be utilized within three to five minutes of a report of an accident or injury;
b. Ensure that employees use AEDs in accordance with manufacturers' specifications; and
c. Inspect, test, and maintain AEDs in accordance with manufacturers' specifications.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06015, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-06015, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-06016
Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tags-plus).

Definition: "Tags-plus system" - A system to control hazardous energy that consists of an energy-isolating device with a tag affixed to it, and at least one additional safety measure.
(1) Scope, application, and effective dates.
(a) Scope. This section covers the servicing of machinery, equipment, and systems when the energization or start-up of machinery, equipment, or systems, or the release of hazardous energy, could endanger an employee.
(b) Application.
(i) This section applies to the servicing of any machinery, equipment, or system that employees use in the course of shipyard employment work and that is conducted:
(A) In any landside facility that performs shipyard employment work; and
(B) On any vessel or vessel section.
(ii) This section applies to such servicing conducted on a vessel by any employee including, but not limited to, the ship's officers and crew unless such application is preempted by the regulations of another agency.
(c) When other standards in this chapter require the use of a lock or tag, the employer shall use and supplement them with the procedural and training requirements specified in this section.
(d) Exceptions. This section does not apply to:
(i) Work on cord- and plug-connected machinery, equipment, or system, provided the employer ensures that the machinery, equipment, or system is unplugged and the plug is under the exclusive control of the employee performing the servicing;
(ii) Minor servicing activities performed during normal production operations, including minor tool changes and adjustments, that are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the machinery, equipment, or system, provided the employer ensures that the work is performed using measures that provide effective protection from energization, start-up, or the release of hazardous energy.
(2) Lockout/tags-plus program. The employer shall establish and implement a written program and procedures for lockout and tags-plus systems to control hazardous energy during the servicing of any machinery, equipment, or system in shipyard employment. The program shall cover:
(a) Procedures for lockout/tags-plus systems while servicing machinery, equipment, or systems in accordance with subsection (3) of this section;
(b) Procedures for protecting employees involved in servicing any machinery, equipment, or system in accordance with subsections (4) through (13) of this section;
(c) Specifications for locks and tags-plus hardware in accordance with subsection (14) of this section;
(d) Employee information and training in accordance with subsection (15) of this section;
(e) Incident investigations in accordance with subsection (16) of this section; and
(f) Program audits in accordance with subsection (17) of this section.
(3) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall ensure that, before any authorized employee performs servicing when energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, may occur, all energy sources are identified and isolated, and the machinery, equipment, or system is rendered inoperative.
(b) If an energy-isolating device is capable of being locked, the employer shall ensure the use of a lock to prevent energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, before any servicing is started, unless the employer can demonstrate that the utilization of a tags-plus system will provide full employee protection as set forth in (f) of this subsection.
(c) If an energy-isolating device is not capable of being locked, the employer shall ensure the use of a tags-plus system to prevent energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, before any servicing is started.
(d) Each tags-plus system shall consist of:
(i) At least one energy-isolating device with a tag affixed to it; and
(ii) At least one additional safety measure that, along with the energy isolating device and tag required in (d)(i) of this subsection, will provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lock.
(e) After the effective date of this section, the employer shall ensure that each energy-isolating device for any machinery, equipment, or system is designed to accept a lock whenever the machinery, equipment, or system is extensively repaired, renovated, modified, or replaced, or whenever new machinery, equipment, or systems are installed. This requirement does not apply when a shipyard employer:
(i) Does not own the machinery, equipment, or system; or
(ii) Builds or services a vessel or vessel section according to customer specifications.
(f) Full employee protection.
(i) When a tag is used on an energy-isolating device that is capable of being locked out, the tag shall be attached at the same location that the lock would have been attached; and
(ii) The employer shall demonstrate that the use of a tags-plus system will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by using a lock. In demonstrating that an equivalent level of safety is achieved, the employer shall:
(A) Demonstrate full compliance with all tags-plus related provisions of this standard; and
(B) Implement such additional safety measures as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lock.
(g) Lockout/tags-plus coordination.
(i) The employer shall establish and implement lockout/tags-plus coordination when:
(A) Employees on vessels and in vessel sections are servicing multiple machinery, equipment, or systems at the same time; or
(B) Employees on vessels, in vessel sections, and at landside facilities are performing multiple servicing operations on the same machinery, equipment, or system at the same time.
(ii) The coordination process shall include a lockout/tags-plus coordinator and a lockout/tags-plus log. Each log shall be specific to each vessel, vessel section, and landside work area.
(iii) The employer shall designate a lockout/tags-plus coordinator who is responsible for overseeing and approving:
(A) The application of each lockout and tags-plus system;
(B) The verification of hazardous energy isolation before the servicing of any machinery, equipment, or system begins; and
(C) The removal of each lockout and tags-plus system.
(iv) The employer shall ensure that the lockout/tags-plus coordinator maintains and administers a continuous log of each lockout and tags-plus system. The log shall contain:
(A) Location of machinery, equipment, or system to be serviced;
(B) Type of machinery, equipment, or system to be serviced;
(C) Name of the authorized employee applying the lockout/tags-plus system;
(D) Date that the lockout/tags-plus system is applied;
(E) Name of authorized employee removing the lock or tags-plus system; and
(F) Date that lockout/tags-plus system is removed.
(4) Lockout/tags-plus written procedures.
(a) The employer shall establish and implement written procedures to prevent energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, during the servicing of any machinery, equipment, or system. Each procedure shall include:
(i) A clear and specific outline of the scope and purpose of the lockout/tags-plus procedure;
(ii) The means the employer will use to enforce compliance with the lockout/tags-plus program and procedures; and
(iii) The steps that must be followed for:
(A) Preparing for shutting down and isolating of the machinery, equipment, or system to be serviced, in accordance with subsection (5) of this section;
(B) Applying the lockout/tags-plus system, in accordance with subsection (6) of this section;
(C) Verifying isolation, in accordance with subsection (7) of this section;
(D) Testing the machinery, equipment, or system, in accordance with subsection (8) of this section;
(E) Removing lockout/tags-plus systems, in accordance with subsection (9) of this section;
(F) Starting up the machinery, equipment, or system that is being serviced, in accordance with subsection (10) of this section;
(G) Applying lockout/tags-plus systems in group servicing operations, in accordance with subsection (11) of this section;
(H) Addressing multiemployer worksites involved in servicing any machinery, equipment, or system, in accordance with subsection (12) of this section; and
(I) Addressing shift or personnel changes during servicing operations, in accordance with subsection (13) of this section.
Note to (a) of this subsection: The employer need only develop a single procedure for a group of similar machines, equipment, or systems if the machines, equipment, or systems have the same type and magnitude of energy and the same or similar types of controls, and if a single procedure can satisfactorily address the hazards and the steps to be taken to control these hazards.
(b) The employer's lockout procedures do not have to be in writing for servicing machinery, equipment, or systems, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
(i) There is no potential for hazardous energy to be released (or to reaccumulate) after shutting down, or restoring energy to, the machinery, equipment, or system;
(ii) The machinery, equipment, or system has a single energy source that can be readily identified and isolated;
(iii) The isolation and lock out of that energy source will result in complete deenergization and deactivation of the machinery, equipment, or system, and there is no potential for reaccumulation of energy;
(iv) The energy source is isolated and secured from the machinery, equipment, or system during servicing;
(v) Only one lock is necessary for isolating the energy source;
(vi) The lock is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing;
(vii) The servicing does not create a hazard for any other employee; and
(viii) The employer, in utilizing this exception, has not had any accidents or incidents involving the activation or reenergization of this type of machinery, equipment, or system during servicing.
(5) Procedures for shutdown and isolation.
(a) Before an authorized employee shuts down any machinery, equipment, or system, the employer shall:
(i) Ensure that the authorized employee has knowledge of:
(A) The source, type, and magnitude of the hazards associated with energization or start-up of the machine, equipment, or system;
(B) The hazards associated with the release of hazardous energy; and
(C) The means to control these hazards; and
(ii) Notify each affected employee that the machinery, equipment, or system will be shutdown and deenergized prior to servicing, and that a lockout/tags-plus system will be implemented.
(b) The employer shall ensure that the machinery, equipment, or system is shutdown according to the written procedures the employer established.
(c) The employer shall use an orderly shutdown to prevent exposing any employee to risks associated with hazardous energy.
(d) The employer shall ensure that the authorized employee relieves, disconnects, restrains, or otherwise renders safe all potentially hazardous energy that is connected to the machinery, equipment, or system.
(6) Procedures for applying lockout/tags-plus systems.
(a) The employer shall ensure that only an authorized employee applies a lockout/tags-plus system.
(b) When using lockout systems, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee affixes each lock in a manner that will hold the energy isolating device in a safe or off position.
(c) When using tags-plus systems, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee affixes a tag directly to the energy-isolating device that clearly indicates that the removal of the device from a safe or off position is prohibited.
(d) When the tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy-isolating device the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee locates it as close as safely possible to the device, in a safe and immediately obvious position.
(e) The employer shall ensure that each energy-isolating device that controls energy to the machinery, equipment, or system is effective in isolating the machinery, equipment, or system from all potentially hazardous energy source(s).
(7) Procedures for verification of deenergization and isolation.
(a) Before servicing machinery, equipment, or a system that has a lockout/tags-plus system, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee, or the primary authorized employee in a group lockout/tags-plus application, verifies that the machinery, equipment, or system is deenergized and all energy sources isolated.
(b) The employer shall ensure that the authorized employee, or the primary authorized employee in a group lockout/tags-plus application, continues verifying deenergization and isolation while servicing the machinery, equipment, or system.
(c) Each authorized employee in a group lockout/tags-plus application who will be servicing the machinery, equipment, or system must be given the option to verify that the machinery, equipment, or system is deenergized and all energy sources isolated, even when verification is performed by the primary authorized employee.
(8) Procedures for testing. In each situation in which a lockout/tags-plus system must be removed temporarily and the machinery, equipment, or system restarted to test it or to position a component, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee does the following in sequence:
(a) Clears tools and materials from the work area;
(b) Removes nonessential employees from the work area;
(c) Removes each lockout/tags-plus system in accordance with subsection (9) of this section;
(d) Restarts the machinery, equipment, or system and then proceeds with testing or positioning; and
(e) After completing testing or positioning, deenergizes and shuts down the machinery, equipment, or system and reapplies all lockout/tags-plus systems in accordance with subsections (5) through (7) of this section to continue servicing.
(9) Procedures for removal of lockout and tags-plus systems.
(a) Before removing any lockout/tags-plus system and restoring the machinery, equipment, or system to use, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee does the following:
(i) Notifies all other authorized and affected employees that the lockout/tags-plus system will be removed;
(ii) Ensures that all employees in the work area have been safely positioned or removed; and
(iii) Inspects the work area to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and machinery, equipment, or system components are operationally intact.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each lock or tags-plus system is removed by the authorized employee who applied it.
(c) When the authorized employee who applied the lockout/tags-plus system is not available to remove it, the employer may direct removal by another authorized employee, provided the employer developed and incorporated into the lockout/tags-plus program the specific procedures and training that address such removal, and demonstrates that the specific procedures used provide a level of employee safety that is at least as effective in protecting employees as removal of the system by the authorized employee who applied it. After meeting these requirements, the employer shall do the following in sequence:
(i) Verify that the authorized employee who applied the lockout/tags-plus system is not in the facility;
(ii) Make all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him/her that the lockout/tags-plus system has been removed; and
(iii) Ensure that the authorized employee who applied the lock or tags-plus system has knowledge of the removal before resuming work on the affected machinery, equipment, or system.
(10) Procedures for start-up.
(a) Before an authorized employee turns on any machinery, equipment, or system after servicing is completed, the employer shall ensure that the authorized employee has knowledge of the source, type, and magnitude of the hazards associated with energization or start-up, and the means to control these hazards.
(b) The employer shall execute an orderly start-up to prevent or minimize any additional or increased hazard(s) to employees. The employer shall perform the following tasks before starting up the machinery, equipment, or system:
(i) Clear tools and materials from the work area;
(ii) Remove any nonessential employees from the work area; and
(iii) Start-up the machinery, equipment, or system according to the detailed procedures the employer established for that machinery, equipment, or system.
(11) Procedures for group lockout/tags-plus. When more than one authorized employee services the same machinery, equipment, or system at the same time, the following procedures shall be implemented:
(a) Primary authorized employee. The employer shall:
(i) Assign responsibility to one primary authorized employee for each group of authorized employees performing servicing on the same machinery, equipment, or system;
(ii) Ensure that the primary authorized employee determines the safe exposure status of each authorized employee in the group with regard to the lockout/tags-plus system;
(iii) Ensure that the primary authorized employee obtains approval from the lockout/tags-plus coordinator to apply and remove the lockout/tags-plus system; and
(iv) Ensure that the primary authorized employee coordinates the servicing operation with the coordinator when required by subsection (3)(g)(i) of this section.
(b) Authorized employees. The employer shall either:
(i) Have each authorized employee apply a personal lockout/tags-plus system; or
(ii) Use a procedure that the employer can demonstrate affords each authorized employee a level of protection equivalent to the protection provided by having each authorized employee apply a personal lockout/tags-plus system. Such procedures shall incorporate a means for each authorized employee to have personal control of, and accountability for, his or her protection such as, but not limited to, having each authorized employee:
(A) Sign a group tag (or a group tag equivalent), attach a personal identification device to a group lockout device, or performs a comparable action before servicing is started; and
(B) Sign off the group tag (or the group tag equivalent), remove the personal identification device, or perform a comparable action when servicing is finished.
(12) Procedures for multiemployer worksites.
(a) The host employer shall establish and implement procedures to protect employees from hazardous energy in multiemployer worksites. The procedures shall specify the responsibilities for host and contract employers.
(b) Host employer responsibilities. The host employer shall carry out the following responsibilities in multiemployer worksites:
(i) Inform each contract employer about the content of the host employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures;
(ii) Instruct each contract employer to follow the host employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures; and
(iii) Ensure that the lockout/tags-plus coordinator knows about all servicing operations and communicates with each contract employer who performs servicing or works in an area where servicing is being conducted.
(c) Contract employer responsibilities. Each contract employer shall perform the following duties when working in a multiemployer worksite:
(i) Follow the host employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures;
(ii) Ensure that the host employer knows about the lockout/tags-plus hazards associated with the contract employer's work and what the contract employer is doing to address these hazards; and
(iii) Inform the host employer of any previously unidentified lockout/tags-plus hazards that the contract employer identifies at the multiemployer worksite.
Note to subsection (12) of this section: The host employer may include provisions in its contract with the contract employer for the contract employer to have more control over the lockout/tags-plus program if such provisions will provide an equivalent level of protection for the host employer's and contract employer's employees as provided by subsection (l) of this section.
(13) Procedures for shift or personnel changes.
(a) The employer shall establish and implement specific procedures for shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of lockout/tags-plus protection.
(b) The employer shall establish and implement provisions for the orderly transfer of lockout/tags-plus systems between authorized employees when they are starting and ending their workshifts, or when personnel changes occur during a workshift, to prevent energization or start-up of the machinery, equipment, or system being serviced or the release of hazardous energy.
(14) Lockout/tags-plus materials and hardware.
(a) The employer shall provide locks and tags-plus system hardware used for isolating, securing, or blocking machinery, equipment, or systems from all hazardous energy sources.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each lock and tag is uniquely identified for the purpose of controlling hazardous energy and is not used for any other purpose.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each lock and tag meets the following requirements:
(i) Durable.
(A) Each lock and tag is capable of withstanding the existing environmental conditions for the maximum period of time that servicing is expected to last;
(B) Each tag is made so that weather conditions, wet or damp conditions, corrosive substances, or other conditions in the work area where the tag is used or stored will not cause it to deteriorate or become illegible;
(ii) Standardized.
(A) Each lock and tag is standardized in at least one of the following areas: Color, shape, or size; and
(B) Each tag is standardized in print and format;
(iii) Substantial.
(A) Each lock is sturdy enough to prevent removal without the use of extra force or unusual techniques, such as bolt cutters or other metal-cutting tools;
(B) Each tag and tag attachment is sturdy enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal;
(C) Each tag attachment has the general design and basic safety characteristics of a one-piece, all environment-tolerant nylon tie;
(D) Each tag attachment is nonreusable, attachable by hand, selflocking, and nonreleasable, and has a minimum unlocking strength of fifty pounds;
(iv) Identifiable. Each lock and tag indicates the identity of the authorized employee applying it; and
(v) Each tag warns of hazardous conditions that could arise if the machinery, equipment, or system is energized and includes a legend such as one of the following: "Do Not Start," "Do Not Open," "Do Not Close," "Do Not Energize," or "Do Not Operate."
(15) Information and training.
(a) Initial training. The employer shall train each employee in the applicable requirements of this section no later than the effective date of this section.
(b) General training content. The employer shall train each employee who is, or may be, in an area where lockout/tags-plus systems are being used so they know:
(i) The purpose and function of the employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures;
(ii) The unique identity of the locks and tags to be used in the lockout/tags-plus system, as well as the standardized color, shape or size of these devices;
(iii) The basic components of the tags-plus system: An energy-isolating device with a tag affixed to it and an additional safety measure;
(iv) The prohibition against tampering with or removing any lockout/tags-plus system; and
(v) The prohibition against restarting or reenergizing any machinery, equipment, or system being serviced under a lockout/tags-plus system.
(c) Additional training requirements for affected employees. In addition to training affected employees in the requirements in (b) of this subsection, the employer also shall train each affected employee so he/she knows:
(i) The use of the employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures;
(ii) That affected employees are not to apply or remove any lockout/tags-plus system; and
(iii) That affected employees are not to bypass, ignore, or otherwise defeat any lockout/tags-plus system.
(d) Additional training requirements for authorized employees. In addition to training authorized employees in the requirements in (b) and (c) of this subsection, the employer also shall train each authorized employee so he/she knows:
(i) The steps necessary for the safe application, use, and removal of lockout/tags-plus systems to prevent energization or start-up or the release of hazardous energy during servicing of machinery, equipment, or systems;
(ii) The type of energy sources and the magnitude of the energy available at the worksite;
(iii) The means and methods necessary for effective isolation and control of hazardous energy;
(iv) The means for determining the safe exposure status of other employees in a group when the authorized employee is working as a group's primary authorized employee;
(v) The requirement for tags to be written so they are legible and understandable to all employees;
(vi) The requirement that tags and their means of attachment be made of materials that will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace;
(vii) The requirement that tags be securely attached to energy-isolating devices so they cannot be accidentally removed while servicing machinery, equipment, or systems;
(viii) That tags are warning devices, and alone do not provide physical barriers against energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, provided by locks, and energy-isolating devices; and
(ix) That tags must be used in conjunction with an energy-isolating device to prevent energization or start-up or the release of hazardous energy.
(e) Additional training for lockout/tags-plus coordinator. In addition to training lockout/tags-plus coordinators in the requirements in (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection, the employer shall train each lockout/tags-plus coordinator so he/she knows:
(i) How to identify and isolate any machinery, equipment, or system that is being serviced; and
(ii) How to accurately document lockout/tags-plus systems and maintain the lockout/tags-plus log.
(f) Employee retraining.
(i) The employer shall retrain each employee, as applicable, whenever:
(A) There is a change in his/her job assignment that presents new hazards or requires a greater degree of knowledge about the employer's lockout/tags-plus program or procedures;
(B) There is a change in machinery, equipment, or systems to be serviced that presents a new energy-control hazard;
(C) There is a change in the employer's lockout/tags-plus program or procedures; or
(D) It is necessary to maintain the employee's proficiency.
(ii) The employer also shall retrain each employee, as applicable, whenever an incident investigation or program audit indicates that there are:
(A) Deviations from, or deficiencies in, the employer's lockout/tags-plus program or procedures; or
(B) Inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the lockout/tags-plus program or procedures.
(iii) The employer shall ensure that retraining establishes the required employee knowledge and proficiency in the employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures and in any new or revised energy-control procedures.
(g) Upon completion of employee training, the employer shall keep a record that the employee accomplished the training, and that this training is current. The training record shall contain at least the employee's name, date of training, and the subject of the training.
(16) Incident investigation.
(a) The employer shall investigate each incident that resulted in, or could reasonably have resulted in, energization or start-up, or the release of hazardous energy, while servicing machinery, equipment, or systems.
(b) Promptly but not later than twenty-four hours following the incident, the employer shall initiate an incident investigation and notify each employee who was, or could reasonably have been, affected by the incident.
(c) The employer shall ensure that the incident investigation is conducted by at least one employee who has the knowledge of, and experience in, the employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures, and in investigating and analyzing incidents involving the release of hazardous energy. The employer may also use additional individuals to participate in investigating the incident.
(d) The employer shall ensure that the individual(s) conducting the investigation prepare(s) a written report of the investigation that includes:
(i) The date and time of the incident;
(ii) The date and time the incident investigation began;
(iii) Location of the incident;
(iv) A description of the incident;
(v) The factors that contributed to the incident;
(vi) A copy of any lockout/tags-plus log that was current at the time of the incident; and
(vii) Any corrective actions that need to be taken as a result of the incident.
(e) The employer shall review the written incident report with each employee whose job tasks are relevant to the incident investigation findings, including contract employees when applicable.
(f) The employer shall ensure that the incident investigation and written report are completed, and all corrective actions implemented, within thirty days following the incident.
(g) If the employer demonstrates that it is infeasible to implement all of the corrective actions within thirty days, the employer shall prepare a written abatement plan that contains an explanation of the circumstances causing the delay, a proposed timetable for the abatement, and a summary of the steps the employer is taking in the interim to protect employees from hazardous energy while servicing machinery, equipment, or systems.
(17) Program audits.
(a) The employer shall conduct an audit of the lockout/tags-plus program and procedures currently in use at least annually to ensure that the procedures and the requirements of this section are being followed and to correct any deficiencies.
(b) The employer shall ensure that the audit is performed by:
(i) An authorized employee other than the one(s) currently using the energy control procedure being reviewed; or
(ii) Individuals other than an authorized employee who are knowledgeable about the employer's lockout/tags-plus program and procedures and the machinery, equipment, or systems being audited.
(c) The employer shall ensure that the audit includes:
(i) A review of the written lockout/tags-plus program and procedures;
(ii) A review of the current lockout/tags-plus log;
(iii) Verification of the accuracy of the lockout/tags-plus log;
(iv) A review of incident reports since the last audit;
(v) A review conducted between the auditor and authorized employees regarding the authorized employees' responsibilities under the lockout systems being audited; and
(vi) A review conducted between the auditor and affected and authorized employees regarding their responsibilities under the tags-plus systems being audited.
(d) The employer shall ensure that, within fifteen days after completion of the audit, the individual(s) who conducted the audit prepare and deliver to the employer a written audit report that includes at least:
(i) The date of the audit;
(ii) The identity of the individual(s) who performed the audit;
(iii) The identity of the procedure and machinery, equipment, or system that were audited;
(iv) The findings of the program audit and recommendations for correcting deviations or deficiencies identified during the audit;
(v) Any incident investigation reports since the previous audit; and
(vi) Descriptions of corrective actions the employer has taken in response to the findings and recommendations of any incident investigation reports prepared since the previous audit.
(e) The employer shall promptly communicate the findings and recommendations in the written audit report to each employee having a job task that may be affected by such findings and recommendations.
(f) The employer shall correct the deviations or inadequacies in the lockout/tags-plus program within fifteen days after receiving the written audit report.
(18) Recordkeeping.
(a) Table R-1 specifies what records the employer must retain and how long the employer must retain them:
Table R-1
Retention of Records Required by WAC 296-304-06016
The employer must keep the following records
For at least
Current lockout/tags-plus program and procedures
Until replaced by updated program and procedures
Training records
Until replaced by updated records for each type of training
Incident investigation reports
Until the next program audit is completed
Program audit report
12 months after being replaced by the next audit report
(b) The employer shall make all records required by this section available to employees, their representatives, and the director.
(19) Appendices. Nonmandatory Appendix A to this section is a guideline to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of this section, and to provide them with other useful information. The information in Appendix A does not add to, or in any way revise, the requirements of this section.
Appendix A to WAC 296-304-06016 (Nonmandatory) - Typical minimal lockout/tags-plus procedures general lockout/tags-plus procedure.
Lockout/tags-plus procedure for (name of company for single procedure or identification of machinery, equipment, or system if multiple procedures used).
Purpose
This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout/tags-plus application of energy-isolating devices on vessels and vessel sections, and for landside facilities whenever servicing is done on machinery, equipment, or systems in shipyards. This procedure shall be used to ensure that all potentially hazardous energy sources have been isolated and the machinery, equipment, or system to be serviced has been rendered inoperative through the use of lockout or tags-plus procedures before employees perform any servicing when the energization or start-up of the machinery, equipment, or system, or the release of hazardous energy could cause injury.
Compliance with this program
All employees are required to comply with the restrictions and limitations imposed on them during the use of lockout or tags-plus applications. Authorized employees are required to perform each lockout or tags-plus application in accordance with this procedure. No employee, upon observing that machinery, equipment, or systems are secured using lockout or tags-plus applications, shall attempt to start, open, close, energize, or operate that machinery, equipment, or system.
Procedures for lockout/tags-plus systems
(1) Notify each affected employee that servicing is required on the machinery, equipment, or system, and that it must be isolated and rendered inoperative using a lockout or tags-plus system.
(2) The authorized employee shall refer to shipyard employer's procedures to identify the type and magnitude of the energy source(s) that the machinery, equipment, or system uses, shall understand the hazards of the energy, and shall know the methods to control the energy source(s).
(3) If the machinery, equipment, or system is operating, shut it down in accordance with the written procedures (depress the stop button, open switch, close valve, etc.) established by the employer.
(4) Secure each energy-isolating device(s) through the use of a lockout or tags-plus system (for instance, disconnecting, blanking, and affixing tags) so that the energy source is isolated and the machinery, equipment, or system is rendered inoperative.
(5) Lockout system. Affix a lock to each energy-isolating device(s) with assigned individual lock(s) that will hold the energy isolating device(s) in a safe or off position. Potentially hazardous energy (such as that found in capacitors, springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.) must be controlled by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
(6) Tags-plus system. Affix a tag to each energy-isolating device and provide at least one additional safety measure that clearly indicates that removal of the device from the safe or off position is prohibited. Potentially hazardous energy (such as that found in capacitors, springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.) must be controlled by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
(7) Ensure that the machinery, equipment, or system is relieved, disconnected, restrained, or rendered safe from the release of all potentially hazardous energy by checking that no personnel are exposed, and then verifying the isolation of energy to the machine, equipment, or system by operating the push button or other normal operating control(s), or by testing to make certain it will not operate.
CAUTION:
Return operating control(s) to the safe or off position after verifying the isolation of the machinery, equipment, or system.
(8) The machinery, equipment, or system is now secured by a lockout or tags-plus system, and servicing by the authorized person may be performed.
Procedures for removal of lockout/tags-plus systems
When servicing is complete and the machinery, equipment, or system is ready to return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken:
(1) Notify each authorized and affected employee(s) that the lockout/tags-plus system will be removed and the machinery, equipment, or system reenergized.
(2) Inspect the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(3) Inspect the machinery, equipment, or system and the immediate area around the machinery, equipment, or system to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that the machinery, equipment, or system components are operationally intact.
(4) Reconnect the necessary components, remove the lockout/tags-plus material and hardware, and reenergize the machinery, equipment, or system through the established detailed procedures determined by the employer.
(5) Notify all affected employees that servicing is complete and the machinery, equipment, or system is ready for testing or use.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06016, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12.]



296-304-06017
Retention of DOT markings, placards, and labels.

(1) Any employer who receives a package of hazardous material that is required to be marked, labeled, or placarded in accordance with the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations (49 C.F.R. parts 171 through 180) shall retain those markings, labels, and placards on the package until the packaging is sufficiently cleaned of residue and purged of vapors to remove any potential hazards.
(2) Any employer who receives a freight container, rail freight car, motor vehicle, or transport vehicle that is required to be marked or placarded in accordance with the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations shall retain those markings and placards on the freight container, rail freight car, motor vehicle, or transport vehicle until the hazardous materials are sufficiently removed to prevent any potential hazards.
(3) The employer shall maintain markings, placards, and labels in a manner that ensures that they are readily visible.
(5) For the purposes of this section, the term "hazardous material" and any other terms not defined in this section have the same definition as specified in the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-304-06017, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06017, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12.]



296-304-06018
Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation, and maintenance.

(1) Application.
(a) This section applies to any motor vehicle used to transport employees, materials, or property at worksites engaged in shipyard employment. This section does not apply to motor vehicle operation on public streets and highways.
(b) The requirements of this section apply to employer-provided motor vehicles. The requirements of subsections (2)(b) and (d) and (3)(b) of this section also apply to employee-provided motor vehicles.
(c) Only the requirements of subsection (2)(a) through (c) of this section apply to powered industrial trucks, as defined in chapter 296-863 WAC. The maintenance, inspection, operation, and training requirements in chapter 296-863 WAC continue to apply to powered industrial trucks used for shipyard employment.
(2) Motor vehicle safety equipment.
(a) The employer shall ensure that each motor vehicle acquired or initially used after the effective date of this rule is equipped with a safety belt for each employee operating or riding in the motor vehicle. This requirement does not apply to any motor vehicle that was not equipped with safety belts at the time of manufacture.
(b) The employer shall ensure that each employee uses a safety belt, securely and tightly fastened, at all times while operating or riding in a motor vehicle.
(c) The employer shall ensure that vehicle safety equipment is not removed from any employer-provided vehicle. The employer shall replace safety equipment that is removed.
(d) The employer shall ensure that each motor vehicle used to transport an employee has firmly secured seats for each employee being transported and that all employees being transported are using such seats.
(3) Motor vehicle maintenance and operation.
(a) The employer shall ensure that each motor vehicle is maintained in a serviceable and safe operating condition, and removed from service if it is not in such condition.
(b) The employer shall ensure that, before a motor vehicle is operated, any tools and materials being transported are secured if their movements may create a hazard for employees.
(c) The employer shall implement measures to ensure that motor vehicle operators are able to see, and avoid harming, pedestrians and bicyclists at shipyards. Measures that employers may implement to comply with this requirement include:
(i) Establishing dedicated travel lanes for motor vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians;
(ii) Installing crosswalks and traffic control devices such as stop signs, mirrors at blind spots, or physical barriers to separate travel lanes;
(iii) Establishing appropriate speed limits for all motor vehicles;
(iv) Establishing "no drive" times to allow for safe movement of pedestrians;
(v) Providing reflective vests or other gear so pedestrians and bicyclists are clearly visible to motor vehicle operators;
(vi) Ensuring that bicycles have reflectors, lights, or other equipment to maximize visibility of the bicyclist; or
(vii) Other measures that the employer can demonstrate are as effective in protecting pedestrians and bicyclists as those measures specified in this section.
Reference:
See chapter 296-864 WAC, Split (multipiece) rim and single-piece rim wheels, for requirements relating to servicing multipiece and single-piece rim wheels.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-06018, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12.]



296-304-070
Gear and equipment for rigging and materials handling—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-070 in the section number apply to gear and equipment for rigging and materials handling.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-070, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07001
Inspection.

(1) All gear and equipment provided by the employer for rigging and materials handling shall be inspected before each shift and, when necessary, at intervals during its use to ensure that is safe. Defective gear shall be removed and repaired or replaced before further use.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-07001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07003
Ropes, chains and slings.

(1) Manila rope and manila rope slings. Employers must ensure that manila rope and manila-rope slings:
(a) Have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one;
(b) Not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed on the identification markings by the manufacturer; and
(c) Not be used without affixed and legible identification markings as required by (a) of this subsection.
(2) Wire rope and wire rope slings.
(a) Employers must ensure that wire rope and wire rope slings:
(i) Have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one;
(ii) Not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed on the identification markings by the manufacturer; and
(iii) Not be used without affixed and legible identification markings as required by (a)(i) of this subsection.
(b) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted.
(c) Where U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, employers must use Table G-1 in WAC 296-304-07011 to determine the number and spacing of clips. Employers must apply the U-bolt so that the "U" section is in contact with the dead end of the rope.
(d) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots.
(3) Chains and chain slings.
(a) Employers must ensure that chain and chain slings:
(i) Have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one;
(ii) Not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed on the identification markings by the manufacturer; and
(iii) Not be used without affixed and legible identification markings as required by (a)(i) of this subsection.
(b) All sling chains, including end fastenings, shall be given a visual inspection before being used on the job. A thorough inspection of all chains in use shall be made every 3 months. Each chain shall bear an indication of the month in which it was thoroughly inspected. The thorough inspection shall include inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length or stretch.
(c) Employers must note interlink wear, not accompanied by stretch in excess of 5 percent, and remove the chain from service when maximum allowable wear at any point of link, as indicated in Table G-2 in WAC 296-304-07011, has been reached.
(d) Chain slings shall be removed from service when, due to stretch, the increase in length of a measured section exceeds five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when raised scarfs or defective welds appear.
(e) All repairs to chains shall be made under qualified supervision. Links or portions of the chain found to be defective as described in (d) of this section shall be replaced by links having proper dimensions and made of material similar to that of the chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they shall be proof tested to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer.
(f) Wrought iron chains in constant use shall be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six months when recommended by the manufacturer. The chain manufacturer shall be consulted for recommended procedures for annealing or normalizing. Alloy chains shall never be annealed.
(g) A load shall not be lifted with a chain having a kink or knot in it. A chain shall not be shortened by bolting, wiring or knotting.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-304-07003, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13; Order 76-7, § 296-304-07003, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-07003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07005
Shackles and hooks.

(1) Shackles. Employers must ensure that shackles:
(a) Have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer that indicate the recommended safe working load;
(b) Not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed on the identification markings by the manufacturer; and
(c) Not be used without affixed and legible identification markings as required by (a) of this subsection.
(2) Hooks.
(a) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.
(b) Loads shall be applied to the throat of the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook.
(c) Hooks shall be inspected periodically to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Bent or sprung hooks shall not be used.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-304-07005, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13; Order 76-7, § 296-304-07005, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-07005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07007
Chain falls and pull-lifts.

(1) Chain falls and pull-lifts shall be clearly marked to show the capacity and the capacity shall not be exceeded.
(2) Chain falls shall be regularly inspected to ensure that they are safe, particular attention being given to the lift chain, pinion, sheaves and hooks for distortion and wear. Pull-lifts shall be regularly inspected to ensure that they are safe, particular attention being given to the ratchet, pawl, chain and hooks for distortion and wear.
(3) Straps, shackles, and the beam or overhead structure to which a chain fall or pull-lift is secured shall be of adequate strength to support the weight of load plus gear. The upper hook shall be moused or otherwise secured against coming free of its support.
(4) Scaffolding shall not be used as a point of attachment for lifting devices, such as tackles, chain falls, and pull-lifts unless the scaffolding is specifically designed for that purpose.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-07007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07009
Hoisting and hauling equipment.

(1) Derrick and crane certification:
(b) Subsection (a) of this section shall take effect 180 days after the effective date of the amendment.
(2) The moving parts of hoisting and hauling equipment shall be guarded.
(3) Mobile crawler or truck cranes used on a vessel:
(a) The maximum manufacturer's rated safe working loads for the various working radii of the boom and the maximum and minimum radii at which the boom may be safely used with and without outriggers shall be conspicuously posted near the controls and shall be visible to the operator. A radius indicator shall be provided.
(b) The posted safe working loads of mobile crawler or truck cranes under the conditions of use shall not be exceeded.
(4) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the outermost part of the body of a revolving derrick or crane whether permanently or temporarily mounted, shall be guarded in such a manner as to prevent an employee from being in such a position as to be struck by the crane or caught between the crane and fixed parts of the vessel or of the crane itself.
(5) Marine railways:
(a) The cradle or carriage on the marine railway shall be positively blocked or secured when in the hauled position to prevent it from being accidentally released.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-07009, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-07009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07011
Use of gear.

(1) Loads shall be safely rigged before being hoisted.
(2) Plates shall be handled on and off hulls by means of shackles whenever possible. Clips or pads of ample size shall be welded to the plate to receive the shackle pins whenever there are no holes in the plate. When it is not possible to make holes in or to weld pads to the plate, alligator tongs, grab hooks, grab clamps or screw clamps may be used. In such cases special precautions shall be taken to keep employees from under such lifts.
(3) Tag lines shall be provided on loads likely to swing or to need guidance.
(4) When slings are secured to eyebolts, the slings shall be so arranged, using spreaders if necessary, that the pull is within 20 degrees of the axis of the bolt.
(5) Slings shall be padded by means of wood blocks or other suitable material where they pass over sharp edges or corners of loads so as to prevent cutting or kinking.
(6) Skips shall be rigged to be handled by not less than 3 legged bridles, and all legs shall always be used. When open end skips are used, means shall be taken to prevent the contents from falling.
(7) Loose ends of idle legs of slings in use shall be hung on the hook.
(8) Employees shall not be permitted to ride the hook or the load.
(9) Loads (tools, equipment or other materials) shall not be swung or suspended over the heads of employees.
(10) Pieces of equipment or structure susceptible to falling or dislodgement shall be secured or removed as early as possible.
(11) An individual who is familiar with the signal code in use shall be assigned to act as a signalman when the hoist operator cannot see the load being handled. Communications shall be made by means of clear and distinct visual or auditory signals except that verbal signals shall not be permitted.
(12) Pallets, when used, shall be of such material and construction and so maintained as to safely support and carry the loads being handled on them.
(13) A section of hatch through which materials or equipment are being raised, lowered, moved, or otherwise shifted manually or by a crane, winch, hoist, or derrick, shall be completely opened. The beam or pontoon left in place adjacent to an opening shall be sufficiently lashed, locked or otherwise secured to prevent it from moving so that it cannot be displaced by accident.
(14) Hatches shall not be opened or closed while employees are in the square of the hatch below.
(15) Before loads or empty lifting gear are raised, lowered, or swung, clear and sufficient advance warning shall be given to employees in the vicinity of such operations.
(16) At no time shall an employee be permitted to place himself in hazardous position between a swinging load and a fixed object.
TABLE E-1
DIMENSIONS AND SPACING OF WOOD
INDEPENDENT-POLE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS
Structural
Members
Light duty
(Up to 25 pounds
per square foot)
 
Heavy duty
(25 to 75 pounds
per square foot)
Height in feet
 
Height in feet
< 24
˃24<40
40<60
<24
˃24<40
40<60
Poles or uprights
   (in inches) . . . .
 
2x4
 
3x4 or
2x6
 
4x4
 
3x4
 
4x4
 
4x6
Bearers (in inches) . . . .
2x4
2x6
2x6
2x8
2x8
2x10
Ledgers (in inches) . . . .
2x6
2x6
2x6
2x8
2x8
2x8
Stringer (not
   supporting bearers)
   (in inches) . . . .
 
 
1x6
 
 
1x6
 
 
1x6
 
 
1x6
 
 
1x6
 
 
1x6
Braces (in inches) . . . .
1x4
1x6
1x6
1x6
1x6
1x6
Pole spacing—
   longitudinally
   (in feet) . . . .
 
7 1/2
 
7 1/2
 
7 1/2
 
7
 
7
 
7
Pole spacing—
   transversely
   (in feet) . . . .
 
6 1/2 min
 
7 1/2
min
 
8 1/2 min
 
6 1/2
 
10
 
10
Ledger spacing—
   vertically (in feet) . . . .
 
7
 
7
 
7
 
4 1/2
 
4 1/2
 
4 1/2
TABLE E-2
SPECIFICATIONS FOR SIDE RAILS OF LADDERS
Length
(in feet)
Cross section
(in inches)
At ends
At center
15 . . . .
1 7/8 x 2 3/4
 
1 7/8 x 3 3/4
16 . . . .
1 7/8 x 2 3/4
 
1 7/8 x 3 3/4
17 . . . .
1 7/8 x 3
 
1 7/8 x 4
18 . . . .
1 7/8 x 3
 
1 7/8 x 4
20 . . . .
1 7/8 x 3
 
1 7/8 x 4 1/2
24 . . . .
1 7/8 x 3
 
1 7/8 x 4 1/2
TABLE E-3
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSES
Structural
Height in feet
Members
<10
˃10<16
16<20
 
Inches
Inches
Inches
Legs . . . .
2x4
3x4
4x6
Bearers or headers
2x6
2x8
4x6
Crossbraces . . . .
2x4 or 1x8
2x4
2x6
Longitudinal braces . . . .
2x4
2x6
2x6
TABLE E-4
SAFE CENTER LOADS FOR SCAFFOLD PLANK
OF 1,100 POUNDS FIBRE STRESS
[Codification note: The graphic presentation of this table has been varied in order that it would fall within the printing specifications for the Washington Administrative Code. The following table had lumber dimensions in the table heading typed in vertically across the page while the remainder of the table was typed horizontally on the page. The "Span in Feet" materials (6 through 16) which ran top to bottom has been switched to run left to right on the page. The "Lumber dimensions in inches" which ran left to right on the page has been switched to run top to bottom on the page.]
Lumber dimensions
in inches
Span in Feet
6
8
10
12
14
16
A-2 x 10
 
 
 
 
 
 
B-1 5/8 x 9 1/2
256
192
153
128
110
---
A-2 x 12
 
 
 
 
 
 
B-1 5/8 x 11 1/2
309
232
186
155
133
116
A-3 x 8
 
 
 
 
 
 
B-2 5/8 x 7 1/2
526
395
316
263
225
197
A-3 x 10
 
 
 
 
 
 
B-2 5/8 x 9 1/2
667
600
400
333
286
250
A-3 x 12
 
 
 
 
 
 
B-2 5/8 x 11 1/2
807
605
484
404
346
303
(A)—Rough lumber.
(B)—Dressed lumber.
TABLE G-1
NUMBER AND SPACING OF U-BOLT WIRE
ROPE CLIPS
 
 
Number of Clips
Improved
plow
steel rope
diameter
inches
 
Drop
forged
Other
material
Minimum
spacing
(inches)
*
. . . .
...
...
 
 
 
1/2
. . . . 
3
4
 
3
 
5/8
. . . . 
3
4
 
3 3/4
 
3/4
. . . . 
4
5
 
4 1/2
 
7/8
. . . . 
4
5
 
5 1/4
 
1
. . . . 
4
6
 
6
 
1 1/8
. . . . 
5
6
 
6 3/4
 
1 1/4
. . . . 
5
7
 
7 1/2
 
1 3/8
. . . . 
6
7
 
8 1/4
 
1 1/2
. . . . 
6
8
 
9
 
*Three clips shall be used on wire size less than 1/2-inch diameter.
TABLE G-2
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEAR AT
ANY POINT OF LINK
Chain size in inches
Maximum allowable wear
in fraction of inches
1/4 (9/32). . . .
3/64
3/8. . . .
5/64
1/2. . . .
7/64
5/8. . . .
9/64
3/4. . . .
5/32
7/8. . . .
1/64
1. . . .
3/16
1 1/8. . . .
7/32
1 1/4. . . .
1/4
1 3/8. . . .
9/32
1 1/2. . . .
5/16
1 3/4. . . .
1/32
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-304-07011, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-07011, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-07011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-07013
Qualifications of operators.

(1) When ship's gear is used to hoist materials aboard, a competent person shall determine that the gear is properly rigged, that it is in safe condition, and that it will not be overloaded by the size and weight of the lift.
(2) Only those employees who understand the signs, notices, and operating instructions, and are familiar with the signal code in use, shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch, or other power operated hoisting apparatus.
(3) No employee known to have defective uncorrected eyesight or hearing, or to be suffering from heart disease, epilepsy, or similar ailments which may suddenly incapacitate him, shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch or other power operated hoisting apparatus.
(4) No minor under eighteen years of age shall be employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-driven hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by work such as hooking on, loading slings, rigging gear, etc.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-07013, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-07013, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-07013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-080
Tools and related equipment—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-080 in the section number apply to tools and related equipment.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-080, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08001
General precautions.

(1) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so that employees will have their hands free when using ship's ladders and access ladders. The use of hose or electric cords for this purpose is prohibited.
(2) When air tools of the reciprocating type are not in use, the discs and tools shall be removed.
(3) All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position.
(4) The moving parts of machinery on dry docks shall be guarded.
(5) Before use, pneumatic tools shall be secured to the extension hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected from the whip.
(6) The moving parts of drive mechanisms, such as gearing and belting on large portable tools, shall be adequately guarded.
(7) Headers, manifolds, and widely spaced hose connections on compressed air lines shall bear the word "air" in letters at least 1 inch high, which shall be painted either on the manifolds or separate hose connections, or on signs permanently attached to the manifolds or connections. Grouped air connections may be marked in one location.
(8) Before use, compressed air hose shall be examined. Visibly damaged and unsafe hose shall not be used.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-08001, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 76-7, § 296-304-08001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-08001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08003
Portable electric tools.

(1) The frames of portable electric tools and appliances, except double insulated tools approved by Underwriters' Laboratories, shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductors or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current.
(2) Grounding circuits, other than by means of the structure of the vessel on which the tool is being used, shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has resistance which is low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(3) Portable electric tools which are held in the hand shall be equipped with switches of a type which must be manually held in the closed position.
(4) Worn or frayed electric cables shall not be used.
(5) The employer shall notify the officer in charge of the vessel before using electric power tools operated with the vessel's current.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-08003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08005
Hand tools.

(1) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools.
(2) Wrenches, including crescent, pipe, end and socket wrenches, shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs.
(3) Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads.
(4) The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-08005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08007
Abrasive wheels.

(1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90 degrees, except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular exposure shall not exceed 125 degrees. In either case the exposure shall begin not more than 65 degrees above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel.
(2) Floor and bench mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept a distance not to exceed 1/8 inch from the surface of the wheel.
(3) Cup type wheels use for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the United States of American Standard Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1.1970. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of (5) of this section, except as follows:
(a) When the work location makes it impossible, in which case a wheel equipped with safety flanges as described in (6) of this section shall be used.
(b) When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.
(4) Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) meeting the requirements of (6) of this section, except as follows:
(a) When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.
(b) If the wheel is entirely within the work being ground while in use.
(5) When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180 degrees.
(6) When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges of a type and design and properly assembled so as to insure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage shall be used.
(7) All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects.
(8) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place.
(9) The power supply shall be sufficient to maintain the rated spindle speed under all conditions of normal grinding. The rated maximum speed of the wheel shall not be exceeded.
(10) The employer must ensure that all employees using abrasive wheels are protected by eye protection equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2), except when adequate eye protection is provided by eye shields permanently attached to the bench or floor stand.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-08007, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-08007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08009
Powder-actuated fastening tools.

(2) The employer must ensure that employees using powder-actuated fastening tools are protected by personal protective equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2). The employer must also meet the requirements of chapter 296-817 WAC, Hearing loss prevention (noise).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-08009, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 03-11-060, § 296-304-08009, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-08009, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-006, § 296-304-08009, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, § 296-304-08009, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-08009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-08011
Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

(1) When internal combustion engines, furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below decks, for such purposes as driving pumps, generators, and blowers, the exhaust shall be led to the open air, clear of any ventilation intakes and openings through which it might enter the vessel
(2) All exhaust line joints and connections shall be checked for tightness immediately upon starting the engine, and any leaks shall be corrected at once.
(3) When internal combustion engines on vehicles, such as forklifts and mobile cranes, or on portable equipment such as fans, generators, and pumps exhaust into the atmosphere below decks, the competent person shall make tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere as frequently as conditions require to ensure that dangerous concentrations do not develop. Employees shall be removed from the compartment involved when the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds 50 parts per million (0.005%). The employer shall use blowers sufficient in size and number and so arranged as to maintain the concentration below this allowable limit before work is resumed.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-08011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-090
Personal protective equipment (PPE)—General requirements.

The employer must provide and ensure that each affected employee uses the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing, protective shields, hearing protection, protective barriers, personal fall protection equipment, and life saving equipment, wherever the employee is exposed to hazards that require the use of PPE. The employer must furnish the personal protective equipment at no cost to employees if:
The intended purpose is to protect against hazardous materials (the PPE may be contaminated by hazardous materials in the course of employment); or
The PPE is of such a nature that it would not reasonably be worn outside the worksite.
The provision of personal protective equipment which may reasonably be worn outside of the workplace is subject to labor-management negotiations, but the employer must ensure that exposed employees are wearing the appropriate PPE.
Examples of PPE that must be provided at no cost to employees include but are not limited to:
Boots worn to protect against chemicals;
Nonprescription protective eye wear;
Goggles to fit over prescription eye wear;
Metatarsal protection;
Full body harnesses and lanyards.
Examples of PPE that provision is subject to labor-management negotiation include but are not limited to:
Leather boots with or without steel toes;
Coats to protect against inclement weather;
Prescription protective eye wear (except as part of a full facepiece or hooded respirator).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-090, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-090, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-09001
Hazard assessment and equipment selection.

(1) The employer must assess its work activity to determine if hazards that require the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are present, or are likely to be present.
(a) If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer must:
(i) Select, and require each affected employee to use, PPE that will protect the employee from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment;
(ii) Inform the affected employee what types of PPE to use;
(iii) Select PPE that properly fits the affected employee; and
(iv) Verify that the hazard assessment has been performed through a document that contains the following information:
• Work activity evaluated;
• Occupation;
• Date(s) of the hazard assessment; and
• The name of the person performing the hazard assessment.
Note:
A hazard assessment conducted according to the trade or occupation of affected employees will be considered to comply with this requirement if it addresses all PPE - related hazards to which employees are exposed in the course of their work activities.
(2) The employer must ensure that employees do not use defective or damaged PPE.
(3) The employer must ensure that all unsanitary PPE, including all previously used PPE, is cleaned and disinfected before it is reissued.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09001, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 76-7, § 296-304-09001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-09001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-09003
Training.

The employer must provide training to each employee for whom PPE is required by this section.
(1) Each employee whose work activities require the use of PPE must be trained to know at least the following:
(a) When PPE is necessary;
(b) What PPE is necessary;
(c) How to properly put on, take off, adjust, and wear PPE;
(d) The limitations of the PPE; and
(e) The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.
(2) The employer must ensure that each affected employee demonstrates the ability to use PPE properly before being allowed to perform work where its use is required.
(3) The employer must retrain any employee who does not understand or display the skills required by subsection (2) of this section. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:
(a) Changes in occupation or work make previous training obsolete; or
(b) Changes in the types of PPE to be used make previous training obsolete; or
(c) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of assigned PPE indicate that the employee has not retained the understanding or skill.
(4) The employer must verify that each affected employee has received the required training through a document that contains the following information:
• Name of each employee trained;
• Date(s) of training; and
• Type of training the employee received.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09003, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-304-09003, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-304-09003, filed 11/30/83; Order 74-25, § 296-304-09003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-09005
Eye and face protection.

(1) The employer must provide each affected employee with eye and face protection according to the following requirements:
(a) Each affected employee must use appropriate eye or face protection when exposed to eye or face hazards caused by flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acid or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.
(b) Each affected employee must use eye or face protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. A detachable side protector (e.g., a clip-on or slide-on side shield) that meets the requirements of this section is acceptable.
(c) Each affected employee who wears prescription lenses must:
• Use eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design; or
• Be protected by eye protection that can be worn over prescription lenses without disturbing the proper position of either the PPE or the prescription lenses.
(d) Each affected employee must use equipment with filter lenses of a shade that provides appropriate protection from injurious light radiation. Tables I-1A and I-1B lists the appropriate shade numbers for various operations. If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under a helmet with a lens, the shade number of the lens in the helmet may be reduced so that the shade numbers of the two lenses will equal the value shown in the Tables I-1A and I-1B.
(2) The employer must ensure that all protective eye and face devices comply with ANSI Z87.1, American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, edition 1989, revision 1998, or edition 2003.
Employers may use alternate eye and face protection if they can demonstrate such devices are at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 10-09-088, § 296-304-09005, filed 4/20/10, effective 6/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09005, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 74-25, § 296-304-09005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-09007
Respiratory protection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-20-055, § 296-304-09007, filed 10/3/05, effective 12/1/05; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-304-09007, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09007, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 76-7, § 296-304-09007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-09007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-09009
Hearing protection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-11-060, § 296-304-09009, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09009, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09011
Head protection.

(1) The employer must provide each affected employee with head protection according to the following requirements:
(a) Each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head.
(b) Each affected employee wears a protective helmet designed to reduce electrical shock hazards where there is potential for electric shock or burns from contact with exposed electrical conductors that could contact the head.
(2) The employer must ensure that all protective helmets comply with any of the following consensus standards:
• ANSI Z89.1-2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
• ANSI Z89.1-2003, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
• ANSI Z89.1-1997, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
• ANSI Z89.1-1986, American National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers—Requirements.
Employers may use alternate head protection if they can demonstrate such devices are at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 14-03-013, § 296-304-09011, filed 1/7/14, effective 2/10/14; WSR 10-09-088, § 296-304-09011, filed 4/20/10, effective 6/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09011, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09013
Foot protection.

(1) The employer must ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where:
• There is a danger of foot injuries from falling or rolling objects;
• There is a danger of foot injuries from objects piercing the sole; or
• Where an employee's feet are exposed to electrical hazards.
(2) The employer must ensure that all protective footwear complies with one of the following consensus standards:
• ASTM F-2412-2005, Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection, and ASTM F-2413-2005, Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear.
• ANSI Z41-1999, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear.
• ANSI Z41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear.
Employers may use alternate footwear if they can demonstrate it is at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 10-09-088, § 296-304-09013, filed 4/20/10, effective 6/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09013, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09015
Hand and body protection.

The employer must ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to hazards such as:
• Skin absorption of harmful substances;
• Severe cuts or lacerations;
• Severe abrasions;
• Punctures;
• Chemical burns;
• Thermal burns;
• Harmful temperature extremes; and
• Sharp objects.
(1) Hot work operations. The employer must ensure that an employee's clothing is free from flammable or combustible materials (such as grease or oil) while engaged in hot work operations or working near an ignition or oxygen source.
(2) Electrical protective devices. The employer must ensure that each affected employee wears protective electrical insulating gloves and sleeves or other electrical protective equipment, if that employee is exposed to electrical shock hazards while working on electrical equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09015, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09017
Lifesaving equipment.

(1) Personal flotation devices (PFD).
• You must provide your employees with PFDs approved by the United States Coast Guard for use on commercial or merchant vessels. The following are appropriate or allowable United States Coast Guard approved PFDs:
Type of PFD
General Description
Type I
Off-shore life jacket - effective for all waters or where rescue may be delayed.
Type II
Near-shore buoyant vest - intended for calm, inland water or where there is a good chance of quick rescue.
Type III
Flotation aid - good for calm, inland water, or where there is a good chance of rescue.
Type V
Flotation aids such as boardsailing vests, deck suits, work vests and inflatable PFDs marked for commercial use.
Note:
• Commercially available PFDs are marked or imprinted with the Type of PFD.
 
• Type IV PFDs are throwable devices. They are used to aid persons who have fallen into the water.
 
• The requirements for USCG approval are in 46 C.F.R. Part 160, Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications.
The employer must ensure that each personal flotation device is inspected before use for dry rot, chemical damage, or other defects that may affect its strength and buoyancy. Defective personal floatation devices shall not be used.
(2) Ring life buoys and ladders.
(a) The employer must ensure that when work is performed on a floating vessel 200 feet (61 m) or more in length, at least three 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoys with lines attached are located in readily visible and accessible places. Ring life buoys must be located one forward, one aft, and one at the access to the gangway.
(b) On floating vessels under 200 feet (61 m) in length, at least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with line attached must be located at the gangway.
(c) At least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with a line attached must be located on each staging alongside of a floating vessel on which work is performed.
(d) At least 90 feet (27.43 m) of line must be attached to each ring life buoy.
(e) There must be at least one portable or permanent ladder near each floating vessel on which work is performed. The ladder must be long enough to help an employee reach safety in the event of a fall into the water.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-09017, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09017, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09019
Fall protection—General requirement.

The employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection when employees work aloft or elsewhere at elevations more than 5 feet above a solid surface.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09019, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09021
Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

Personal fall arrest systems must meet the requirements of this section.
(1) The employer must ensure that connectors and anchorages meet the following criteria:
(a) Connectors are made of drop forged, pressed, or formed steel or of materials with equivalent strength.
(b) Connectors have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges are smooth to prevent damage to the interfacing parts of the system.
(c) D-rings and snaphooks can sustain a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).
(d) D-rings and snaphooks are proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 Kn) without cracking, breaking, or being permanently deformed.
(e) Snaphooks lock and are designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook by contact of the snaphook keeper with the connected part.
(f) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used for connection to the horizontal lifeline can lock in any direction on the lifeline.
(g) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment are independent of any anchorage used to support or suspend platforms.
(h) Anchorages can support at least 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn) per employee attached, or are designed, installed, and used as follows:
(i) As part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two; and
(ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified person.
(2) The employer must ensure that lifelines, lanyards, and personal fall arrest systems meet the following criteria:
(a) When vertical lifelines are used, each employee has a separate lifeline.
(b) Vertical lifelines and lanyards have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).
(c) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distances to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less can sustain a minimum tensile load of 3000 pounds (13.34 Kn) applied to a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.
(d) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards and tearing and deforming lanyards can sustain a minimum static tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn) applied to the device when they are in the fully extended position.
(e) Horizontal lifelines are designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and only used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.
Note:
The system strength needs below are based on a maximum combined weight of employee and tools of 310 pounds. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds (140.62 kg), appropriate allowances must be made or the system will not be in compliance.
(f) Effective April 20, 1998, the employer must ensure that personal fall arrest systems:
(i) Limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 1,800 pounds (8 Kn) when used with a body harness;
(ii) Bring a falling employee to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and
(iii) Are strong enough to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
(g) The employer must ensure that personal fall arrest systems are rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.83 m) nor contact any lower level.
(3) The employer must select, use, and care for systems and system components according to the following requirements:
(a) Lanyards are attached to employees using personal fall arrest systems, as follows:
The attachment point of a body harness is in the center of the wearer's back near the shoulder level, or above the wearer's head. If the maximum free fall distance is less than 20 inches, the attachment point may be located in the chest position.
(b) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines and strength components of body harnesses are made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.
(c) Ropes, harnesses, and lanyards are compatible with their hardware.
(d) Lifelines and lanyards are protected against cuts, abrasions, burns from hot work operations and deterioration by acids, solvents, and other chemicals.
(e) Personal fall arrest systems are inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components are removed from service.
(f) Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading are immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a qualified persons to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(g) The employer must provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or must ensure that employees are able to rescue themselves.
(h) Personal fall arrest systems and components are used only for employee fall protection and not to hoist materials.
(4) Training. Before using personal fall arrest equipment, the employer must ensure that each affected employee is trained to understand the application limits of the equipment and proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques. Affected employees must also be trained to demonstrate the proper use, inspection, and storage of their equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-09021, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09021, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-09023
Positioning device systems.

The employer must ensure that positioning device systems and their use meet the requirements of this section.
(1) The employer must ensure that connectors and anchorages meet the following criteria:
(a) Connectors have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges are smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of this system.
(b) Connecting assemblies have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).
(c) Positioning device systems are secured to an anchorage that can support at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall.
(d) Only locking type snaphooks are used in positioning device systems.
(2) The employer must ensure that positioning device systems meet the following criteria:
(a) Restraint (tether) lines have a minimum breaking strength of 3,000 pounds (13.34 Kn).
(b) Beginning April 20, 1998, the following system performance criteria for positioning device systems are met:
(i) A window cleaner's positioning system can withstand without failure, a drop test consisting of a 6-foot (1.83 m) drop of a 250-pound (113.34 kg) weight. The system limits the initial arresting force to a maximum of 2,000 pounds (8.89 Kn), with a maximum duration of 2 milliseconds. The system limits any subsequent arresting forces imposed on the falling employee to a maximum of 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn);
(ii) All other positioning device systems can withstand without failure a drop test consisting of a 4-foot (1.22 m) drop of a 250-pound (113.34 kg) weight.
(3) The employer must ensure that a positioning device system is used and cared for according to the following requirements:
(a) Positioning device systems are inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components are removed from service.
(b) A positioning device system or component subjected to impact loading is immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection, unless inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(4) Training. Before using a positioning device system, the employer must ensure that employees are trained in the application limits, proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, inspection, and storage of positioning device systems.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-09023, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-02-006, § 296-304-09023, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.]



296-304-100
Ship's machinery and piping systems—Scope and application.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-100, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-10001
Ship's boilers.

Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium, such as steam, or water, oil, or other medium at a high temperature entering from an interconnecting system, the employer shall insure that the following steps are taken:
(1) The isolation and shutoff valves connecting the dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and locked or tagged, in accordance with WAC 296-304-06016, indicating that employees are working in the boiler. This tag shall not be removed nor the valves unblanked until it is determined that this may be done without creating a hazard to the employees working in the boiler, or until the work in the boiler is completed. Where valves are welded instead of bolted at least two isolation and shutoff valves connecting the dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, locked and tagged.
(2) Drain connections to atmosphere on all of the dead interconnecting systems shall be opened for visual observation of drainage.
(3) A warning sign calling attention to the fact that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This sign shall not be removed until it is determined that the work is completed and all employees are out of the boilers.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-10001, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-10001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-10003
Ship's piping systems.

Before work is performed on a valve, fitting, or section of piping in a piping system where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of steam, or water, oil, or other medium at a high temperature, the employer shall insure that the following steps are taken:
(1) The isolation and shutoff valves connecting the dead system with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and locked or tagged, in accordance with WAC 296-304-06016, indicating that employees are working on the systems. This tag shall not be removed nor the valves unblanked until it is determined that this may be done without creating a hazard to the employees working on the system, or until the work on the system is completed. Where valves are welded instead of bolted at least two isolation and shutoff valves connecting the dead system with the live system or systems shall be secured, locked, and tagged.
(2) Drain connections to the atmosphere on all of the dead interconnecting systems shall be opened for visual observation of drainage.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-10003, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-10003, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-10003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-10005
Ship's propulsion machinery.

(1) Before work is performed on the main engine, reduction gear, or connecting accessories, the employer shall ensure that the following steps are taken:
(a) The jacking gear shall be engaged to prevent the main engine from turning over. A sign shall be posted at the throttle indicating that the jacking gear is engaged. This sign shall not be removed until the jacking gear can be safely disengaged.
(c) If the jacking gear is electrically driven, the circuit controlling the jacking gear shall be deenergized by tripping the circuit breaker, opening the switch or removing the fuse, whichever is appropriate. The breaker, switch, or fuse location shall be tagged indicating that employees are working on the main engine.
(2) Before the jacking engine is operated, the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) A check shall be made to ensure that all employees, equipment, and tools are clear of the engine, reduction gear, and its connecting accessories.
(b) A check shall be made to ensure that all employees, equipment and tools are free of the propeller.
(3) Before work is started on or in the immediate vicinity of the propeller, a warning sign calling attention to the fact that employees are working in that area shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This sign shall not be removed until it is determined that the work is completed and all employees are free of the propeller.
(4) Before the main engine is turned over (e.g., when warming up before departure or testing after an overhaul) a check shall be made to ensure that all employees, equipment, and tools are free of the propeller.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-10005, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 76-7, § 296-304-10005, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-10005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-10007
Ship's deck machinery.

(1) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any of its attached accessories, the employer shall ensure that the following steps are taken:
(a) The devil claws (also known as chain toppers) shall be made fast to the anchor chains.
(b) The riding pawls shall be in the engaged position.
(c) In the absence of devil claws and riding pawls, the anchor chains shall be secured to a suitable fixed structure of the vessel.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-04-099, § 296-304-10007, filed 2/4/03, effective 8/1/03; Order 74-25, § 296-304-10007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-110
Portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers, other than ship's equipment—Scope and application.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-110, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-11001
Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.

(1) Portable, unfired pressure vessels, built after the effective date of this regulation, shall be marked and reported indicating that they have been designed and constructed to meet the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1963. They shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working pressure of the vessels.
(2) Portable, unfired pressure vessels, not built to the code requirements of (1) of this section, and built prior to the effective date of this regulation, shall be examined quarterly by a competent person, and approved by the state boiler inspecting division. They shall be subjected yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working pressure of the vessels.
(3) The relief valves on the portable, unfired pressure vessels in (1) and (2) of this section shall be set to the safe working pressure of the vessels, or set to the lowest safe working pressure of the systems, whichever is lower.
(4) A record of such examinations and tests made in compliance with the requirements of (1) and (2) of this section shall be maintained.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-11001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-11003
Drums and containers.

(1) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents.
(2) A temporarily assembled pressurized piping system conveying hazardous liquids or gases shall be provided with a relief valve and by-pass to prevent rupture of the system and the escape of such hazardous liquids or gases.
(3) Pressure vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used where they are subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat.
(4) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids or gases are placed in an out-of-the-way area where they will not be subject to physical injury from an outside source, barriers or guards shall be erected to protect them from such physical injury.
(5) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by dikes or pans which enclose a volume equal to at least 35 percent of the total volume of the containers.
(6) Fire extinguishers adequate in number and suitable for the hazard shall be provided. These extinguishers shall be located in the immediate area where pressure vessels, drums and containers containing flammable liquids or gases are stored or in use. Such extinguishers shall be ready for use at all times.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-11003, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-11003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-120
Electrical machinery—Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

(1) Before an employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized for testing and adjusting, the circuit shall be deenergized and checked at the point at which the work is to be done to insure that it is actually deenergized. When testing or adjusting an energized circuit a rubber mat, duck board, or other suitable insulation shall be used underfoot where an insulated deck does not exist.
(2) Deenergizing the circuit shall be accomplished by opening the circuit breaker, opening the switch, or removing the fuse, whichever method is appropriate. The circuit breaker, switch, or fuse location shall be locked out or tagged, in accordance with WAC 296-304-06016, to indicate that an employee is working on the circuit. Such tags shall not be removed nor the circuit energized until it is definitely determined that the work on the circuit has been completed.
(3) When work is performed immediately adjacent to an open-front energized board or in back of an energized board, the board shall be covered or some other equally safe means shall be used to prevent contact with any of the energized parts.
Note:
WAC 296-304-120 is applicable only to shipbuilding and ship repairing.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-12-060, § 296-304-120, filed 6/5/12, effective 8/1/12; Order 74-25, § 296-304-120, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-130
Gear certification—General provisions.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-130 in the section number apply to gear certification.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-130, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-13001
Purpose and scope.

(1) The regulations in this part implement WAC 296-304-07001 through 296-304-07013. They provide procedures and standards governing accreditation of persons by the department of labor and industries, for the purpose of certificating shore-based material handling devices, and the manner in which such certification shall be performed.
(2) Accreditation is not required, and the regulations of this part are not applicable, under the following circumstances:
(a) Persons not required to be accredited for gear certification purposes, may, nevertheless, apply for and receive accreditation by the department of labor and industries. The appropriate portions of this section shall apply to persons accredited except insofar as exemptions may be granted.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-13001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-13003
Definitions of terms.

(1) "Vessel" means every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special-purpose floating structures not primarily designed for or used as a means of transportation on water.
(2) Except as otherwise noted, "cargo gear," as used in WAC 296-304-140 through 296-304-17023, includes that gear forming a part of a vessel's equipment which is used for the handling of cargo other than bulk liquids, but does not include gear which is used only for handling or holding hoses, handling ships' stores, handling the gangway, or boom conveyor belt systems for the self-unloading of bulk cargo vessels.
(3) With reference to equipment covered by this section.
(a) "Derrick" means—
(i) When applied to vessels' cargo handling gear, a mechanical device for lifting, including a boom which is suspended at its head by a topping lift from a mast, king post, or similar structure, controlled in the horizontal plane by vangs, and used either singly or in pairs with married falls;
(ii) When applied to shore-based material handling devices, a mechanical device intended for lifting, with or without a boom supported at its head by a topping lift from a mast, fixed A frame, or similar structure. The mast or equivalent member may or may not be supported by guys or braces. The boom, where fitted, may or may not be controlled in the horizontal plane by guys (vangs). The term includes shear legs.
(b) "Crane" means a mechanical device intended for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally, in which the hoisting mechanism is an integral part of the machine. A crane may be a fixed or mobile machine.
(c) "Bulk cargo spout" means a spout, which may or may not be telescopic and may or may not have removable sections, but is suspended over the vessel from some overhead structure by wire rope or other means. Such a spout is often used with a "thrower" or "trimming machine." A grain loading spout is an example of those covered by this definition.
(d) "Bulk cargo sucker" means a pneumatic conveyor which utilizes a spout-like device, which may be adjustable vertically and/or laterally, and which is suspended over a vessel from some overhead structure by wire rope or other means. An example of an installation of this nature is the "grain sucker" used to discharge grain from barges.
(4) "Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.
(5) "Bureau" means the Bureau of Labor Standards, U.S. Department of Labor.
(6) "Person" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, agency, association, or organization.
(7) "Competent person" means:
(a) An individual qualified to perform gear certification functions with respect to vessels' cargo handling gear, as specifically set forth in WAC 296-304-17023.
(b) An individual qualified under the provisions of WAC 296-304-180 through 296-304-18003 and 296-304-190 through 296-304-19001 to perform gear certification functions with respect to shore-based material handling devices.
(8) "Ton" means a ton of 2,240 pounds when applied to vessels' cargo handling gear, and a ton of 2,000 pounds when applied to shore-based material handling devices or to shore-type cranes permanently mounted aboard barges or other vessels employed in domestic trade and designed on the basis of the 2,000-pound ton. Capacity ratings may be stated in pounds.
(9) "Nondestructive" examination means examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive examination suitable for the purpose.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-13003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-140
Procedure governing accreditation—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-140 in the section number apply to procedure governing accreditation.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-140, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14001
Application for accreditation.

(1) Application. Any person seeking accreditation shall file an original and duplicate copy of an application for accreditation with the director of the department of labor and industries, on a form provided by the department of labor and industries, for this purpose. Each application shall be signed and certified by the applicant and, if the applicant is an agency or organization, by a responsible officer of such agency or organization.
(2) Contents of application. The application form shall include the following information:
(a) A statement detailing the applicable types of work performed by the applicant in the past, noting the amount and extent of such work performed within the previous three years, listing representative vessels involved, and including representative job orders if available, or equivalent evidence;
(b) Descriptive details concerning any testing instruments and heat treatment furnaces which are to be used in conducting required tests or heat treatments. Test reports indicating that instruments meet the accuracy standards set forth in this section shall be included;
(c) A list setting forth the ports in which applicant currently conducts his business as well as those in which he proposes to conduct gear certification activities;
(d) A list of the applicant's responsible qualified personnel, both supervisory and managerial and including any surveyors, with resumes of their individual experience in the testing, examination, inspection and heat treatment of cargo gear. Such list shall include any branch office personnel or surveyors appointed to act in the applicant's behalf in any of the ports of the United States: Provided, however, That where the submission of individual resumes would be unduly burdensome because of the large number of persons engaged in the applicant's behalf, the applicant, after stating this fact, need only submit a list of its personnel together with a detailed statement of the qualifications upon which the appointment of surveyors is bases;
(e) Names of at least three business references who will furnish information regarding work performed by the applicant;
(f) Any additional information the applicant deems to be pertinent.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14003
Action upon application.

(1) Upon receipt of an application for accreditation, the director shall approve or deny the application. The director may conduct an investigation, which may include a hearing, prior to approving or denying an application. To the extent he deems appropriate, the director may provide an opportunity to other interested persons to present data and views on the application prior to approval or denial.
(2) Any application which fails to present the information required by the prescribed form may be returned to the applicant with a notation of deficiencies and without prejudice to submission of a new or revised application.
(4) A copy of the notice of accreditation shall be kept on file by applicant at the applicant's place of business.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14005
Duration and renewal of accreditation.

The period of accreditation shall not exceed three years. Applications for renewal of accreditation shall be made on the same form as described in WAC 296-304-14001. No accreditation shall expire until action on an application for renewal shall have been finally determined: Provided, That such application has been properly executed in accordance with WAC 296-304-14001 and filed with and received by the director not less than 15 nor more than 60 days prior to the expiration date. A final determination means either the approval or initial denial of the application for renewal. The procedure specified in WAC 296-304-14003 shall be applicable to all applications for renewal.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14007
Criteria governing accreditation to certificate vessels' cargo gear.

(1) A person applying for accreditation to issue registers and pertinent certificates, to maintain registers and appropriate records, and to conduct initial, annual and quadrennial surveys, shall not be accredited unless he is engaged in one or more of the following activities:
(a) Classification of vessels;
(b) Certification of vessels' cargo gear;
(c) Shipbuilding or ship repairing, or both insofar as related to work on vessels' cargo handling gear;
(d) Unit and loose gear testing of vessels' cargo handling gear.
(2) Applicants for accreditation under WAC 296-304-14007(1) for operations in coastal or Great Lakes ports who come within WAC 296-304-14007 (1)(b) or (d) shall not be accredited unless they conduct at least 1,500 hours of cargo gear certification work per year.
(3) A person applying for accreditation to carry out tests of loose gear or wire rope, or both, or to carry out heat treatments, and to issue the related certificates, shall be engaged in one or both of the following activities:
(a) Testing of loose gear or wire rope, or both;
(b) Heat treatment of chains and loose cargo gear.
(4) A person applying for accreditation shall be staffed by individuals technically qualified to conduct the inspections and examinations and to conduct or supervise tests and heat treatments prescribed in this part. Any representatives, agents or surveyors acting on behalf of a person applying for accreditation in ports in which such operations are conducted shall be similarly qualified.
(a) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any certification activity may be granted to applicants found competent and equipped to carry out this activity.
(5) Except as noted in WAC 296-304-13001 (2)(a), and unless exemptions are granted under WAC 296-304-15001(8), a person applying for accreditation as specified in WAC 296-304-14007(1) shall be prepared to carry out all of the requirements of WAC 296-304-150 through 296-304-15005, 296-304-160 through 296-304-16025, and 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023 except that loose gear and wire rope tests and heat treatments may be carried out by the manufacturer of the gear concerned or by another person accredited specifically for this purpose.
(6) A person applying for accreditation shall have a satisfactory record of performance.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-14007, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-14007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14009
Voluntary amendment or termination of accreditation.

The accreditation of any person may be voluntarily amended or terminated upon written request filed with the director.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14011
Suspension or revocation of accreditation.

The director may suspend or revoke an accreditation of any person for cause. Except in cases of willfulness or cases in which the public interest requires otherwise, before any accreditation is suspended or revoked facts or conduct which may warrant such action shall be called to the attention of the person involved in writing and that person shall be afforded an opportunity to achieve or demonstrate appropriate compliance.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-14013
Reconsideration and review.

(1) Any person aggrieved by the action of the director or his authorized representative in denying, granting, suspending or revoking an accreditation under this section may within 15 days after such action, (a) file a written request for reconsideration thereof by the director or the authorized representative of the director who made the decision in the first instance, or (b) file a written request for review of the decision by the director or an authorized representative of the director, who has taken no part in the action which is the subject for review.
(2) A request for reconsideration shall be granted where the applicant shows that there is additional evidence which may materially affect the decision and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the original proceedings.
(3) Any person aggrieved by the action of the director or authorized representative of the director in denying a request for reconsideration may, within 15 days after the denial of such request, file with the director or his authorized representative a written request for review.
(4) Any person aggrieved by the reconsidered determination of the director or authorized representative of the director, may within 15 days after such determination, file with the director a written request for review.
(5) A request for review shall be granted where reasonable grounds for the review are set forth in the request.
(6) If a request for reconsideration or review is granted, all interested persons shall be afforded an opportunity to present their views.
(7) No cargo gear certification function shall be performed by any person seeking reconsideration or review under this section pending the final decision with respect to such reconsideration or review.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-14013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-150
Duties of persons accredited to certificate vessels' cargo gear—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-150 in the section number apply to duties of persons accredited to certificate vessels' cargo gear.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-150, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-15001
General duties—Exemptions.

(1) Except as noted in WAC 296-304-13001 and 296-304-15001(8), the requirements set forth in WAC 296-304-160 through 296-304-16025 and 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023 shall be strictly adhered to in all testing, examinations, inspections and heat treatments.
(2) Supervision of all testing, examinations, inspections, and heat treatments shall be carried out only by such persons as are listed in the application for accreditation or subsequent supplements thereto, submitted pursuant to this section.
(3) The certificates issued by an accredited person shall be signed and all register entries made only by an authorized agent of such accredited person. No certification shall be issued until any deficiencies considered by the accredited person to constitute a currently unsatisfactory condition have been corrected. Replacement parts shall be of equal or better quality as original equipment and suitable for the purpose. In the event deficiencies remain uncorrected and no certification may therefore be issued, the accredited person shall inform the nearest district office of the department of labor and industries of the circumstances.
(4) Dynamometers or other recording test equipment owned by an accredited person shall have been tested for accuracy within the six months next preceding application for accreditation or renewal of same. Such test shall be performed with calibrating equipment which has been checked in turn so that indications are traceable to the U.S. Bureau of Standards. A copy of test reports shall accompany the application. Where test equipment is not the property of the accredited person, that person shall not issue any certificate based upon the use of such equipment unless its owner has made available a certificate of accuracy based on the requirements of this section, obtained within 1 year prior to such use, and stating the errors of the equipment. Reasonable standards of accuracy shall be met and proof loads adjusted as necessary.
(5) An accredited person shall, upon request, provide the nearest local office of the department of labor and industries with advance information as to scheduled testing or of such other functions as are performed and facilitate the department of labor and industries observation of any such activities as it may desire to witness: Provided, however, That tests need not be delayed, except when specifically requested by the department of labor and industries under unusual circumstances.
(6) All cargo gear registers or certificates issued by an accredited person shall be made on forms prescribed or approved by the department of labor and industries.
(7) Unless otherwise instructed by the director in specific instances, any person accredited under WAC 296-304-14007(1) shall accept certificates relating to loose gear or wire rope tests or to heat treatments which are issued by the manufacturer of the gear concerned, by another person accredited specifically by the director for this purpose, or by any other person whose certificates are acceptable to the department of labor and industries. Such certificates shall either be attached as a part of the vessel's certification or shall be used as the basis for the issuance of the accredited person's own loose gear, wire rope, or heat treatment certificates. In the latter case, the original certificates shall be kept on file by the accredited person as part of the permanent record of the vessel concerned.
(8) In case of practical difficulties or unnecessary hardships, the director in his discretion may grant exemptions from any provision of WAC 296-304-150 through 296-304-15005, 296-304-160 through 296-304-16025 and 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-15001, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-15001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-15003
Recordkeeping and related procedures concerning records in custody of accredited persons.

(2) An accredited person shall maintain a continuous record of the status of the certification of each vessel issued a register by such person.
(3) The records required in (1) and (2) of this section shall be available for examination by the director.
(4) When annual or quadrennial tests, inspections, examinations, or heat treatments are performed by an accredited person, other than the person who originally issued the vessel's register, such accredited person shall furnish copies of any certificates issued and information as to register entries to the person originally issuing the register.
(5) An accredited person shall inform the nearest local office of the department of labor and industries whenever a vessel is initially certificated under these regulations and a register in the prescribed form has been issued.
(6) A copy of each certificate relating to unit tests or thorough examinations, except those issued by the manufacturer and those issued by accredited persons outside of the United States, shall be sent to the nearest local office of the department of labor and industries within 10 days after issuance. Such records shall form a part of the department of labor and industries file on the accredited person.
(7) An accredited person shall promptly notify the nearest local office of the department of labor and industries with respect to any changes in technical personnel, in fee schedules in geographical areas in which operations are conducted, or other pertinent substantial changes in its organization or operations.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-15003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-15005
Recordkeeping and related procedures concerning records in custody of the vessel.

(1) A fully completed and up-to-date register shall be kept in the form prescribed or approved by the department of labor and industries, giving the particulars required with respect to:
(b) The thorough examinations required by WAC 296-304-16005(3).
(c) The thorough examinations required by WAC 296-304-16009.
(d) The heat treatment required by WAC 296-304-16007 (1) and (2), and 296-304-16013.
(2) Certificates in the form prescribed or approved by the department of labor and industries shall be kept up-to-date, be attached to the register, and shall contain the particulars required with respect to:
(a) The testing and examinations required by WAC 296-304-16003, 296-304-16005(1) and 296-304-16013.
(b) The heat treatment required by WAC 296-304-16007 and 296-304-16013.
(3) The certificates and entries in the register shall be signed by a person qualified under WAC 296-304-17023.
(4) Adequate means shall be provided to enable persons examining the register, or any certificate attached thereto, to identify items of cargo gear referred to therein. Small items of gear, such as shackles, shall bear a mark to indicate that they have been initially tested.
(5) Records shall be kept aboard vessels identifying wire rope or articles of loose gear obtained from time to time and required to be certificated under the regulations of this section.
(6) An accredited person shall instruct the vessel's officers or the vessel's operator if the vessel is unmanned, that the vessel's register and certificates shall be preserved for at least 4 years after the date of the latest entry except in the case of nonrecurring test certificates concerning gear which is kept in use for a longer period, in which event the pertinent certificates shall be retained so long as that gear is continued in use.
(7) In cases where derricks, spouts, suckers, or cranes are mounted permanently aboard barges which remain in domestic inland waters service, the certification documentation shall comply with the provisions of WAC 296-304-20025.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-15005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-160
Certification of vessels' cargo gear—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-160 in the section number apply to certification of vessels' cargo gear.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-160, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16001
General.

(1) Except as noted in WAC 296-304-13001 and as provided in exemptions under WAC 296-304-15001(9), certification performed by accredited persons shall conform to the requirements contained in this section.
(2) Safe working loads assigned to assembled units of gear shall be based on applicable design criteria acceptable to the accredited person. Where no design data on which to base a rating is obtainable, the safe working load ratings assigned shall be based on the owner's information and warranty that those so assigned are correct. Unit test certificates shall state the basis for any such safe working load assignment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-16001, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-16001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16003
Initial tests of cargo gear and tests after alterations, renewals or repairs.

(2) Replacement or additional loose gear and wire rope obtained from time to time shall also be tested and examined in the manner set forth in WAC 296-304-16003(1). However, the replacement of a component part of an article of loose gear, such as a sheave, pin, or bushing does not require a new test certificate so long as the new component at least equals in all particulars the part replaced.
(3) In the case of untested gear which has been in use, an initial test in conformance with WAC 296-304-16003(1) shall be carried out: Provided, however, That existing standing rigging and wire rope will not be required to be tested but shall be thoroughly examined to ascertain its fitness for continued use in conformance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-16023 and 296-304-16025.
(4) In the case of important alterations or renewals of the machinery and gear and also after repairs due to failure of or damage to other than loose components, a test as required in WAC 296-304-16003(1) shall be carried out.
(5) If the operation in which cargo gear is engaged never utilizes more than a fraction of the safe working load rating, the owner may, at his option, have said gear certificated for, and limited in operation to, a lesser maximum safe working load: Provided, however, That the gear concerned is physically capable of operation at the original load rating and the load reduction is not for the purpose of avoiding correction of any deficiency.
(6) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the original design limitations unless such increase is based on engineering calculations by or acceptable to the accredited certification agency, and all necessary structural changes are carried out.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16005
Periodic tests, examinations and inspections.

After being taken into use, every hoisting machine, all fixed gear aboard vessels accessory thereto and loose gear used in connection therewith, shall be tested, thoroughly examined or inspected as follows:
(2) Derricks, their permanent attachments and any other fixed gear the dismantling of which is especially difficult shall be visually inspected every twelve months. In order to facilitate such inspection all derricks shall be lowered.
(3) All hoisting machines (e.g., cranes, winches), blocks, shackles, and all other accessory gear not included in WAC 296-304-16005(2), shall be thoroughly examined every twelve months by means of a visual examination, supplemented as necessary by other means, such as a hammer test or with electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods, carried out as carefully as conditions permit in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined. Particular attention shall be paid to the suitability for continued use of all swivels and the pins and bushing of blocks. If necessary, parts of the machines or gear shall be dismantled. If blocks are disassembled, all shell bolt nuts shall be securely locked upon reassembly.
(4) Where a derrick or crane is mounted on a barge hull and ballast tanks within the hull are used to facilitate use of the derrick or crane, or uncontrolled free surface may be a factor, each annual inspection or examination, as required, shall include such inspection as is necessary for the purpose of determining the integrity of any internals contributing to stability under conditions of use. The owner shall provide the accredited person with necessary information on any ballasting arrangements required.
(5) Annual inspection or examination, as required, shall include, among other things, examination of the following:
(a) Derrick heel attachment points. Heel pins may, if possible, be examined by nondestructive examination.
(b) Shrouds and stays necessary in the use of the gear, together with attachment points.
(c) Deck fittings for the securing of vangs, topping lifts, and/or preventers.
(d) Means of attachment to the hull of "A" frame or other fixed derrick or crane structure and of mobile types of equipment permanently placed aboard the barge or vessel.
(e) Clamshell buckets or other similar equipment, such as magnets, etc., used in conjunction with a derrick or crane mounted aboard a vessel, with particular attention to closing line wires and sheaves. The accredited person may supplement such examination by requesting any operational tests he may deem appropriate.
(f) Winch and other operating drums for excessive wear or defect.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16007
Heat treatment.

(a) Half inch and smaller chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels in general use, at least once every six months; and
(b) All other chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels in general use, at least once every twelve months.
(c) In the case of gear used solely on lifting machinery worked by hand, twelve months shall be substituted for six months in WAC 296-304-16007 (1)(a) and two years for twelve months in WAC 296-304-16007 (1)(b).
(d) When used in this paragraph, the term "in general use" means used on fifty-two or more days in a year. In any case, however, the period between annealings shall not exceed two years.
(2) Chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels made of material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with WAC 296-304-17021(2).
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16009
Exemptions from heat treatment.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16011
Grace periods.

Grace periods allowed in connection with the requirements of this section are as follows:
(1) Annual or six-month requirements - By the end of the voyage during which they become due;
(2) Quadrennial requirements - Within six months after the date when due;
(3) Grace periods shall not be deemed to extend subsequent due dates.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16013
Gear requiring welding.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16015
Damaged components.

(1) Pursuant to WAC 296-304-18003, any derrick or associated permanent fitting which is deformed in service between surveys shall be subjected to proof test to determine its suitability for continued service. If a proof test indicates that the derrick or associated permanent fitting may be continued in service without repair, a note of the existing deformity shall be made on the test certificate. When, in the opinion of the accredited person, it is unsafe to conduct a proof test with an existing deformity, the derrick or associated permanent fitting shall be replaced or repaired and then subjected to proof test in accordance with WAC 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023.
(2) Any loose gear components which are injured or deformed by a proof load shall be replaced before a certificate is issued.
(3) Any derrick, other fixed installation, or associated permanent fitting, which is injured or deformed by a proof load shall be replaced or repaired and another proof load test shall be conducted without damage before a certificate is issued.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16015, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16017
Marking and posting of safe working loads.

(1) The safe working load of the assembled gear and the minimum angle to the horizontal at which this load may be applied shall be plainly marked at the heels of all booms along with the date of the test. Where gear is certificated for use in union purchase, the union purchase safe working load shall also be plainly marked. Any limitations shall be noted in the vessel's papers.
(2) The safe working load shall be marked on all blocks used in hoisting or lowering.
(3) When the capacity of the boom of a crane or derrick has been or will be rated in accordance with the variance of its radius, the maximum safe working loads for the various working angles of the boom and the maximum and minimum radius at which the boom may be safely used, shall be conspicuously posted near the controls and visible to the crane operator. Ratings may be stated in pounds. When they are stated in tons of 2,000 pounds, this fact shall be indicated.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16017, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16019
Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

All types of winches and cranes shall be provided with means to stop and hold the proof load in any position, and the efficiency of such means shall be demonstrated. Electric winches, electrohydraulic winches fitted with electromagnetic or hydraulic brakes at the winch, or electric cranes, shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the motion and set the brakes without any action on the part of the operator. Current for operation of electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken from the vessel's circuits. Shore current may be used if it passes through the vessel's main switchboard.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16019, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16021
Means of derrick attachment.

Appropriate measure shall be taken to prevent the foot of a derrick from being accidently lifted from its socket or support during the test.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16021, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16023
Limitations on use of wire rope.

(1) An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of rope and two tucks with one-half of the wires cut out of each strand. However, this requirement shall not operate to preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be shown to be as efficient.
(2) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, in guying derricks, or as a topping lift, preventer or pendant, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
(3) Eyes in the ends of wire rope cargo falls shall not be formed by knots and, in single part falls, shall not be formed by wire rope clips.
(4) The ends of falls shall be secured to the winch drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles or some other equally strong method. Fiber rope fastenings shall not be used.
(5) Wire rope shall not be used for the vessel's cargo gear if in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. Particular attention shall be given to the condition of those sections of wire rope adjacent to any terminal connections, those sections exposed to abnormal wear, and those sections not normally exposed for examination.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16023, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-16025
Limitations on use of chains.

Chains forming a part of vessel's cargo gear shall not be used when, due to stretch, the increase of length of a measured section exceeds five percent, when a link is damaged, or when other external defects are evident. Chains shall not be shortened by bolting, wiring, or knotting.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-16025, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-170
Certification of vessels—Tests and proof loads—Heat treatment—Competent persons—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-170 in the section number apply to certification of vessels: Tests and proof loads; heat treatment; competent persons.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-170, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17001
Visual inspection before tests.

Before any test under this WAC 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023 is carried out, a visual inspection of the gear involved shall be conducted and any visibly defective gear shall be replaced or repaired. The provisions of WAC 296-304-16005(4) shall be adhered to.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17003
Unit proof test—Winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.

(1) Winches, with the whole of the gear accessory thereto (including derricks, goosenecks, eye plates, eye bolts, or other attachments), shall be tested with a proof load which shall exceed the safe working load as follows:
Safe working load
Proof load
Up to 20 tons. . . .
25 percent in excess.
20-50 tons. . . .
5 tons in excess.
Over 50 tons. . . .
10 percent in excess.
(2) The proof load shall be lifted with the vessel's normal tackle with the derrick at an angle not more than 15 degrees to the horizontal, or, at the designed minimum angle when this is greater, or, when this is impracticable, at the lowest practicable angle. The angle at which the test was made shall be stated in the certificate of test. After the proof load has been lifted, it shall be swung as far as possible in both directions. In applying the proof load, the design factors of the gear concerned will determine whether the load is applied with a single part fall or with a purchase and the certificate of test shall state the means used. Where winches are fitted with mechanical brakes for manual operation they shall be demonstrated to be in satisfactory operating condition.
(3) In the case of heavy lift derrick barges, proof loads shall be applied, except as limited by design and stability considerations, at the maximum and minimum radius for which designed, as well as at any intermediate radius which the surveyor may deem necessary, and shall be swung as far as possible in both directions. Data with respect to each proof load applied shall be entered in the test certificate.
(4) No items of cargo gear furnished by outside sources shall be used as a part of the vessel's gear for the purpose of accomplishing the proof test.
(5) All tests prescribed by this section should in general be carried out by dead load, except that in the case of quadrennial tests, replacements, or renewals, spring or hydraulic balances may be used where dead loads are not reasonably available. However, no exception shall be allowed in the case of gear on new vessels.
(6) The test shall not be regarded as satisfactory unless the indicator remains constant under the proof load for a period of at least 5 minutes.
(7) The safe working load, determined pursuant to the requirements of this section, shall be applicable only to a swinging derrick. When using two fixed derricks in "union purchase" rigs, the safe working load should generally be reduced. It is recommended that owners obtain union purchase safe working load certification based upon design study and analysis by, or acceptable to, a qualified technical office of an accredited gear certification agency, with the recognition that such determinations are valid only for the conditions contemplated in the analysis.
(a) Where both guys and preventers are fitted, union purchase certification shall state whether the guy or the preventer is the working strength member, when the guy is for slewing only, and when the guy and preventor should share working loads as far as practicable.
(8) When necessary in the proof testing of heavy derricks, the appropriate shrouds and stays shall be rigged.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17005
Unit proof tests—Cranes and gear accessory thereto.

(1) Except as noted in WAC 296-304-17005(5), cranes and other hoisting machines, together with gear accessory thereto, shall be tested with a proof load which shall exceed the safe working load as follows:
Safe working load
Proof load
Up to 20 tons. . . .
25 percent in excess.
20-50 tons. . . .
5 tons in excess.
Over 50 tons. . . .
10 percent in excess.
(2) The proof load shall be lifted and swung as far as possible in both directions. If the jib or boom of the crane has a variable radius, it shall be tested with proof loads, as specified in WAC 296-304-17005(1), at the maximum and minimum radius. In the case of hydraulic cranes, when owing to the limitation of pressure it is impossible to lift a load 25 percent in excess of the safe working load, it will be sufficient to lift the greatest possible load.
(3) Initial proof tests of new cranes shall be made only with a dead load as specified in WAC 296-304-17005(2).
(4) Initial tests of cranes which have been in service, quadrennial tests, or tests associated with replacements or renewals, may be made with spring or hydraulic balances where dead loads are not reasonably available, under the following conditions:
(a) Tests shall be conducted at maximum, minimum, and intermediate radius points, as well as such points in the arc of rotation as meet with the approval of the accredited person.
(b) An additional test shall be conducted with partial load and shall include all functions and movements contemplated in the use of the crane.
(5) In cases where shore-type cranes are mounted permanently aboard barges, the requirements of WAC 296-304-170 through 296-304-17023 with respect to unit proof tests and examinations shall not apply and the applicable requirements of WAC 296-304-200 through 296-304-20025 shall be adhered to with respect to unit proof tests and examinations.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17007
Limitations on safe working loads and proof loads.

The proof loads specified in WAC 296-304-17003 and 296-304-17005 shall be adjusted as necessary to meet any pertinent limitations based on stability and/or on structural competence at particular radii. Safe working loads shall be reduced accordingly.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17009
Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

(1) After satisfactory completion of the unit proof load tests required by WAC 296-304-17003 and 296-304-17005, the cargo gear and all component parts thereof shall be given a thorough visual examination, supplemented as necessary by other means, such as a hammer test or with electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods, to determine if any of the parts were damaged, deformed, or otherwise rendered unsafe for further use.
(2) When the test of gear referred to in WAC 296-304-17008(1) is being conducted for the first time on a vessel, accessory gear shall be dismantled or disassembled for examination after the test. The sheaves and pins of the blocks included in this test need not be removed unless there is evidence of deformation or failure.
(3) For subsequent tests such parts of the gear shall be dismantled or disassembled after the test as necessary to determine their suitability for continued service.
(4) When blocks are disassembled all shell bolt nuts shall be securely locked upon reassembly.
(5) In carrying out the requirements of this section, replacement shall be required of:
(a) Any swivel found to have excessive tolerance as a result of wear on any bearing surface.
(b) Pins of blocks found to be shouldered, notched, or grooved from wear, in which case, in addition to replacing the pin, sheave bushings shall be examined for suitability for continued use.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17011
Proof tests—Loose gear.

(1) Chains, rings, shackles and other loose gear (whether accessory to a machine or not) shall be tested with a proof load equal to that shown against the article in the following table:
Article of gear
 
Proof load
Chain, ring, hook, shackle or swivel. . . .
 
 
100 percent in excess of the safe working load.
Blocks:
Single sheave block. . . .
 
 
300 percent in excess of the safe working load.1
Multiple sheave block with safe working load up to and including 20 tons. . . .
 
 
 
100 percent in excess of the safe working load.
Multiple sheave block with safe working load over 20 tons up to and including 40 tons. . . .
 
 
 
 
20 tons in excess of the safe working load.
Multiple sheave block with safe working load over 40 tons. . . .
 
 
 
50 percent in excess of the safe working load.
Pitched chains used with hand-operated blocks and rings, hooks, shackles or swivels permanently attached thereto. . . .
 
 
 
 
 
50 percent in excess of the safe working load.
Hand-operated blocks used with pitched chains and rings, hooks, shackles or swivels permanently attached thereto . . . .
 
 
 
 
 
50 percent in excess of the safe working load.
1
The proof load applied to the block is equivalent to twice the maximum resultant load on the eye or pin of the block when lifting the nominal safe working load defined in WAC 296-304-17011 (1)(a) below. The proof load is, therefore, equal to four times the safe working load as defined in WAC 296-304-17011 (1)(a) below or twice the safe working load as defined in WAC 296-304-17011 (1)(b) below.
(a) The nominal safe working load of a single-sheave block should be the maximum load which can be safely lifted by the block when the load is attached to a rope which passes around the sheave of the block.
(b) In the case of a single-sheave block where the load is attached directly to the block instead of to a rope passing around the sheave, it is permissible to lift a load equal to twice the nominal safe working load of the block as defined in WAC 296-304-17011 (1)(a) above.
(c) In the case of a lead block so situated that an acute angle cannot be formed by the two parts of the rope passing over it (i.e., the angle is always 90° or more), the block need not have a greater nominal safe working load than one-half the maximum resultant load which can be placed upon it.
(2) In cases where persons accredited to carry out loose gear tests may be retained to conduct tests of special stevedoring gear as described in WAC 296-56-60098 (8)(e), which does not form part of a vessel's equipment, such tests shall adhere to the requirements set forth in WAC 296-56-60098 (8)(e).
(3) After being tested as required by WAC 296-304-17011(1), and before being taken into use, all chains, rings, hooks, shackles, blocks or other loose gear, except as noted in WAC 296-304-17013, shall be thoroughly examined, the sheaves and pins of the blocks being removed for this purpose, to determine whether any part has been injured or permanently deformed by the test. Shell bolt nuts shall be securely locked upon reassembly. Defective loose gear components shall be replaced before the certificate is issued.
(4) Any certificate relating to shackles, swivels or strength members of single-sheave blocks which have been restored to original dimensions by welding shall state this fact.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-17011, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-17011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17013
Specially designed blocks and components.

(2) In lieu of the loose gear proof test required by WAC 296-304-17011(1), design data shall be submitted to an accredited certification agency indicating design and material specifications and analysis whereby the designed strength of such gear may be determined.
(3) Subsequent to the test of the lifting unit as a whole, a thorough visual examination shall be made of disassembled parts and an electronic, ultrasonic, or other equally efficient nondestructive examination shall be made of those parts not dismantled to ensure the safe condition of such parts.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17015
Proof tests—Wire rope.

Wire rope, except as provided in WAC 296-304-16003(2), shall be tested by sample, a piece being tested to destruction, and the safe working load of running ropes, unless otherwise acceptable to the department of labor and industries on the basis of design, shall not exceed one-fifth of the breaking load of the sample tested. In the case of running ropes used in gear with a safe working load exceeding 10 tons, the safe working load shall not exceed one-fourth of the breaking load of the sample tested.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17015, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17017
Proof tests after repairs or alterations.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17017, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17019
Order of tests.

When both unit and loose gear proof load tests are required, the loose gear test may be carried out after completion of the unit test.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17019, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17021
Heat treatment.

(1) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this section shall be accomplished at a temperature between 1100° and 1200°F. and the exposure shall be of between thirty and sixty minutes duration. After being annealed, the gear shall be allowed to cool slowly and shall then be carefully inspected. All annealing shall be carried out in a closed furnace.
(2) When heat treatment of loose gear made of other than wrought iron or steel is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17021, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-17023
Competent persons.

All gear certification functions shall be performed by competent persons as set forth in the following table:
Functions
Competent person
Any testing, examination, inspection, or heat treatment required in United States ports.
Responsible individual, surveyor or other authorized agent of a person accredited by the department of labor and industries under the regulations contained in this part.
Any testing, examination, inspection, or heat treatment required to be performed while the vessel is in other than United States ports.
Responsible individual, surveyor or other authorized agent of persons recognized by the Commandant of the United States Coast Guard or by a foreign nation whose certification is accepted by the department of labor and industries as being in substantial accordance with WAC 296-304-15005(1).
Testing, examination and inspection of loose gear or wire rope; heat treatment of loose gear.
Employees or authorized agents of persons accredited specifically by the department of labor and industries for this purpose under the regulations contained in this section, or the manufacturer of the gear concerned unless disapproved by the director.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-17023, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-180
Accreditation to certificate shore-based equipment—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-180 in the section number apply to accreditation to certificate shore-based equipment.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-180, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-18001
Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by chapter
296-56 WAC of the safety and health regulations for longshoring.

(1) A person applying for accreditation to carry out certification activities and to issue and maintain the requisite records must be:
(a) A manufacturer of cranes or derricks or of specialized equipment of the type for which accreditation application is made, or a person or organization representing such a manufacturer in a technical capacity; or
(b) Technically experienced and qualified to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based equipment or gear of the type for which accreditation application is made.
(2) The owner of shore-based equipment affected may designate a member of his organization to carry out certification functions respecting the owner's equipment, on the following conditions:
(a) The designee is technically experienced and qualified in the inspection and maintenance or design of the type of equipment involved, aside from employment as an operator only.
(b) The designee has applied to an accredited, nationally operating certification agency and has been granted appointment or equivalent recognition by that agency as a surveyor for the purpose intended.
(c) Certification activities carried out by the designee are cleared through the offices, and are subject to the approval, of the accredited certificating agency. When equipment is found satisfactory for use upon any survey, said equipment may be used pending receipt of notification of such approval or any disapproval.
(d) In cases where equipment is certificated by a person designated by the equipment owner, the cognizant accredited certification agency retains the right to inspect such equipment as desired and convenient, in order to ascertain the adequacy of the certification activity performed.
(3) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any certification activity may be granted to applicants found competent and equipped to carry out this activity.
(4) Unless exemptions are granted at the discretion of the director in cases of practical difficulties or unnecessary hardship, applicants for accreditation as specified in this section shall be prepared to carry out all necessary functions, except that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat treatments may be carried out by the manufacturer of the gear concerned or by another person accredited specifically for these purposes.
(5) A person applying for accreditation shall have a satisfactory record of relevant experience and performance.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-18001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-18003
Provisions respecting application for accreditation, action upon the application, and related matters.

The provisions of WAC 296-304-14001, 296-304-14003, 296-304-14005, 296-304-14009, 296-304-14011 and 296-304-14013 shall govern accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices, to the extent applicable.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-18003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-190
Duties of persons accredited to certificate shore-based material handling devices—General duties, exemptions.

The requirements of WAC 296-304-200 through 296-304-20025 shall be strictly observed: Provided, however, That in cases of practical difficulties or unnecessary hardship, the director in his discretion may grant exemptions or variations from any provision in that section.
(1) Except as otherwise noted in this section, all functions required by WAC 296-304-200 through 296-304-20025 shall be carried out by or under the supervision of a person accredited for the purpose or by his authorized representative.
(2) All required unit proof load tests shall be carried out by the use of weights as a dead load. Only where this is not possible may dynamometers or other recording test equipment be used. Any such recording test equipment owned by an accredited person shall have been tested for accuracy within the 6 months next preceding application for accreditation or renewal thereof. Such test shall be performed with calibrating equipment which has been checked in turn so that indications are traceable to the U.S. Bureau of Standards. A copy of test reports shall accompany the accreditation application. Where test equipment is not the property of the accredited person, that person shall not issue any certificate based upon the use of such equipment unless its owner has made available a certificate of accuracy based on the requirements of this section, obtained within the year prior to such use, and stating the errors of the equipment. In any event reasonable standards of accuracy shall be met and proof loads adjusted as necessary.
(3) The qualifications of any person appointed or recognized by any accredited person for the purpose of carrying out certification functions shall meet with the approval of the director.
(4) WAC 296-304-15001 (5) and (7) and 296-304-15003 shall govern, to the extent applicable, persons accredited under WAC 296-304-180 through 296-304-18003.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-190, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-200
Certification of shore-based material handling devices—Scope and application.

All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-200 in the section number apply to certification of shore-based material handling devices.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-200, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20001
General provisions.

(2) Any replacements or repairs deemed necessary by the accredited person shall be carried out before application of a proof test.
(3) "Ton" in this section means a ton of 2,000 pounds.
(4) When applied to shore-based material handling devices, ratings may be stated in pounds rather than tons. When stated in tons of 2,000 pounds, this fact shall be indicated.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-304-20001, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; Order 74-25, § 296-304-20001, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20003
Unit proof test and examination of cranes.

(1) Unit proof tests of cranes shall be carried out at the following times:
(a) In the cases of new cranes, before initial use and every 4 years thereafter.
(b) In the cases of uncertificated cranes which have been in use, at the time of initial certification and every 4 years thereafter.
(c) After important alterations and renewals, and after repairs due to failure of, or damage to, major components.
(2) Unit proof load tests of cranes shall be carried out where applicable with the boom in the least stable direction relative to the mounting, based on the manufacturer's specifications.
(3) Unit proof load tests shall be based on the manufacturer's load ratings for the conditions of use and shall, except in the case of bridge type cranes utilizing a trolley, consist of application of a proof load of 10 percent in excess of the load ratings at maximum and minimum radius, and at such intermediate radii as the certificating authority may deem necessary in the circumstances.1 Trolley equipped cranes shall be subject to a proof load of 25 percent in excess of the manufacturer's load rating. In cases of foreign manufacture, the manufacturer's specifications shall be subject to approval by the certificating authority as being equivalent to U.S. practice.
1
The manufacturer's load ratings are usually based upon percentage of tipping loads under some conditions and upon limitations of structural competence at others, as well as on other criteria such as type of crane mounting, whether or not outriggers are used, etc. Some cranes utilizing a trolley may have only one load rating assigned and applicable at any outreach. It is important that the manufacturer's ratings be used.
The weight of all auxiliary handling devices such as, but not limited to, magnets, hooks, slings, and clamshell buckets shall be considered part of the load.
(4) An examination shall be carried out in conjunction with each unit proof load test. The accredited person, or his authorized representative, shall make a determination as to correction of deficiencies found. The examination shall cover the following points as applicable:
(a) All functional operating mechanisms shall be examined for improper function, maladjustment, and excessive component wear, with particular attention to sheaves, pins, and drums. The examination shall include operation with partial load, in which all functions and movements, including, where applicable, maximum possible rotation in both directions, are performed.
(b) All safety devices shall be examined for malfunction.
(c) Lines, tanks, valves, drains, pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems shall be examined for deterioration or leakage.
(e) Rope reeving shall comply with manufacturer's recommendations.
(f) Deformed, cracked, or excessively corroded members in crane structure and boom shall be repaired or replaced as necessary.
(g) Loose bolts, rivets, or other connections shall be corrected.
(h) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts affecting safe operation shall be corrected.
(i) Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets shall be examined for excessive wear and free operation.
(j) Load, boom angle, or other indicators shall be checked over their full range for any significant inaccuracy. A boom angle or radius indicator shall be fitted.
(k) It shall be ascertained that there is a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete range of the manufacturer's capacity ratings at all operating radii, for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths, with alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings. Necessary precautions or warnings shall be included. Operating controls shall be marked or an explanation of controls shall be posted at the operator's position to indicate function.
(l) Where used, clamshell buckets or other similar equipment such as magnets, etc., shall be carefully examined in all respects, with particular attention to closing line wires and sheaves. The accredited person may supplement such examination by requesting any operational tests as may be appropriate.
(m) Careful examination of the junction areas of removable boom sections, particularly for proper seating, cracks, deformities, or other defects in securing bolts and in the vicinity of such bolts.
(n) It shall be ascertained that no counterweights in excess of the manufacturer's specifications are fitted.
(o) Such other examination or supplemental functional tests shall be made as may be deemed necessary by the accredited person under the circumstances.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20003, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20005
Annual examination of cranes.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20005, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20007
Unit proof test and examination of derricks.

(1) Unit proof tests of derricks shall be carried out at the same times as are specified in WAC 296-304-20003(1) for cranes.
(2) Unit proof load tests and safe working load ratings shall be based on the design load ratings at the ranges of boom angles or operating radii. Unit proof loads shall exceed the safe working load as follows:
Safe working load
Proof load
Up to 20 tons . . . .
25 percent in excess.
20-50 tons . . . .
5 tons in excess.
Over 50 tons . . . .
10 percent in excess.
Proof loads shall be applied at the designed maximum and minimum boom angles or radii, or, if this is impracticable, as close to these as practicable. The angles or radii of test shall be stated in the certificate of test. Proof loads shall be swung as far as possible in both directions. The weight of all auxiliary handling devices shall be considered a part of the load.
(3) After satisfactory completion of a unit proof load test the derrick and all component parts thereof shall be carefully examined in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-20003(4), as far as applicable.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20007, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20009
Annual examination of derricks.

[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20009, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20011
Determination of crane or derrick safe working loads and limitations in absence of manufacturer's data.

(1) In the event neither manufacturer's data nor design data on safe working loads (including any applicable limitations) are obtainable, the safe working load ratings assigned shall be based on the owner's information and warranty that those so assigned are correct. Unit test certificates shall state the basis for any such safe working load assignment.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20011, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20013
Safe working load reduction.

(1) If the operation in which equipment is engaged never utilizes more than a fraction of the safe working load rating, the owner of such equipment may, at his option, have the crane or derrick certificated for and operated at a lesser maximum safe working load in keeping with the use and based on radius and other pertinent factors: Provided, however, That the equipment concerned is physically capable of operation at the original load rating and the load reduction is not for the purpose of avoiding correction of any deficiency.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20013, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20015
Safe working load increase.

(1) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the manufacturer's services are not available, or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis by, or acceptable to, the accredited certification agency is required. All necessary structural changes shall be carried out.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20015, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20017
Nondestructive examination.

(1) Wherever it is considered necessary by the accredited person or his authorized representative and wherever it is practical and advisable to avoid disassembly of equipment, removal of pins, etc., examination of structure or parts by electronic ultrasonic or other nondestructive methods may be carried out, provided that the procedure followed is acceptable to the director and the person carrying out such examination is accredited or acceptable to the director for the purpose.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20017, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20019
Wire rope.

(1) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same construction as originally furnished by the equipment manufacturer or contemplated in the design, unless otherwise recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In the absence of specific requirements as noted, wire rope shall be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and a safety factor of 4 shall be adhered to, and verified by wire rope test certificate.
(2) Wire rope in use on equipment previously constructed and prior to initial certification of said equipment shall not be required to be tested but shall be subject to thorough examination at the time of initial certification of the equipment.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20019, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20021
Heat treatment.

(1) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20021, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20023
Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

(1) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels, together with any portable extensions, rigging components, outriggers, and attachment points, supporting them or any of their components vertically, shall be examined annually. The examination shall be carried out with particular attention to the condition of wire rope and accessories. The equipment shall not be considered satisfactory unless, in the opinion of the accredited person or his authorized representative, it is deemed fit to serve its intended function.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20023, filed 5/7/74.]



296-304-20025
Documentation.

(1) Documents issued respecting a certification function by an accredited person shall be on forms approved for such use by the director and shall so state.
(2) Such documents shall be issued by the accredited person to the owners of affected equipment, attesting to satisfactory compliance with applicable requirements. The forms used shall contain the following information:
(a) Unit proof tests where required—
(i) Identification of crane or derrick including manufacturer, model number, serial number, and ownership.
(ii) Basis for assignment of safe working load ratings, with the ratings assigned (i.e., whether based on manufacturer's ratings, whether for any specific service, etc.).
(iii) Proof test details noting radii and proof loads, how applied, and, where applicable, direction relative to mounting.
(iv) A statement that the test and associated examination were conducted and all applicable requirements of this section are met.
(v) Any necessary remarks or supplementary data, including limitations imposed and the reason therefor.
(vi) Name of accredited person and identification of authorized representative actually conducting test and/or examination.
(vii) Authorized signature of accredited person, date and place of test and/or examination.
(b) Annual examination of cranes or derricks—
(i) Information specified in WAC 296-304-20025 (2)(a)(i), (v), (vi) and (vii).
(ii) A statement that the required examination has been carried out and that, in the opinion of the accredited person or his authorized representative, the equipment has been found in compliance in all applicable respects with the requirements of this section.
(c) Annual examination of bulk cargo loadings or discharging spouts or suckers—
(i) Specific identification of equipment.
(iii) Information specified in WAC 296-304-20025 (2)(a)(i), (v), (vi) and (vii).
(3) Certificates relating to wire rope, whether tested by or under the supervision of the accredited person or by its manufacturer and whether or not issued on the basis of the manufacturer's certificates, shall follow the general format of a wire rope test form approved by the director.
(4) Accredited persons shall advise owners of affected equipment of the necessity for maintaining required documentation or acceptable copies thereof available for inspection at or near the worksite of the equipment involved.
(a) Where initial and periodic tests as well as annual examinations are required, documentation available for inspection shall include the latest unit test certificate and any subsequent annual examination certificates, together with wire rope test certificates relating to any replacements since the last unit test or annual examination.
(b) Where only annual examination is required, documentation available for inspection shall include the latest annual examination certificate and wire rope test certificates relating to any wire replaced since the last annual examination.
(c) In the event that heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by its manufacturer, the latest heat treatment certificate, attesting to compliance with the manufacturer's specifications, shall be part of the available documentation.
(5) No certification shall be issued until any deficiencies considered by the accredited person to constitute a currently unsatisfactory condition have been corrected. Replacement parts shall be of equal or better quality as original equipment and suitable for the purpose. In the event deficiencies remain uncorrected and no certification therefore is issued, the accredited person shall inform of the circumstances the nearest district office of the department of labor and industries.
[Order 74-25, § 296-304-20025, filed 5/7/74.]